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Full text of "History of Savannah and South Georgia"

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FOR REFERENCE 

Do Not Take From This Room 




Jj^^resented by 



Mrs. A. 0. L. Kelly 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/historyofsavanna01hard 





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A HISTORY OF 

SAVANNAH 

AND 

SOUTH GEORGIA 



BY 

WILLIAM HARDEN 



VOLUME 



ILLUSTRATED 



p^^ 



THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

CHICAGO AND NEW YORK 

1913 



F'- 

V, / 



FOREWORD 



The preparation of this history of Savannah was undertaken in 
response to the urgent request of the publishers who believe there is a 
demand for it. The writer has been repeatedly asked by others to write 
such a work, and has now finished the task, sending it forth with the 
hope that it will measure up to the standard set for it by his friends. 
He does not claim that it is complete or that it is free from errors. It 
contains matter here and there which has been heretofore overlooked 
by other writers in the same field ; and it has been his aim always to give, 
in disputed questions, the evidence which appears to carry with it the 
greatest weight. Believing that it will meet a long felt want, he hopes 
that it will prove useful in its place, and craves the indulgence of the 
reader in the matter of any defects which may be discovered. 

Savannah, Ga., March 25, 1913. 



Ill 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

FOUNDING OF SAVANNAH 

Origin of Name — Savannah Town Founded — Forethought op Ogle- 
thorpe — His Prison Reform Record — Origin op Savannah.. 1 



CHAPTER II 

COMING OF THE OGLETHORPE COLONY 

Sailing and Landing op the Colony — Message and Assistance from 
South Carolina — Oglethorpe's Reasons for Selecting Site — 
Hutchinson's Island 9 



CHAPTER III 

FOUNDING IN DETAIL 

The Good South Carolina Friends — Staunch Col. William Bull — 
Moore's Description of Savannah — Progress op the Infant Tovv^n 
and Colony — Savannah's Original Site — The Grantees.... 15 



CHAPTER IV 

OGLETHORPE AND THE INDIANS 

Indian Status When the Colony Came — First Conference with 
Natives — Trustees' Greetings to the Lower Creeks — Declar.\- 
tion op Lower Creek Nation — Evidences op Mutual Regard — The 
Good Chief Tomo-Chi-Chi 31 



vi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V 

THE JEWISH ELEMENT 

Attitude Toward Hebrew Colonists — Thrifty, Industrious and Hon- 
est People — Record by Jewish Descendant — JE\^^SH Congrega- 
tions AND Synagogues — Hebrew Burial Grounds — Early Vine- 
yard op a Portuguese Jew — Both Progressive and Patriotic 44 



CHAPTER VI 

SALZBURG AND SILK 

Accession of Salzburg (German Protestant) Colonists — Encourag- 
ing THE Silk Industry — The Filature Buildings — Drawbacks In- 
surmountable . . . ;■ 53 



CHAPTER VII 

ORIGINAL SAVANNAH DESCRIBED 

Feeding and Housing op P^irst Colonists — Father Oglethorpe — 
Gordon's First Town Plat — Pioneer Points of Interest — Names 
op First Streets — The Trustees ' Garden 59 



CHAPTER VIII 

RELIGIOUS, ]\IORAL AND INDUSTRIAL 

Pioneer Churches — Ogletpiorpe Returns to England — Unpopular 
Colonial Deputy — Intoxicated with Power and Pride — Anti-Rum 
and Anti-Slave Laws — The Trustees Against Slavery — White- 
field IN Favor op Slavery 64 



CHAPTER IX 

JOHN AND CHARLES WESLEY 

John Wesley and His Labors — Abuse op Wesley — New "Secrftary 
op the Trust" — Wesley and Sophia (Hopkins') AVilliamson — ]\Ir, 
Wesley's Statement of the Trouble — The Trustees Treat the 
Matter Lightly — Charles Wesley Departs for England — White- 
field Succeeds John AVesley 70 



CONTENTS vii 

CHAPTER X 

DARK COLONIAL CHAPTER 

Oglethorpe's Administration Approved by English Trustees — Forti- 
fying Georgia's Southern Frontier — Promoted to "General" 
Oglethorpe — Causton's Finances go Wrong — Oglethorpe's Selp- 
Sacripice — The Fall of Causton 86 

CHAPTER XI . 

RELIGION, COMMERCE AND DEFENCE 

Coming of AVhitefield, Wesley's Successor — James Habersham, His 
Successor — Franklin and Oglethorpe on the Orphan Home — 
Harris and Habersham, ]\Ierchants — Pioneers, but Not the First 
— In Defense of the Colony — Securing the Friendship op the 
Creeks — The Dka.th of Tomo-chi-chi 93 

CHAPTER XII 

LAST OF OGLETHORPE ADMINISTRATION 

Final Repulse of the Spaniards — Georgia Divided Into Two Coun- 
ties — First Meeting ^f Savannah County Board — Oglethorpe's 
Last Official Appearance — Changes in Lx\.nd Tenures — William 
Stephens, Colonial President — Beaulieu (Bewile) Founded by 
Stephens — The Creek-Bosomworth Imbroglio — Renewed Friend- 
ship Almost Severed — Financial Settlement op Trouble — Ogle- 
thorpe 's Last Days in Georgia 105 

CHAPTER XIII 

EARLY CIVIL GOVERNMENT 

Henry Parker, Colonial President — The First Colonial Assembla^— 
The IMilitia — Early Measures to Establish the Colony — Patrick 
Graham Succeeds President Parker 116 

CHAPTER XIV 

CIVIL, RELIGIOUS AND ROYAL 

Governor John Reynolds (1754) — Changes Under New Government 
— Governor Reynolds Arrives — Gubernatorial Proclamation — 



viii CONTENTS 

Collapse op Council House — New Council House — Notes from an 
Early "Plan of Savannah" — Reynolds' Administration Disap- 
pointing — Henry Ellis Succeeds Reynolds — James Wright Fol- 
lows Ellis — Province Divided Into Parishes — Second Savannah 
Church (Christ Church Parish) — Independent Presbyterian 
Church — Lutheran Church Organized — George III Succeeds 
George II — Public Ceremonies Proclaiming New Sovereign. 122 



CHAPTER XV 

GEORGIA'S LAST ROYAL GOVERNOR 

Wright's Good Traits — Rising Discontent Against Royalty — Pros- 
perous Condition op Colony — Sunbury — Spirit of Sedition in 
Georgia — Governor Wright's Dilemma — Repeal op the Stamp Act 
Acknowledged — Franklin, Georgia's British Agent — Renewed 
Protests Against British Acts — House Resents Wright's Inter- 
ference 145 



CHAPTER XVI 

PROGRESS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE 

Council and House Differ — Governor Wright Dissolves Assembly — 
The State op the Province (1773) — The Forts — Savannah Puts 
Up a Liberty Tree, June 2, 1775 — Governor Wright Forbids Pub- 
lic ]\Ieeting — Meeting Held — The "Liberty Boys" — Dissent to 
Resolutions of August 10, 1774 — "Liberty Boys" Worry Royal 
Council — Steps Leading to Georgia's Independence 161 



CHAPTER XVII 

EVENTS PRECEDING THE REVOLUTION 

"Liberty Boys" Raid Powder jMagazine — ]\Ieetings op Protesting 
Citizens — Address op Provincla.l Congress — Georgia Received Into 
the Union — Unpleasant for Royalists — Continental Battalion 
for Georgia — On the Eve of the Revolution 177 

CHAPTER XVIII 

COMMENCEMENT OF ACTUAL WAR 

Governor Wright's Arrest and Escape — Georgia's Temporary Con- 
stitution — Conflict Between Royal Troops and ]\1ilitia — Expor- 



CONTENTS ix 

TATiON OF Rice Stopped — Royalists Attempt to Capture Rice 
Boats — Only Two Vessels Escape to Sea — Council of Safety 
Takes Heroic Measures — Congress Thanks Coloniz\.l Militia — 
Wright Goes to England and Returns to Savannah — Jopin Gra- 
ham and Thunderbolt — Savannah's First "Fourth of July" 
(August 10th) 190 



CHAPTER XIX 

SAVANNAH HELD BY BRITISH 

Capture of Savannah by British — Disposition op American Forces — • 
The British Enter Savannah — Proclamation of Royalists — Com- 
ing OF the French Fleet — D'Estaing Demands Surrender op 
Savannah — British Defence op Savannah — Combined French- 
American Advance — Allied Forces Bombard Savannah — Human- 
ity AND Obstinacy — Disaster to the Allies — Count Pulaski's 
Death Wound — The Siege from a British Standpoint 202 



CHAPTER XX 

SAVANNAH AGAJN A:\IERICAN 

Royal Civil Government Feeble — Affairs IManaged by Wright and 
Council — Augusta Surrendered to the Americans — Royal Cause 
Getting Dark — Wright's Pitiable jMental Condition — American 
Troops at Gates of Savannah — Wayne's Terms for British 
Evacuation — Nathaniel Greene and His Services — Confiscated 
British Estates — ''IMulberry Grove" Made Over to Greene — 
Anthony Wayne and His Services — Greene Visits "IMulberry 
Grove" — Death and Funeral of General Greene — Wayne's 
Georgia Residence Also Short 231 



CHAPTER XXI 

AS A CHARTERED CORPORATION 

Regular Municipal Administration — Samuel Elbert and Jonathan 
Bryan — Oldest Artillery Company in Georgia — Washington's 
Visit to Savannah — Washington's Account of His Southern 
Tour— Municipal Government Continued — Disastrous Fire of 
1796 — Chatham Academy — The Georgia Hussars— The Old Ex- 
change — Municipal Affairs, 1797-1802 — Visit of Aaron Burr — 
Terrific Storm of 1801 — Preparations for the War of 1812. 255 



X CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXII 

THE AVAR OF 1812 

Fort Wayne — Local I\Iilitia Ready to Act — Strengthening the Fort 
Wayne Works — Celebrating the Warrington and Porter Naval 
Victories — Vigorous Preparations for Resisting British Attack 
— The "]\Iartello Tower" — Celebrating the Battle of New 
Orleans — Peace Declared 274 



CHAPTER XXIII 

DECADE OP NOTED EVENTS 

Visit op Monroe and- Calhoun — The New Independent Church — The 
Great Fire op 1820 — ^Yellow FE\rER Epidemic (also 1820) — Locat- 
ing the Burial Place of Nathanael Greene — City Affairs Con- 
tinued — Dry Culture Contracts — Winfield Scott and David 
Porter, Savannah's Guests — Reception of La Fayette — AIe- 
MORiALS TO General Greene and Count Pulaski — Mayors and 
Aldermen, 1821-24 — Canal Project Inaugurated — Fort Pulaski 
Commenced 282 



CHAPTER XXIV 

AS A MILITARY POST 

Locating the Oglethorpe Barracks (1834)- — ]\Iilitary Parade Ground 
— Military Headquarters of Confederacy — LTnited States Takes 
Oglethorpe Barracks — History op First Georgia Volunteer, 
Continued — I\[ayors and Aldermen, 1826-1S34 312 



CHAPTER XXV 

CENTRAL RAILROAD OF GEORGIA 

Survey prom Savannah to J\Iacon — ]\Lvcon Depot Opened for Busi- 
ness — William W. Gordon, First President — First Year's Opera- 
tions — Celebrating the Completion to Macon — Connecting 
Savannah with Augusta — Ocmulgee and Flint River Railroad — 
The JMoNRoE R.ailroad — Status op Railroads in 1842 — ]\Iemorial 
T,o W. W. Gordon — The Savannah Hospital 325 



CONTENTS xi 

CHAPTER XXVI 

THE "PULASKI" DISASTER 

Newspaper IMention op Boat — Statements by Francis Sorrel, Agent 
— Advertising the Fatal Trip — First News of Disaster — Poem on 
THE Lost "Pulaski" 334 

; CHAPTER XXVII 

GEORGIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Dr. Arnold's Account of Its Origin — Act of Incorporation — I. K. 
Tefft, ]\Ioving Spirit — Dr. Harney's Farewell — Charter Mem- 
bers — Securing Permanent Quarters — First Steamship to Cross 
Atlantic — Burning of Filature Building — Binding the City 
Together 341 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

CITY AND COUNTY INSTITUTIONS 

City Market Houses^First City Jail — County Jail in Control of 
City — County Jail of 1846 — Death of Andrew Jackson.... 354 

CHAPTER XXIX 

THE MEXICAN WAR 

Savannah's Prompt Response — "Jasper Greens" Off for Mexico — 
Aid from the City Council — Public Funeral of Colonel Mc- 
Intosh — The Seminole War of 1836 361 



CHAPTER XXX 

CEMETERIES AND MEMORIALS 

Dry Culture as Health Precaution — New Laurel Grove Cemetery — 
Closing the Old Colonial Cemetery — Question of First Jewish 
Burial Place — Laurel Grove Cemetery Dedicated — -The Pulaski 
Monument — Monument Delivered to Commissioners — The Na- 
thanael Greene Monument — Locating the Remains of Nathanael 
Greene *. 365 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXXI 

INTERESTING CITY E^^NTS 

Pioneer Theatrical Performance (1783) — First Regular Theatre 
Opened — Theatre Described — Old and Present Theatre Similar 
— Macready's Impressions — Savannah and Ogeechee Canal — 
■ First Telegraphic Dispatches — Public Water Supply — -First Sur- 
vey FOR Water Works — Construction Engineers Appointed — De- 
scription OF Works (1854) — System in Use from 1854 to 1892 — 
Present Artesian Well System — Lighting of the Streets — 
Mayors and Aldermen, 1835-1850 — Probably First Newspaper 
Extra • 385 

CHAPTER XXXII 

HONORS TO' LIVING AND DEAD 

Honors to Distinguished Dead — Reception to Henry Clay — Public 
Mourning for Andrew Jackson — Sheftall Sheftall, Old Revo- 
lutionary Soldier — Armory of Chatham Artillery — Visit of Ex- 
President Polk — Daniel Webster, City's Guest — Honors to John 
C. Calhoun and Zachary Taylor 400 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND NOTED EVENTS 

Makeshift Custom Houses — Present Building Completed in 1850 — 
Forsyth Park — Atlantic Coast Line Railroad System — Wel- 
come to Millard Fillmore — Another Yellow Fever Epidemic 
, (1854) — Storm Adds Terrors to Epidemic — Resultant SxVnitary 
Measures — Savannah Benevolent Association — Savannah's 
Public School System — The Massie Poor School Fund — The 
Massie Common School — Board of Public Education Organized 
(1866) 409 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

SAVANNAH RIVER AND HARBOR 

Improvement of Savannah River and Harbor — Proposal That City 
Issue Bonds — Appropriation by Congress — Light House Erected 
on Bay Street — Visit op Ex-President Fillmore — President 
Pierce Invited — Thackeray's Visit and His Account of the City 
— Respect Paid by Tiig Public to ]Memory of Henry Clay and 



CONTENTS xiii 

Governor Troup— Action of Council in Honoring Prominent 
Citizens 420 



CHAPTER XXXV 

INCIDENTS PRECEDING CIVIL WAR 

Case of the Slave Yacht Wanderer — Prosecution Conducted by 
DiST. Atty. Joseph Ganahl — Quotation From Account of Hon. 
H. R. Jackson — Excitement Preceding Secession of Georgia 
— Prompt Action op Gov. J. E. Browtst — Olmstead's Account — 
Secession of Georgia — Governor Brown's Firm Stand on Seizure 
OF Guns by New York Police — Bartow's Warm and Manly Reply 
TO the Governor — His Death While "Illustrating Georgia" — ■ 
Honoring Bartow's Remains — Gen. R. E. Lee in Command at 
Savannah — Non-Combatant Citizens Armed for Defense op 
City 429 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

LITERATURE, ETC. 

Savannah 's Literary Circle — Some Men of Letters and Their Work 
— G. AV. J. De Renne and the Wormsloe Publications — Other 
Writers — Mayors and Aldermen Continued 446 

CHAPTER XXXVII 

SAVANNAH DURING CIVIL WAR 

Mayoe Purse's Report on the Progress op the War — Fall op Fort 
Pulaski — Holding op Fort McAllister Necessary to Defense of 
Savannah — Maj. John B. Gallie Killed — Address of ]\Iayor 
Arnold to Citizens — Fall op Fort McAllister — Evacuation of 
Savannah — Special Order of Gen. Sherman — Resolutions of 
Council Seeking Protection of Citizens — Families of Confed- 
erate Officers Required to Leave 453 

CHAPTER XXXVIII 

RECONSTRUCTION 

Generosity of Bostonians and Others — j\L\yor Anderson's Report 
on Condition op City at End of War — Board of Education 



xiv CONTENTS 

Chartered — Roman Catholic Schools Taken Into Public School 
System — Charter Amended to Include Education of Colored 
People 466 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIES 

Beginning of Cotton Culture in Georgia — Rapid Growth of 
Cotton Business in Savannah — Savannah Second Cotton Port 
in the World — Figures Showing Business of Sever.vl Decades — 
Naval Stores and Important Trade — Savannah's Business Record 
FOR Past Four Years — Central of Georgia Railway — Its First 
President, W. W. Gordon — Savannah's Banks — Savannah and 
the Panama Canal 471 



CHAPTER XL 

INTERESTING ITEMS 

List op Members op Council Continued — Visit op General , Grant — 
Savannah's Sesqui-Centennial — Jasper jMonument — Death of 
Hon. John Screven — Savannah and the Spanish-American War 
— South Bound Railroad — Public Library Established and City 
Hall Built — Telfair Academy op Arts and Sciences — Railroad 
to Tybee Island 482 



CHAPTER XLI 

CHURCHES AND ORGANIZED BODIES 

Churches of Savannah — Benevolent Societies — Other Organized 
Bodies — Streets and Squares — Oglethorpe ^Monument — ]\Iidway 
Church and Monument to Generals Screven and Stewart . . . 494 



CHAPTER XLII 

THE LEGAL AND MEDICAL PROFESSIONS 

Early Lawyers and Doctors — Some Prominent Lawyers of a Later 
Period — Colonial Physicians — The Profession at the Present 
Time 502 



CONTENTS XV 

CHAPTER XLIII 

THE MILITARY SPIRIT 

First Volunteer Regiment — Field, Staff, and Company Officers 
Today — IMasonic Societies — Other Benevolent Societies — 
Patriotic Societies — Notable Spots Marked by ^Memorial Tablets, 
etc. — Georgia Society of Colonial Wars — Georgia Society Sons 
of the Revolution — Savannah 's Newspapers 507 

CHAPTER XLIV 

CITIES OF SOUTH GEORGIA 

Brunswick — Columbus — Waycross — Blackshear — Valdosta and 
Hahira — Towns in Brooks County — Thomasville — Baxley — 
Sylvester and Ashburn — Adel and Nashville — Statesborough — 
Towns in Toombs County — Other Towns — Concluding Re- 
marks 516 



INDEX 



Aaron Burr, visit of, 269 

Abbeville, 525 

Abuse of Wesley, 73 

Accession of Salzburg colonists, 53 

Account of the progress of colonists, 10 

Action of council in honoring prominent 
citizens, 427 

Act of incorporation of Georgia His- 
torical Society, 342 

Adams, Cason F., 964 

Adams, Charles E., 716 

Adams, James C, 835 

Adams, Thomas, 969 

Address of Mayor Arnold to citizens, 
457 

Address of provincial congress, 179 

Address to Governor Wright, 156 

Address to Washington, 259 

Adel, 523 

Adoption of the ordinance of secession, 
437 

"Advertiser," 515 

Advertising the fatal trip of "Pulaski," 
337 

"A Farewell to Savannah," 344 

Aflfairs managed by Wright and coun- 
cil, 234 

Agricultural School, Tifton (view), 187 

Aid from the city council, 362 

Alabama Press Association, 487 

Albany, 528 

Alderman, Ansel, 841 

Alderman, Byron A., 1029 

Alderman, Ezekiel, 842 

Aldermen, 1790, 258; 1797^802, 269; 
1804-1820, 292; 1821-1824, 310; 1826- 
1834, 323; 1835-1850, 396; 1850-1866, 
450; 1867-1913, 482 

Allied forces bombard Savannah, 217 

American troops at gates of Savannah, 
237 

Americus, 525 

Ancient Order of Hibernians, 510 

Anderson, Jefferson R., 681 

Anderson, Robert H., 486 

Anti-rum and anti-slave laws, 66 



Appling county, 522 

Appropriation by congress, 423 

Ard, George W., 991 

Armory of Chatham Artillery, 404 

Armstrong, George F., 699 

Arnold, Richard D., 448, 583 

Arnold's account of origin of Georgia 

Historical Society, 341 
Articles of Association, 178 
Ashburn, 523 
Assignment of lots, 26 
Assistance from South Carolina. 11 
Associated Charities, 510 
Associated Charities organized, 500 
Atkinson, David S.. 583 
Atkinson, Marcus H., 846 
Atlantic Coast Line R. R., 410 
Atlantic Coast Line System, 472, 519 
Attitude toward Hebrew colonists, 44 
Attwill, Charles W., 961 
Augusta surrendered to the Americans, 

235 
Austin, Frank M., 882 
Austin, George W., 883 
Austin, William G., 697 
Avera, Mary, 751 
Avera, Randolph. 750 
Avera, William G., 974 

Bagley, James B., 768 

Bainbridge, 528 

Baker, Marcus S., 616 

Baldwin, Daniel H., 608 

Baldwin, George J., 610 

Bank of Commerce, 478 

Bank of Savannah, 478 

Bank of the State of Georgia, 477 

Baptist church, 494 

Barfield, Robert E., 953 

Barfield, Sampson B., 1022 

Barnard, James M., 703 

Barney, 522 

Barrow, Dayid C, 622 

Barrow, Joshua, 988 

Bartow's death, 442 

Bartow, Francis S., 487 



xvni 



INDEX 



Bartow's warm and manly reply to 

governor, 438 
Barwick, 522 
Baxley, 522 
Beasley, David A., 801 
Beasley, Thomas, 803 
Beaty, John P., 997 
Beaulieu (Bewlie) founded by Stephens, 

109 
Beautiful roads through the pines, 

Tifton (view), 377 
Beckham, Eobert Y., 728 
Beginning of cotton culture in Georgia, 

471 
Bell, Charles G., 616 
Benevolent and Protective Order of 

Elks, 511 
Benevolent societies, 498 
Ben Hill, 526 
Berrien county, 523 
Berrien, John M., 449 
Berry, Alpha C., 822 
Berry, Edward J., 895 
Binding the city togetlier, 351 
Bishop, James, Sr., 786 
Bivins, Thomas F., 1014 
Blackshear, 520 
Blackshear Institute, 520 
Blakely, 529 

Blalock, Laurence J., 924 
Blandford, Mark H., 1033 
Bloodworth, Francis D., 606 
Blun, Henry, 695 

Board of education chartered, 469 
Board of Public Education for the City 

of Savannali, 469 
Board of Public Education organized 

(1866), 418 
Board of Trade established, 500 
Bond, Andrew J., 858 
Bosomwortli, Thomas, 110 
Boston, 522 
Boston Port Bill, 166 
Boulder in memory of Indian Chief Tomo- 

chi-chi, 500, 512 
Bourn, James R., 1077 
Bourne, ^Yilliam H., 719 
Bower, Robert E. L., 831 
Bozeman, John D.. 819 
Bradley, Daniel M., 890 
Bradley, Walter E., 956 
Bremer, Frederika, 448 
British defense of Savannali. 212 
British enter Savannah, 206 
Brooks county, 521 
Brown, David' B.. 499 
Brown, Joseph E., headquarters (view), 

438 
Brown, Nathan A., 950 
Brown. Walter G., 735 
Brown's firm stand on seizure of guns 

by New York police. 437 
Brunner, William F., 655 



Brunswick, 516 

Bryan, Jonathan, 158, 159, 257 

Buena Yista, 528 

Bull, Colonel, 196 

Bulloch, 524 

Bulloch, Archibald, 161, 179, 200 

Burial Grounds, 49 

Burney, Jolm G., 814 

Burning of Filature building, 350 

Burroughs, William B., 1074 

Business and industries, 471 

Bussell, James A., 736 

Bussell, J. Monroe, 755 

Cairo, 528 

Cameron, Joseph W., 859 

Camilla, 528 

Canal project inaugurated, 311 

Capital, surplus, etc., of banks, 479 

Capture of Fort McAllister, 455 

Capture of Savannah by the British, 203 

Carnegie Library, Americus (view), 444 

Carson, John A." G., 576 

Carter, Jeremiah C., 923 

Carter, John R., 1031 

Case of tlie slave yacht Wanderer, 429 

Casteil, Robert, 7 

Catholic churches, 496 

Catholic Knights of America, 510 

Causton, Thomas, 65, 74, 86, 89 

Causton"s Bluff, 65 

Causton's fall, 91 

Causton's finances go wrong, 89 

Celebrating the' battle of New Orleans, 

280 
Celebrating the completion of road to 

Macon. 329 
Celebrating the Warrington and Porter 

naval victories, 278 
Cemeteries and memorials, 365 
Centennial of Chatham Artillery, 500 
Central of Georgia R. R., 476, "493 
Central Railroad, 472 
Central Railroad and Banking Company, 

478, 493 
Central Railroad and Banking Company 

of Georgia. 477 
Central Railroad of Georgia. 325, 529 
Changes under new government, 122 
Cliapman. David F., 933 
Charleston. 12 
Cliarlton, Robert :M., 558 
Charlton. Thomas U. P.. 557 
Charlton. Walter G., 558 
Cliarter amended to include education of 

colored jieojile. 470 
Cliarter members of Georgia Historical 

Society, 345 
Chartered corporation, 255 
Chastain, John T., 1042 
Chatham Academy, 265 
Ciiatham Light Artillery, 258, 262, 383, 

404. 427 



INDEX 



XIX 



Chatham Bank, 478 

Chatliam county, 432 

Chatham County Court House erected, 

500 
Chatham County Court House (view), 

499 
Chatham Dime Savings Bank, 478 
Chattahoochee in harness, Columbus 

(view), 517 
Cheatham, Walter B., 1035 
Cliildren of the Confederacy, 511 
China, William T., 951 
Christ church, 497 
Christ chinch parish. 133 
Christian church, 497 
Christian, George R., 1068 
Christian Science church. 497 
Churches and organized bodies, 494 
Churches for the colored people, 497 
Churches of Savannah, 494 
Church of St. John the Baptist, 496 
Cities of South Georgia, 516 
Citizens and Southern Bank of Savannah, 

478 
Citizen's Trust Company, 478 
City affairs continued, 292 
City and county institutions, 354 
City Exchange, erected in 1799 (view), 

268 
City Hall, 267 
City Hall built, 489 
City Light Guard, 436 
City market houses, 354 
City of Savannah, 256 
Civil government, early. 116 
Civil, religious and royal, 122 
Clark. John B.. 793 
Clay, Henry, 401, 427 
Clayton. 529 
Clements, John. 836 
Cleveland, Morgan H., 731 
Cleveland, Oliver C, 980 
Closing the Old Colonial Cemeterv, 368 
Clower, W. L. Pierce, 937 
Clubs and societies, 499 
Clyde, 528 
Coast Rifles, 436 
Cocke. John F., 1040 
Colding. Robert L.. 1041 
Collins" Hotel begun, 500 
Colonel Mcintosh, public funeral, 363 
Colonel William Bull, 11, 16, 17 
Colonial physicians, 503 
Colonial presidents, 108, 116 
Colquitt, 528 
Colquitt County Court House. jNIoultrie 

(view), 147 
Colquitt, William N., 899 
"Columbian IMuseum and Savanah Ad- 
vertiser," 514 
Columbus, 518 

Combined French-American advance, 215 
Coming of the Oglethorpe colony, 9 



Coming of the French fleet, 208 
Coming of WTiitefield, 93 
Common council. 24 
Commodore Decatur, 400 
Commencement of actual war, 190 
Commercial Bank, 478 
Commercial Row, 409 
Commercial statistics, 475 
Commissioners for trade and plantations, 

146 
Concluding remarks, 529 
Cone, Ansel B., 804 
Confederate monument erected, 500 
Confederate monument, S a v a n nah 

(view), 461 
Confederate Veterans' Associations, 511 
Confiscated Britisli estates, 243 
Conflict between royal troops and militia, 

193 
Congregation B'nai B'rith Jacob, 49 
Congress thanks Colonial militia, 198 
Connecting Savannah with Augusta, 329 
Conoley, William B., 783 
Construction engineers appointed, 393 
Continental battalion for Georgia, 188 
Continental Congress, 175 
Cooper. Joseph J., 770 
Cordele, 525 
Corish, Nicholas P., 723 
Cotton Exchange. 477 
Cotton Exchange organized, 500 
Cotton statistics, 473 
Cotton yards and docks, Savannah 

(view), 480 
Council and house dift'er, 161 
Council house, collapse of, 125 
Council, Malcolm B.. 995 
Council of Safety takes heroic measures, 

197 
Count d'Estaing, 208 
County jail in control of city, 356 
County jail of 1846, 357 
Cox, .John M., 912 
Crane, Horace A., 600 
Crane, William N., 821 
Crawford, William B., 675 
Creek-Bosomworth Imbroglio, 110 
Crisp. 525 

Crutchfleld, Ivey P., 928 
Cultivation of the grape vine, 47 
Culture as health precaution, 365 
Cumbest, Adam J., 998 
Cumming, Joseph, 496 ' 

Cunningham, Henry C., 674 
Curry. C. C, 955 
Custom house, 409 
Cuthbert, 528 

"Daily Georgian," 514 
"Daily Journal." 515 
"Dailv Times," 515 
Daniell, William C, 427 
Darby, V. L., 958 



XX 



INDEX 



Darien, 528 

Dark colonial chapter, 86 

Darling, Thomas J., 896 

Daughters of Isabella, 511 

Daughters of the Confederacy, 511 

Davenport, Daniel F., 1053 

Davenport, James A., 924 

Davidson, William M., 565 

Davis, Charles A., 671 

Davis, George B., 725 

Davis, William E., 951 

Davis, William V., 631 

Dawson, 528 

Deal, Albert M., 753 

Death and funeral of General Greene, 

250 
Death of Andi'ew Jackson, 359 
Death of Honorable John Screven, 488 
Death of Tomo-chi-chi, 102 
Decade of noted events, 282 
Decatur, Commodore, 400 
Decker ward, 23, 29 

Declaration by Lower Creek nation, 36 
Deed of conveyance to General Greene, 

345 
Defense of the colony, 101 
DeKalb Riflemen, 455 
Delegates elected, 436 
Delegates to continental congress, 191 
Dell, Sidney D., 962 
de Lyon, Abraham, 47 
Derby ward, 23, 39 
De Renne, George W. J., 449 
De Renne, G. W. J., and the Wormsloe 

publications, 448 
De Renne, Wymberley J., 533 
Description of waterworks (1854), 394 
DeSoto, The, 500 

D'Estaing demands surrender of Savan- 
nah, 309 
Development of the Hutchinson's Island, 

14 
Dillon, William C, 904 
Dinner given in honor of LaFayette, 303 
Disaster to tlie allies, 219 
Disastrous lire of 1796, 264 
Disastrous jilague, 291 
Disposition of American forces, 204 
Dissent to resolutions of August 10, 1774, 

173 
Distance from Savannah to Panama 

canal, 481 
Dixie, 522 

Dixon, James j\I., 087 
Dixon, Llewellyn R., 868 
Dodge county, 527 
Dodge county court house, Eastman 

(view), 526 
Donations for tlie relief of all volunteers. 

443 
'•Don't Tread on Me," 433 
Dooly county, 525 
Dorris, A^'illiam II., 777 



Dorsett, Charles IL, G5a 

Douglas, 529 

Dowdy, Aaron W., 1071 

Dozier, Walter S., 1028 

Dry culture contracts, 294 

Dublin. 527 

Duke, Willis J., 1012 

Dukes, John W., 816 

Duren, George L., 855 

Duren, James W., 971 

Early lawyers and doctors, 502 

Early measures to establish the colon v, 

118 
Early vineyard of a Portuguese Jew, 50 
Eastman, 527 
Edmondson, G rover C, 884 
Edwards, Charles G., 549 
Edwards, Milton H., 1032 
Eighth Georgia Regiment, 442 
Elbert county, 501 
Elbert, Samuel, 257 
Ellaville, 529 
Elliott, Stephen. 497 
Ellis, Henry, Esq., 130 
Ellis, Henry, succeeds Reynolds, 130 
Emanuel, John H., 948 
Emerson, Henry A., 966 
Encouraging the silk industry, 56 
Episcopal Orphans' Home, 498 
Erection of monument to Sergt.' William 

Jasper, 500 
Evacuation of Fort ^Moultrie, 434 
Evacuation of Savannah, 459 
Evans, Benjamin F., 1007 
"Evening Journal." 515 
'Evening Mirror," 515 
Events preceding the revolution, 177 
Eve of the revolution, 188 
Everett, Edward. 426 
Evidences of mutual regard, 38 
Excluinge Bank, 478 
Excitement preceding secession of 

Georgia, 433 
Exportation of rice stopped, 194 
Exports fi-(un Savannah. 475 
Ex-president Polk, visit of, 405 

Falligant. Raiford. 679 

Fall of Causton. 91 

Fall of Fort IMcAllister. 457 

Fall of Fcrt Pulaski. 454 

Families of Confederate officers required 
to leave. 465 

Farie. James. Jr.. 940 

Farmers and ]\Ieclianics Bank, 478 

Father Gglethorpe. 61 

Feeding and housing of first colonists, 
59 

Field stafl' and company officers of 1st 
Volunteer Regiment, 50S 

Fifty-fourth Georgia Regiment of In- 
fantry, 436 



INDEX 



XXI 



Figures showing business for several dec- 
ades, 473 

Filature buildings, 57 

Fillmore, Millard. 425; welcome to, 410 

Final repulse of the Spaniards, 105 

Financial settlement of Bosomworth 
trouble, 114 

Finch, Asbury B.. S46 

Finch, James B., 985 

First African Baptist cliurch, 497 

First city jail, 355 

First colonial assembly, 117 

First conference with natives, 32 

First Jewish burial place, 369 

First masonic hall, 509 

First meeting of Savannah county board, 
106 

First meeting of the legislature in Sa- 
vannah, 240 

First minister to the colony, 64 

First news of disaster of "Pulaski," 338 

First newspaper extra, 39S 

First Presbyterian church, 496 

First regiment of Georgia militia, 278 

First regular theatre opened (1818), 386 

First steamship to cross Atlantic, 349 

First streets, 02 

First survey for waterworks, 392 

First synagogue, 48 

First telegraphic dispatches, 391 

First town plan, 61 

First Volunteer Regiment, 434, 508 

First year's operation of Central of 
Georgia railroad, 327 

Fitzgerald, 526 

Flannery, John, 1078 

Florida Central & Peninsular Railroad 
Companv, 489 

Flvnt, Roger D., 790 

Folks, Frank C, 893 

Folks, Gustavus P., 892 

Folkston, 529 

Forest City Rangers, 436 

Forethought of Oglethorpe, 3 

Forsyth Park, 317, 410 

Forts, 166 

Fort Gaines, 528 

Fort George, 166 

Fort Halifax, 166 

Fortifving Georgia's southern frontier, 

87 
Fort Johnson, 166 
Fort IVIcAllister, 455 
Fort McAllister necessary to defense of 

Savannah, 455 
Fort Pulaski, 454 
Fort Pulaski commenced. 311 
Fort Wayne, 274 
Foster, James L., 987 
Foster, John A., 674 
Founding of Savannah, 1 
Founding of Savannah in detail, 15 



Franklin and Oglethorpe on the Orphan 

Home, 97 
Franklin, Benjamin, 157 
Franklin, Georgia's British agent, 157 
Fraternal Order of Eagles, 511 
Freeman, George C, 579 

Gallic, John B., killed, 455 

Gandy, Thomas N., 881 

Garfield, James A., 485 

Garrard, Frank U., 981 

Gartland, Francis X., 496 

"Gazette," 514 

Geise, Reuben, 1005 

General La Fayette, 297 

General Lincoln orders, 220 

Generosity of Bostonians and others, 466 

George III succeeds George II, 138 

Georgetown, 528 

Georgia & Alabama Terminal Company, 
489 

Georgia divided into two counties, 105 

"Georgia Gazette," 513 

Georgia Historical Society, 341, 446 

Cieorgia Hussars, 266, 436, 499 

Georgia Infirmary for Colored People, 
498 

Georgia Medical Society, 504 

Georgia received into the union, 183 

"Georgia Republican and State Intelli- 
gencer," 514 

Georgia's independence, steps leading to, 
175 

Georgia's last royal governor, 145 

Georgia Society of Colonial Dames of 
America, 511 

Georgia Society of Colonial Wars, 513 

Georgia Society of Sons of the Revo- 
lution, 487, 513 

Georgia Society of the Cincinnati, 257, 

512 
Georgia State Savings Association, 478 
Georgia's temporary constitution, 191 
German Club, 499 
German Friendly Society, 510 
Germania Bank, 478 
Gibbs, Charles M., 614 
Gignilliat, Leigh R., 1020 
Gignilliat, William R., 1016 
(Jill, Andrew, 959 
Gilmore, Doolly D., 977 
Glynn county, 516, 518 
Glynn County Court House, Brunswick 

"(view). 295 
Good Chief Tomo-chi-chi, 40 
Good South Carolina friends, 15 
Googe, William R., 717 
Gordon's first town plan, 61 
Gordon, Peter, 61 
Gordon, William W., 327, 477 
Gornto, James E., 745 
Government building, Savannah (view), 
506 



XXll 



INDEX 



Governor Ellis, 131 

Governor Reynolds arrives, 123 

Governor Wright's arrest and escape, 

190 
Graham, John, 199 

Graham, John, and Thunderbolt, 199 
Graham, Patrick, succeeds President 

Parker, 121 
Grantees, 28 
Grant, James R., 729 
Grant, U. S., 485 
Gray, Joseph F., 658 
Great fire, 500 
Great fire of 1820, 288 
Greene, Gen., death and funeral of, 250 
Greene and Pulaski monument, 378 
Greene monument, 380 
Greene, Nathaniel, and his services, 241 
Greene, Nathaniel, monument, 375 
Greene visits Mulberry Grove, 249 
Griffin, Fletcher W., 999 
Griggs, James M., 771 
Grimshaw, Harry B., 678 
Groover, Daniel A., 840 
Groover, James I., 838 
Groover, Robert L., 860 
Gubernatorial proclamation, 124 
Gunnell, Charles W., 1004 
Gurr, William H., 929 

Habersham, James, 57, 96, 157 

Habersham, Joseph, 190 

Hagan, Peter S., 730 

Hahira, 521 

Hallam, William and Lewis, 385 

Hansen, Charles P., 872 

Harden, Edward J., 448 

Harden, Thomas H., 988 

Harden, William, 1082 

Hardships of the new rule, 464 

Harmon, Adam C. 640 

Harmonie Club. 499 

Harney, John M., 343, 514 

Harney's farewell, 344 

Harrell, Mathew J., 946 

Harris & ITabersliam. merchants, 99 

Harris, Charles, 400 

Harris, Raymond B., 648 

Harris, Raymond V., 647 

Harris, Robert H.. 991 

Harris, Stephen N., 662 

Harrison, Benjamin R.. 1011 

Hart. Thomas' J., 921 

Hart. TVlattie H., 922 

Hartridge, Julian, 432 

Hartridgc resolutions, 432 

Hartridge, Walter C, 712 

Hawkins. Kendriek J., 870 

llawkinsville. 528 

Hazelhurst. 526 

Tleathcote ward. 23. 28 

Hebrew Benevolent Society, 510 

Hebrew burial grounds, 49 



Hebrew colonists, 44 

Hebrews participated in the allotment 
of lands, 47 

Hendry, John M., 973 

Herbert, Henry, 64 

Hermitage, 529 

Herring, Patrick H., 942 

Herring, Robert J., 834 

Herrman, Solomau, 791 

Hewlett, William R., 585 

Heyward, George C, 687 

Hibernia Bank, 478 

Hibernian Society, 499 

Hicks, James B., 824 

Hight, Thomas J., 806 

Hill, Andrew J., 850 

Hill, John C, 852 

Hilton, Atys P., 758 

Hilton. Joseph, 715 

Hinesville, 528 

Historical Graves in Colonial Park, Sa- 
vannah (view), 367 

History of first Georgia volunteers. 322 

Hitch, 'Robert M., 104^9 

Hitch, Simon W., 913 

Hodges, Albert J., 861 

Hodges, John A., 766 

Hodgson, Margaret T., 491 

Hogan, John M., 584 

H[oningsworth, John C, 852 

Homerville, 529 

Honoring Bartow's remains, 443 

Honors to distinguished dead. 400 

Honors to John C. Calhoun and Zachary 
Taylor, 406 

Honors to living and dead, 400 

Hood. Bynum H., 905 

Hopkins." John M.. 915 

Hotel Savannah built. 500 

House resents Wright's interference, 160 

Houstoun, John, 427 

Howard, George W.. 818 

Howell, Zadoc W., 800 

Hoyl. Lee C, 902 

Hubert. Robert B.. 679 

Hurst. George T.. 1047 

Hutchinson, Arcliibald, 14 

Hutchinson's Island. 13; development of. 
14 

"I go to illustrate Georgia," 442 
Improvement of Savannah river and 

liarbor. 422 
Incident duriiiG; tlie siege of Savannah, 

216 
Incidents preceding Civil war, 429 
Indo])end(>nt church. 497 
Indejiendont Order of Odd Fellows, 510 
Indciiondcnt Presbyterian clun-ch. 136. 

4'.)6 
Indians, 31 

Indians at conference, 32 
Indian status when the colony came, 31 



INDEX 



XXlll 



Inhabitants of Georgia, 158 
Interesting city events, 385 
Interesting items, 483 
International Automobile Race, 500 
Invention of Eli Whitney, 473 
Irish Jasper Greens, 361, 436 
Irish Volunteers, 436 
Irwin county, 525 ^ 

Isler, James X., 856 

Jackson, Andrew, death of, 359 
Jackson, Andrew, public mourning for, 

401 
Jackson, George A., 759 , 

Jackson, Henry L., 763 
Jackson, Henry R., 429, 449 
Jackson, Joseph Z., 761 
Jail of 1846, 357 
Jasper Greens off for Mexico, 361 
Jasper monument, 486 
Jasper Springs, Savannah (view), 514 
Jeft' Davis county, 526 
Jesup, 528 
Jewish congregations and synagogues, 

49 
Jewish element, 44 
Jewish places of worship, 497 
Jewish settlers, names of first, 47 
Jews, progressive citizens, 51 
Johnson, G. L., 727 
Jolinson, Governor, letter of, 16 
Johnson, J. Wade, 963 
Johnson, Seaborn W., 740 
Jones, Arthur P., 718 
Jones, Benjamin P., 747 
Jones, Charles S., 939 
Jones, (Jeorge, 544 
Jones, George N., 064 
Jones, James G., 779 
Jones, Noble Wymberley, 160, 172, 533, 

539 
Jones, Walter C, 1033 

Kendrick, William C, 849 
Kent, Alfred, 668 
Kent, William A., 670 
Kenyon, Owen T., 853 
King, Harris M., 559 
King, John H., 797 
King, Willis H., 797 
King's Daughters, 510 
K. K. :Mickva Israel, 48 
Knight, Arthur M., 891 
Knights of Pythias, 510 
Knights Templars, 510 
Knoll, 434 
Knox, Robert H., 724 

LaFayette's death, 401 
LaFayette's reply, 300 
Land tenures, 107 
Land tenure changes, 107 
Lane, Remer Y., 746 



Largest naval stores market in the 

world, 474 
Largest Sea Island cotton market in the 

world, 48 1 
La Roche Family. 694 
La Roche, Isaac D., 094 
Lasseter, Wade H., 780 
Last royal governor of Georgia, James 

Wright, 145 
Latimer, James H., 889 
Launitz, Robert E., 373 
Laurel Grove Cemetery, 366; dedicated, 

370 
Laurens county, 537 
Lawrence, Alexander A., 707 
Lawson, Ashley, 803 
Lawson, Irvin. 805 
Lawson, Lawrence F., 864 
Lawton, Alexander, 488 
Lawton, Alexander Robert, 570 
Lawton, Alexander Rudolf, 575 
Lawton ^Memorial building, 488 
Leaken, William R., 932 
Lebey, Charles C, 630 
Ledford, Mercer L., 935 
Lee county, 525 

Lee, Robert E., 444; in command at Sa- 
vannah, 444 
Leesburg, 528 
Legal and medical professions, 502; at 

the present time, 504 
Legal profession, 502 
Leggett, George P., 763 
Lester, Laura E., 620 
Lester, Rufus E., 618 
LeVasseur, A., 307 

LeVasseur's description of Savannah, 307 
Levy, Benjamin H., 627 
Lewis, Wiley M., 1001 
Lewis, William J., 673 
Lewis, William M., 977 
'•Liberty Boys," 161, 173 
"Liberty Boys" raid powder magazine, 

177 
"Liberty Boys" worry royal council, 174 
"Liberty People," 174 
Liberty Street branch of the Citizen's 

and Southern Bank, 478 
Lieutenant-governor James Wright, 148 
Light house erected on Bay street, 424 
Lighting of the streets, 395 
Linton, Moses B., 945 
Literature, etc., 446 
Littlefield, Elijah M. D., 983 
Little Sisters of the Poor, 498 
Little & Phillips, 871 
Little, William H., 871 
Livingston, Thomas J., 830 
Local militia ready to act, 276 
Locating tlie burial place of Nathanael 

Greene, 290 
Locating the Oglethorpe Barracks (1834), 

312 



XXIV 



INDEX 



Locating the remains of Natlianael 

Greene, 378 
Locl<e, William F., 976 
Lowndes county, 520 
Lowndes County Court House (view), 

522 
Lovell, Edward, 632 
Lovell, Edward F., 633 
Lovell, Robert P., 631 
Lutheran Church of the Ascension, 494 
Lutheran church organized, 138 
Lyons, 524 

Maclntyre, Archibald T., 828 
MacMillan, Thomas H., 630 
Macon depot opened for business, 326 
Macon, Dublin & Savannah Railroad 

Company, 489 
Macready's impressions, 390 
Macready, William C, 390 
Make-shift custom houses, 409 
Mann, William S., 1065 
Mansion at the Hermitage, Savannah 

(view), 528 
Marine Bank, 478 
Marshall, William, 796 
Martello Tower, 280 
Martial law in Savannah, 445 
Martin, Robert V., 665 
Masonic Hall, 464 
Masonic societies, 509 
Masonic Temple, 510 
Massie common school, 417 
Massie Poor School Fund, 416 
May, John C, 755 
Mayor Anderson's report on condition of 

city at end of war, 468 
Mayor Purse's I'eport on the progress 

of the war, 453 
Mayors, 1797-1802, 269; 1804-1820, 292; 

1821-1824, 310; 1826-1834, 323; 1835- 

1850, 396; 1850-1866, 450; 1867-1913, 

482 
INIavors and aldermen. 292 
McAllister, ]\Iatthew H., 449 
McAlpin family, 529 
McAlpin, Henry, 646 
McCall, John (i., 734 
McCallum, John D., 968 
McCarthy, Joseph, 501 
McCauley, William F.. 644 
McCoy, Olin S., 769 
McDo'nakl, William A., 874 
McHancock. Joe. 858 
Mclntire, Francis P., 007 
Mcintosh, Lachlan, 260 
Mcintosh, Olin T.. 027 
McKinnon, Alexander J., 930 
McKinnon, Philip, 799 
McLaughlin. James T.. 670 
McLaws, Lafayette, 487 
McLeod, (Jeorge F., 957 
McMullon. Joiin W., 983 



McXeil Marble Companv of Marietta, 
501 

]McQueen, Alexander S., 719 

McQueen, R. D., 719 

McRae, 526 

Medical profession, 502 

INIeetings of protesting citizens, 178 

Meigs, 522 

Meldrim, 529 

:\leldrim. Peter W., 701 

^Members of council continued, 4S2 

Memorials, 511 

Memorials to General Greene and Couni 
Pulaski, 308 

Memorials to Generals McLaws and Bar- 
tow, 487 

Memorial to William W. Gordon, 331 

:Mereer, Hugh W., 445 

Mercer, Mrs. Susan D., 905 

Merchants and Miners' Transportation 
Company, 477 

Merchants' National Bank, 478 

Methodism, 495 

Mewborn, John A., 733 

^Mexican war. 361 

iliddle Georgia & Atlantic Railroad Com 
pany, 489 

Midway church, 501 

Midway church and monument to Gen 
erals Screven and Stewart, 501 

Midwav church, erected in 1792 (view), 
263 ' 

Military headquarters of Confederacv, 
320 

^Military spirit. 507 

^Military parade ground, 315 

Militia,' 118 

:\Iillar, Charles C, 714 

:\liller. David J., 762 

Jliller. Martin V., 965 

Milligan, Edward C, 807 

Mills, George J., 551 

Minis, Abraham, 554 

Minis, Abram, 554 

jMinis, J. Floranco. 577 

Minis and Salomons, 100 

jMitchell, Henry. 737 

jMitchell. Robert G., 825 

^Monroe R. R.. 330 

IMontgomerv county, 524 

JMontgonierv (iuards, 436 

Monument for Pulaski, 372 

IMonument to General Xathanael Greene, 
375 

i\Ioininient to General Oglethorpe, 500 

jMonumont to Tomo-chi-chi. 103 

^Monument to William W. Gordon erect- 
ed, 500 

]\Ionuments to Generals Bartow and Mc- 
Laws, 500 

Moody, Joseph W.. 812 

Moore. Francis, 13. IS, 64 

INloore, R. Lee, 960 



INDEX 



XXV 



Moore's description of Savannah, 18 

Moose, Loyal Order of, 511 

Morgan, 528 

"Morning News," 513, 515 

Morrison, Angus, 866 

Morton, James O., 1081 

Morven, 522 

Moses, Cornelius F., 629 

Motte, John W., 637 

Mount Vernon, 524 

Moye, Andrew J., 705 

Moye, Thomas R., 712 

Mulberry Grove, made over to Greene, 

244 
Municipal affairs, 1797-1802, 269 
Municipal government continued, 263 
Muscogee count}', 51S 
"Museum," 514 
Myddelton, Robert B., 742 
Myers, James F. C, 638 
Myers, Sigo, 708 
Myrick, Shelby, 663 

Names of first Jewish settlers, 47 

Names of first streets, 62 

Nashville. 523 

National Bank of Savannah. 478 

Naval stores and important trade, 474 

Naval stores. Savannah (view), 474 

Neese, John A., 785 

Newbern. Philip, 937 

New council house, 126 

New Independent church, 287 

New Laurel Grove cemetery, 366 

New secretary of the trust, 74 

Newspaper mention of "Pulaski" disaster, 
334 

Newton, 528 

Nichols, Mongin B., 653 

Nicholson, David B., 734 

Nisbit, Eugenius* A., 1054 

Noel, John Y., 427 

Non-combatant citizens armed for de- 
fense of city, 445 

Norman, Newton J., 641 

Norman, William S., 641 

Norton, George M., 667 

Norton, Joseph S., 815 

Notes from an early plan of Savannah, 
126 

O'Byrne, Michael, 612 
Ocean Steamship Company, 477 
Ocilla, 525 
Ocmulgee, 525 

Ocmulgee and Flint River Railroad, 329 
Oglethorpe, James E., 1, 10, 13, 15, 38, 
54, 59, 61, 68, 83, 500, 529; portrait, 
4; prison reform record, 4; reasons 
for selecting site, 12; and the Indians, 
31; returns to England. 65; adminis- 
tration approved, 86; self-sacrifice, 90; 
administration the last, 105; last of- 



ficial appearance, 106; last days in 

Georgia, 114 
Oglethorpe, James E. (portrait). 4 
Oglethorpe Barracks, 315, 319, 500 
Oglethorpe Club, 499 
Oglethorpe Light Infantry, 442 
Oglethorpe monument, 500 
Oglethorpe Savings and Trust Company, 

478 
Old and present theatre similar, 390 
Oldest artillery company in Georgia, 257 
Oldest hotel in Savannah, 500 
Old Exchange, 267 
Old Prison, 128 

Old view of Savannah (view), 60 
O'Leary, Michael J., 582 
Olmstead's account. 434 
One hundred and fiftieth anniversary, 

485 
Order of American Firemen, 510 
Original deed, 25 
Original Savannah described, 59 
Origin of name "Savannah," 2 
Orphan Home, 97 
Osborne, William W., 550 
Other organized bodies, 499 
Other writers, 450 
Owls, 511 

Parker, Henry, colonial president, 116 

Parrish, Ansel A., 741 

Parrish, Thomas J., 730 

Patriotic societies, 511 

Patterson, James M., 879 

Pavo, 522 

Peace declared, 281 

Peacock, Duncan D., 1058 

Peeples. Charles B., 749 

Pemberton, (ieneral, 445 

Pendleton, Alexander S.. 919 

Penfield Mariners' church, 497 

People's Savings & Loan Company, 478 

Percival ward, 23, 28 

Perry, 529 

Persons to whom original deed granted 

land. 26 
Petition to king, 181 
Phillips, Wendle C, 872 
Pidcock, 522 
Pierce county, 520 
Pioneer churches, 64 
Pioneer points of interest, 62 
Pioneers, but not the first, 100 
Pioneer theatrical performances (1783), 

385 
Pittman, David W.. 911 
Planter's Bank, 477. 478 
Poem on the lost "Pulaski," 339 
Police Benevolent Society, 510 
Poole, Richard W., 529* 
Portraits, James Edward Oglethorpe, 4; 

Tomo-CTiachi, Mico, 34 
Postoffice, Americus (view), 127 



XXVI 



INDEX 



Postoffice and Court House, Valdosta 

(view), 521 
Powell, Alfred J., 875 
Powell, Toy O., 727 
Powell, Ivy M., 769 
Powers granted to the trustees, 24 
Preparations for the Avar of 1812, 272 
Presbyterian meeting house, 136 
• Present artesian well system, 395 
Present building completed in 1850, 409 
President Pierce invited, 426 
"Press," 513 
Preston, 528 

Prison reform record of Ogilethorpe, 4 
Proclamation of his Majesty King George 

the Third, 139 
Proclamation of royalists, 207 
Progress of infant colony, 22 
Progress toward independence, 161 
Prominent lawyers of a later period, 503 
Promoted to General Oglethorpe, 88 
Prompt action of Governor J. E. Brown, 

433 
Proposal that city issue bonds, 422 
Prosecution conducted bj' Dist. Atty. 

Joseph Ganahl, 430 
Prosperous condition of colony, 148 
Protestant Episcopal church, 497 
Province divided into parishes, 132 
Provincial congress, 179; address of, 179 
Public ceremonies proclaiming new sov- 
ereign, 143 
Public funeral of Colonel JMcIntosh, 363 
Public institutions and noted events, 409 
Pul)lic library established and City Hall 

built, 489 
Public meeting held, 170 
Public mourning for Andrew Jackson, 

401 
Public school system, 415 
Public water supply, 392 
Pulaski, Count, 223 
Pulaski's, Count, death wound, 224 
"Pulaski" disaster, 334 
Pulaski Guards, 436 
Pulaski House, 500 
Pulaski monument, 30S. 371 
Pulaski monument delivered to commis- 
sioners, 374 
Purse, Thomas, 453, 493, 567 
Purvis, John H., 654 

Quinn, George W., 967 
(Juitnmn, 521 

Quotation from account of Honorable 
11. R. Jackson, 431 



Race, international autonuibile, 
Rasian, Joseph T., 900 
Railroad to Tybeo Island, 493 
Ramsey, Jason M.. 810 
Ramsey, Redding G., 803 



500 



Rapid growth of cotton business in Sa- 
vannah, 472 

Rauers, John J., 611 

Real Estate & Trust Company, 478 

Reception of LaFayette, 297 

Reception to Henry Clay, 401 

Reconstruction, 466 

Regular municipal administration, 255 

Reidsville, 528 

Religion, commerce and defense, 93 

Religious, moral and industrial, 64 

Removal of obstructions in river, 468 

Removal of obstructions in the Savan- 
nah river, 422 

Renewed protests against British acts, 
157 

Resolutions adopted at public meeting, 
170 

Resolutions by Boston council, 467 

Resolutions by Confederate council, 454 

Resolutions by Jonathan Bryan, 158 

Resolutions of Rhode Island legislature, 
382 

Resolutions on capture of Savannah, 464 

Respect paid by public to memory of 
Henry Clay and Governor Troup, 427 

Resultant sanitarj' measures, 413 

Repeal of the stamp act acknowledged, 
155 

Report of the Honorable Jeremiah S. 
Black, 430 

"Republican," 515 

Revnolds' administration disappointing, 
i2S 

Reynolds, John, 122 

Richardson. Charles H., 909 

Rich. Elijah A. J., 1007 

Rising discontent against royalty, 146 

River front. Savannah (view), 421 

Roberts, Hezekiah, 844 

Roberts, John B., 1065 ' 

Robertson, William H., 656 

Roehelle. 525 

Roekinoham, 523 

Roddeiibery. Walter B., 1072 

Rogers, Dwight L., 982 

Roman Catholics, 495 

Roman Catholic schools taken into pub- 
lic school svstem, 470 

Rowland, Charles P., 614 

Royal cause getting dark. 235 

Royal civil government feeble, 231 

Royalists attempt to capture rice boats, 
195 

Russell. AVaring, Jr., 586 

Sailing and landing of the colony, 10 

St. Andrew's Socie'ty, 499 

St. Joseph's Hospital, 408 

St. Mary's. 529 

St. Mary's Orphan Home, 498 

Salzburg and silk, 53 

Salz.burEfors. 05 



INDEX 



xxvu 



Salzburg exiles, 53 

Saussy, (iordon, 640 

Savannali, original site, 24; first Fourth 
of July (August lOtli), 200; held by 
British, 202; again American, 231; as 
a military post, 312; prompt response, 
361; water works, 394; public school 
system, 415; river and harbor, 420; 
literary circle, 446; during Civil war, 
453; second cotton port in world, 472; 
commercial record, 475; business rec- 
ord for past four years, 475; imports, 
476; banks, 477; ranks fourth among 
principal ports of United States, 481; 
sesqui-centeiinial, 485 ; newspapers, 
513 

Savannah, Albany & Gulf R. R., 519 

Savannah & Albany R. R., 472 

Savannah & Atlantic R. R., 493 

Savannah and Ogeechee canal, 391 

Savannali and Spanish - American war, 
488 

Savannah and the Panama canal, 479 

Savannali & Tybee R. R., 493 

Savannah Artillery, 436 

Savannah Bank and Trust Company 
(view), 478 

Savannah Bank and Trust Company, 
478 

Savannali Benevolent Association, 414, 
498, 510 

Savannah Chapter D. A. R., 383, 487 

Savannah Female Orphan Asylum, 498 

Savannah Golf Club, 499 

Savannah Hospital, 332 

Savannah Port Society, 497 

Savannah puts up a liberty tree, June 
2, 1775, 167 

Savannah Rifle Association, 499 

Savannah Trust Company, 478 

Savannah Union Station Company, 489 

Savannah Volunteer Guards, 499 

Savannah Widows' Society, 498 

Savannah Yacht Club, 499 

Scarborough, James M., 869 

Scene in the Prison Park at Anderson- 

• ville (view), 321 

Schedule of the prices of goods, 37 

Schirm, Edward L., 945 

Schirm, William P., 944 

Schley, Julian, 684 

Schwarz, John E., 689 

Screven, James P., 428, 501, 588 

Screven, John, 595 

Screven, John, death of, 488 

Screven, Thomas F., 605 

Seaboard Air Line, 489 

Seamen's Home, 497 

Secession of (Jeorgia, 436 

Secession of Soutli Carolina, 433 

Second Savannah church, 133 

Securing permanent quarters for Georgia 
Historical Society, 346 



Securing the friendship of the Creeks, 
101 

Sedition in Georgia, 150 

Seminole war of 1836, 364 

Semnies, Kate F., 627 

Semmes, Raphael T., 624 

Sesqui-centennial of landing of Ogle- 
thorpe, 500 

Sheftall, Sheftall, old revolutionary sol- 
dier, 403 

Sherman, General, 462 

Sliuptrine, Herman C., 635 

Shuptrine, James T., 635 

Siege from a British standpoint, 225 

Silk industry, 56 

Slade, James J., 917 

Slavery, 67 

Smets, Alexander A., 446, 447 

Smith, Edward J., 765 

Smith, Joseph N., 959 

Sneed, John L., 728 

Solomon Lodge of Free Masons, 509 

Sons of Confederate Veterans, 511 

Sons of Liberty, 174 

South Bound R. R. Company, 489 

South Carolina aids Georgians, 198 

South Carolina Council of Safety, 196 

Southern Bank of the State of Georgia, 
478 

''Southern Centinel," 514 

'■Southern Patriot." 514 

South Georgia College, 526 

Souter, James F., 984 

Special order of General Sherman, 462 

Spirit of sedition in Georgia, 150 

Springfield, 528 

Stamp act, 154 

Stanaland, John 0., 877 

Stanfill, Lucius M., 764 

Stanley, John G., 907 

Stanley, Vivian L., 1045 

Statements bv Francis Sorrel, agent, 336 

Statenville, 529 

State of the province (1773), 163 

Statesborough, 524 

Statistics of deaths during sickly months, 
292 

Statistics of the port of Savannah, 472 

Status of railroads in 1842, 330 

Steamer "Pulaski," 334 

Stephens, William, 74 

Stephens, William B., 1002 

Stephens, William, colonial president, 
108 

Steps leading to Georgia's independence, 
175 

Stevens, William B., 448 

Stewart, Daniel, 501 

Stillwell, William B., 649 

Stone seat in honor of Oglethorpe, 511 

Storm adds terrors to epidemic, 412 

Streets and squares, 499 

Street scene, Dublin (view), 527 



XXVlll 



INDEX 



Strengthening the Fort Wayne works, 

277 
Strickland, James W., 886 
Stuart, Charles T., 833 
Summerlin, Algeriiip 'I' KM' 
Sumner, Leonard M., 778 
Sumter, 525 
Sunbury, 149 

Survey from Savannah to Macon, 325 
Sweat, Albert C, 823 
Sweat, Carey M., 743 
Swedenborgian church, 497 
Sylvania, 528 
Sylvester, 523 
System in use from 1854 to 1892, 395 

Tablet in honor of John Wesley, 511 

Taggart, Grantham I., 676 

Taggart, James, 676 

Talley, William R., 876 

Tefft, I. K., 343, 446 

Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, 

491 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences 

(view), 492 
Telfair county, 525, 526 
Telfair, Edward, 491, 526 
Telfair Hospital for Females, 498 
Tennille, George F., 700 
Terrell county, 528 
Terrific storm of 1804, 271 
Thackeray's visit and his account of 

city, 426 
Thackeray, William M., 426 
Theatre described, 388 
"The Republican and Savannah Evening 

Ledger," 514 
"The Villas of the Ancients," 7 
Thomas county, 522 
Thomas, Daniel R., 642 
Thomas, Ed\vard J., 711 
Thomas, James G., 651 
Thomas, Welcome H., 795 
Thomasville. 522 
Thompson, De Witt B.. 771 
Thomson, Tlionias F., 634 
Thornton, George E., 1010 
Tluuiderbolt, 199 
Tiedeman, George W., 552 
Tifton, 529 

Tigner, Germanicus Y.. 1025 
Tigner, Wesley F., 1027 
Tillman, Jerry D., 978 
Timber Cutter's Bank, 478 
Tinsley, Fleming D., 704 
Tithings, 23. 28 
Tomo-chi-chi, 31, 40; visit to England. 

40; death of, 102; boulder in honor 

of, 512 
Tomo-Chachi. Mico (portrait). 34 
Toombs county, 524 
Towns in Brooks county, 521 
Towns in Toombs county, 524 



Train, John K., 657 

Travis, Robert J., 692 

Trial of Wesley, 78 

Trinity church, 495 

Trosdal, Einar S., 611 

Troup, Governor, 427 

Trustees against slavery, 67 

Trustees for establishing the Colony of 

Georgia in America, 23 
Trustees' garden, 63 
Trustees' greetings to the Lower Creeks, 

35 
Tunno, Robert G., 721 
Turner county. 523 
Turner, Henry G., lOSO 
Turner, Lavinia 'SI., 1081 
Two vessels escape to sea, 196 

Union Society, 498 

Union Station erected, 500 

United Confederate Veterans, 488 

United States Bank, 478 

United States custom house. Savannah 

(view), 71 
LTnited States government takes Ogle- 

tliorpe Barracks, 320 
Unpleasant for royalists, 184 
Unpopular colonial deputy, 65 

Valdosta, 520 

Varnedoe, James O.. 781 

Vashti industrial school, Thomasville 
(view), 524 

Vidalia, 524 , 

Vienna. 525 

View Across the Square, Waycross, 520 

Views — Old View of Savannah, 60; 
United States Custom House. 71; Post- 
office, Americus. 127; Colquitt County 
Court House, Moultrie, 147; Agricul- 
tural School. Tifton. 187; Midway 
Church, erected in 1792. 262; City Ex- 
change, erected in 1799. 268; Glynn 
County Co\irt House, Brunswick. 295; 
Scene in the Prison Park. Anderson- 
villo, 321; Historical Graves in Co- 
lonial Park, Savannah. 367; Beautiful 
Roads through the Pines. Tifton, 377; 
River Front." Savannah. 421; Governor 
Joseph E. Brown's Headquarters, 438; 
Carnegie Library. Americus. 444; Con- 
federate Monument. Savannah, 461; 
Xaval Stores. Savannah, 474: Savan- 
nah Bank and Trust Company. 478; 
Cotton Yards and Docks. Savannah. 
4S0; Telfair Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. 492; Chatham County Court 
House, 499; Government Building. Sa- 
vannah. 506: Jasjier Springs. Savannah, 
514; Chattahoochee in Harness, Co- 
lumbus. 517; View Across the Square, 
Wavcross. 520; Postoffice and Court 
House. Valdosta, 521; Lowndes County 



INDEX 



XXIX 



Court House, 522; Young's College, 
Showing Annex, Thomasville, 523; 
Vashti Industrial Scliool, Thomasville, 
524; Dodge County Court House, East- 
man, 526; Street Scene, Dublin, 527; 
Mansion at the Hermitage, Savannah, 
528 

Vigorous preparation for resisting Brit- 
ish attack. 279 

Visit of Aaron Burr, 269 

Visit of Ex-president Fillmore, 425 

Visit of Ex-president Polk, 405 

Visit of General Grant, 485 

Visit of Jefl'erson Davis and his daugh- 
ter Winnie, 500 

Visit of Monroe and Calhoun, 282 

Wade, James D., Jr., 1067 

Wade, Peyton L., 789 

Wade. William H., 581 

Walker, John L.. 887 

Walker, William A., 972 

Waller, Robert T., 628 

War of 1812, 272, 274 

Wards, 23, 28 

Wards and tithings named, 23 

Washington, George, 258 

Washington Volunteers, 436 

Washington's account of his southern 
tour, 262 

Washington's visit to Savannah, 258 

Waterworks, 392 

Watkins. John E., 811 

Waycross, 519 

Wayne, Anthony, 238. 247, 274 

Wayne, Anthony, and his services, 247 

Wayne, James M., 449 

Wayne, Richard, 427 

Wayne's Georgia residence also short, 
253 

Wayne's terms for British evacuation, 
238 

Webb, John E.. 954 

Webb, William W.. 926 

Webster, Daniel, city's guest, 406 

Weddington, Cornelius A., 722 

Welcome to Millard Fillmore, 410 

Wellborn, Carlton J., 963 

Wesley and his labors, 71 

Wesley and Sophia (Hopkins) William- 
son, 75 

Wesley, Charles, 70 ; departs for England, 



Wesley, John, 70, 
honor of, 511 



495, 498; tablet in 



Wesley Monumental church, 495 

Wesley's statement of the trouble, 76 

^^^laley, Ezekiel R., 808 

\^nieatly, John W., 1037 

Wheatley, William H. C, 1038 

Whitcha'rd, James H., 848 

White, Erasmus D., 752 

^^^litefleld, George, 68, 85, 93 

Whitefield in favor of slavery, 68 

\Miitefield succeeds John Wesley, 84 

Whitley, James, 1057 

\Miitney, Eli, 472 

AVhittle" Francis M., 906 

Wight, John B., 1054 

Wilcox county, 525 

Wilcox, J. Mark, 739 

Willett, Asahel A., 1034 

Williams, Pratt A., 898 

Williamson. William W., 659 

Williford. Preston B., 925 

Wilson, Horace E., 1048 

Wilson, Joseph D., 793 

Wilson, William H., 839 

Wimlierly, Leon P., 779 

Winfield Scott and David Porter, Savan- 
nah's Guests, 297 

Woodmen of the World, 511 

Woodward, Lucius L., 775 

W'ormsloe Quartos, 449 

Wortli county, 523 

Wright dissolves assembly, 163 

Wright forbids public meeting, 169 

Wright goes to England and returns to 
Savannah, 199 

Wright, James, 132, 145, 167, 231; fol- 
lows Ellis, 132; good traits, 145; alarm, 
151; dilemma. 154; letter to British 
government, 184; pitiable mental con- 
dition. 237 

Wylly, Albert, 564 

Yacht Wanderer, 429 

Yellow fever epidemic, 1820, 289; 1854, 
411 

Young, Hubert 0., 645 

Young Men's Benevolent Association, 
414 

Young !Men's Library Association, 431 

Young, Silas :M., 756 

Young's College, Showing Annex, Thom- 
asville (view), 523 

Zeigler, Robert F., 948 
Zouberbuhler, Bartholomew, 133 



History of 
Savannah and South Georgia 



CHAPTER I 

FOUNDING OF SAVANNAH 

Origin of Name — Savannah Town Founded — Forethought of Ogle- 
thorpe — His Prison Reform Record — Origin of Savannah. 

When the illustrious founder of the Colony of Georgia set sail from 
England, had he chosen a name for the place he might select as the 
location of the tirst settlement of his people? This is an interesting 
question, and one very easily answered. He knew, of course, all about 
the boundaries of the territory described in the charter granted by 
George II to the Trustees, and that the said territory was "in that 
part of South Carolina, in America, which lies from the northern part 
of a stream or river there commonly called the Savannah," etc. The 
name Savannah, then, was not unknown to him, and it is a fact that he 
had determined, before leaving home, to name the capital of his colony 
after the stream which should thereafter separate Georgia from her 
friendly neighbor who willingly consented to the scheme so dear to the 
heart of that good man, now recognized as one of the foremost philan- 
thropists of the world. This is no mere conjecture therefore, as it is 
positively recorded, even before Oglethorpe left the shores of England, 
that the name of the first place to be settled was Savannah. The 
statement has been made, and is true, that he "marked out the site of 
a town which, from the river which flowed by, he called Savannah." * 

A little more than one month after the landing of the colonists, 
the South Carolina Gazette published an account of a visit made to 
the new settlement by some Carolinians, mentioning the arrival of the 
colonists "at Yamacraw, — a place so called by the Indians — but now 
Savannah in the Colony of Georgia." Judging from the language of 
all writers who have touched upon this point, it seems to have been the 

* History of Georgia, by Chas. C. Jones, Jr., Vol. I, p. 118. 

1 



2 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

general opinion heretofore that Oglethorpe had found no name for the 
place until he began to build the town, but the truth of the matter, 
as divulged in the official records of the trustees, appears to have 
escaped the scrutiny of them all. 'Fifteen days before Oglethorpe's 
departure from Gravesend, a meeting of the Trustees was held, when 
they " affix 'd their seal to a Grant erecting a Court of Judicature for 
trying causes, as well criminal as civil, in the town of Savannah, by 
the Name and Stile of the Town Court." (Colonial Records, edited by 
A. D. Candler, Vol. I, p. 83— Minutes of the Tinistees, Nov. 2, 1732.) 
Again, the common council, on the 8th of November, 1732, ordered 
"That Mr. Oglethorpe do set out three hundred acres of land in 
Georgia in America to be appropriated for the use of the Church of 
the Town of Savannah and a site for the Church and the ^linister's House 
in the Town and likewise a Burial Place at a proper Distance from the 
Town" (Candler's Colonial Records, Vol II, pp. 10-11) ; and that same 
body, on the 7th of November, 1732, took action "appointing Peter 
Gordon, William Waterland and Thomas Causton." Another item from 
the minutes of the trustees at a meeting held January 17, 1732-33, 
makes mention of the town, while the colonists Avere .on their voyage, 
by ordering "That a letter be sent to Mr. Oglethorpe recommending 
Mr. Botham Squire to be settled in the Township of Savannah, under 
Mr. Christie's Grant, he paying the Expenses of his Passage himself." 

Origin op Name "Savannah" 

Seeing, then, that the name was chosen in advance of the coming 
to the territory to be occupied by the settlers, let us inquire how it 
came to be adopted. It was so called from the river Savannah ; but 
how did that stream get its name? Hitherto there has been a differ- 
ence of opinion on that point, some holding that it is purely an Indian 
word, while others contend for a Spanish origin. Logan, in a foot- 
note on page 211 of Vol. I of his History of Upper South Carolina, 
makes this statement : ' ' Isundiga was the Cherokee name for the 
ancient Keowee and Savannah. The present name of Savannah was 
derived from the Shawano or Savannah Indians, a warlike tribe that 
once lived on its western bank near the present site of Augusta. 
Some time after the settlement of South Carolina they removed be- 
yond the Ohio. Adair declares they were driven away by the foolish 
measures of the English." 

Savannah Town Founded 

The settlement mentioned in this extract was called Savannah 
Town, afterwards known as Fort Moore. For full information as to 
this matter the reader is referred to Vol. Ill, part II, of Collections 
of the Georgia Historical Society — "A Sketch of the Creek Country," 
by Benjamin Hawkins, pp. 16, 17, 21, 25, 34, 35 and 83. 

Advocating its Spanish origin, the Hon. A. H. Chappell, in his 
"Miscellanies of Georgia"* says: "It is an interesting fact, reflect- 

* Part I, p. IS. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 3 

ing light on tlie first exploration of the State, and clearing up a part 
of its history otherwise .so obscure, that so many of the Atlantic 
rivers of Georgia liave the Spanish stamp on their names — as the 
St. Marj-'s, the Great and Little St. Ilia, the Altaraaha, and last, and, 
if possible, the plainest of all, the Savannah. For no one can ascend 
that stream from the sea, or stand on the edge of the bluff which the city 
occupies, or on the top of its ancient Exchange [now, alas! completely 
obliterated, and its site marked by the new City Hall] (which may 
fire and war, and tempest, and the tooth of time, and the felon hand 
of improvement long spare) and overlook the vast expanse of tiat 
lands that spread out on both sides of the river, forming in winter 
a dark, in summer a green, in autumn a saffron, contrast to its bright, 
interesting waters, without knowing at once that from these plains, 
these savannas, the river got its name, derived from the Spanish 
language and the Spanish word Sabanna — and that it was baptized 
with the Christian, though not saintly, name it bears, by Spanish dis- 
coverers just as certainly as the great grassy plains in South America 
owed their names of savannas to the same national source." 

It is undoulitedly true, and the statement is made by all the writers 
to this same effect, that Oglethorpe "marked out the site of the town 
which, from the river which flowed by, he called Savannah." * The 
question is happily settled by the Hon. Albert Gallatin, who, in 
"Archaeologia Americana Transactions and Collections of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society," Vol. II, pp. 83-84, says: "In the year 
1670, when English emigrants first settled in South Carolina, four 
tribes are mentioned near the seashore between the rivers Ashley and 
Savannah — the Stonoes, Edistoes, Westoes, and Savannahs. * * * 
The name of Savannahs, most probably derived from that of the river 
on which they lived, and which is of Spanish origin, is there dropped." 

Forethought op Oglethorpe 

It is liardly to be supposed that the founder of the city left Eng- 
land without some definite plan for the laying out of the same. Gen. 
James Edward Oglethorpe was not that kind of a num. His 
purpose in providing a home for the unfortunates of a certain class 
of his countrymen was made after a careful investigation of the cause 
of their condition, and the method of providing for their relief was 
carefully considered, so that when the time came to carry out his plan 
in that respect he was ready to answer satisfactorily any questions 
which might be put to him by skeptics and to brush away all objec- 
tions which might be offered to his philanthropic scheme. So it was 
with every part of the intricate work which he set out to accomplish. 
When he set the colonists to work in building homes for themselves, 
after landing on Yamacraw bluff, those houses were built according 
to a well-prepared plan in the marking out of which he had spent 
many busy hours, and perhaps days. How can there be the slightest 
doubt of this in the mind of anyone who walks through the streets 

* History of Georgia, by Chas. C. Jones, Jr., Vol. I, p. 118. 



4 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

and squares of the city which, unique under its systematic order of 
by-ways, lanes, and chain of parks, makes it so attractive to visitors 
from all parts of the world? There is no other city on the whole 
earth just like it, and the regularity of its lines and angles compels the 
wonder and admiration of everybody ! Whence came the plan, and 
who suggested it to Oglethorpe? Some light may be thrown on this 
subject when we consider the first steps leading to the founding of Geor- 
gia and contemplate the life and education of one who, through what the 
world calls chance, crossed the pathway through life of the man we 
so much honor. 

The following endeavor to discover the source whence the plan of 
the city was obtained is the substance of a paper read by the present 
writer before the Georgia Historical Society at a meeting held Sep- 
tember 7, 1885, entitled "A Suggestion as to the Origin of the Plan of 
Savannah." 

Oglethorpe's Prison Reform Record 

Entering parliament in the year 1722, and representing his con- 
stituents in that body for the long period of thirty-two years, Ogle- 




James Edward Oglethorpe 

thorpe's record there bears witness to tlie characteristic energy of the 
man in his efforts to secure the rights of the downtrodden and to lift 
up tlie fallen. In otlier ways, also, he faitlifully performed the duties 
required of all who are clioseu to make and uphold the laws of their 
country. Fi'om tlie beginning to the end of his life Oglethorpe was 
indeed, and in truth, a philanthropist. His attention was soon called 
to the shocking state of affairs in connection with the prisons of Eng- 
land, but especially to the treatment of that class of prisoners known 
as "honest debtors," that is, men who through misfortune could not 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



meet their pecuniary obligations, and, in accordance with the then 
lawful custom, were sent by their creditors to prison in the hope that 
friends would provide the means to pay the debts of the creditors in 
order to secure the release of the latter. As the author of a motion 
"that an inquiry should be instituted into the state of the gaols of the 
metropolis," the motion having been carried, he was made the chair- 
man of a committee from the house of commons to investigate the 
methods of the prison keepers. The work of that committee in scruti- 
nizing the conduct of the most notorious of these inhuman wretches 
form the subject of one of best known and most touching of the pic- 
tures of the renowned artist, William Hogarth. Its title is '"Examina- 
tion of Bambridge, " and, as the mention of it in this chapter will be 
explained a little farther on, the description accompanying the en- 
graving of it in Hogarth's works, though rather lengthy, will not be 
out of place just here : 

This very picture, Hogarth himself tells us, was painted in 1729 
for Sir Archibald Grant, of Monnymusk, Bart., at that time Knight 
of the Shire for Aberdeen, and one of the committee represented in 
the painting ; many of whom attended daily, and some of them twice 
a day. "That every other figure in the print is a genuine portrait 
there cannot be the least doubt ; though at this distant period it is not 
possible to identify the particular persons, they are all, however, to be 
found in the following of the names of the committee : 
"James Oglethorpe, Esq., Chairman. 

Finch, 

Morpeth, 

Inchequin, 

Percival, 

Limerick. 



The Right Hon. the Lords ; 



Hon. James Bertie, 
Sir Gregory Page, 
Sir Archibald Grant, 
Sir James Thornhill, 
Gyles Earle, Esq., 
General Wade, 
Humphrey Parsons, Esq., 
Hon. Robert Byng, 
Edward Houghton, Esq., 

Judge Advocate, 
Sir Robert Sutton, 
Sir Robert Clifton, 
Sir Abraham Elton, 
Sir Edward Knatchbull, 
Sir Humphrey Herries, 
Captain Vernon, 
Charles Selwyn, Esq., 
Velters Cornwall, Esq., 
Thomas Scawen, Esq., 
Francis Child, Esq., 
William Hucks, Esq., 



6 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Stampe Brookshanks, Esq., 
Charles Withers, Esq., 
John- La Roche, Esq., 
Mr. Thomas Martin. 

" 'The scene,' says Mr. Walpole, 'is the Committee. On the table are 
the instruments of torture. A prisoner in rags, half starved, appears 
before them; the poor man has a good countenance, that adds to the 
interest. On the other hand is the inhuman Gaoler. It is the very figure 
that Salvator Rosa would have drawn for lago in the moment of detec- 
tion. Villainy, fear and conscience, are mixed in yellow and livid on his 
covmtenance ; his lips are contracted by tremor, his face advances as 
eager to lie, his legs step back as thinking to make his escape ; one hand 
is thrust precipitately into his bosom, the fingers of the other are catch- 
ing uncertainly at his botton-holes. If this was a portrait it is the most 
striking that was ever drawn ; if it was not, it is still finer. ' 

"This committee was first appointed February 25, 1728-9, to examine 
into the state of the Gaols within the Kingdom ; and the persons here 
represented under examination were Thomas Bambridge, then warden 
of the Fleet prison, and John Huggins, his predecessor in that office. 
Both were declared 'notoriously guilty of great breaches of trust, ex- 
tortions, cruelties, and other high crimes and misdemeanors.' It was 
the unanimous resolution of the committee 'that Thomas Bambridge, 
the acting Warden of the Prison of the Fleet, hath wilfully permitted 
several debtors to the Crown in great sums of money as well as debtors to 
divers of His Majesty's subjects to escape; hath been guilty of the most 
notorious breaches of his trust, great extortions, and the highest crimes 
and misdemeanors in the execution of his said office ; and hath arbitrarily 
and unlawfully loaded with irons, put into dungeons, and destroyed 
prisoners for debt under his charge, treating them in the most barbarous 
and cruel manner in high violation and contempt of the Laws of this 
Kingdom. ' 

"Bambridge was in consequence disqualified by Act of Parliament, 
and he cut his throat twenty years after. 

"It was also resolved 'that John Huggins, Esq., late Warden of the 
Prison of the Fleet, did, during the time of his wardenship, wilfully 
permit several considerable debtors in his custody to escape ; and was 
notoriously guilty of great breaches of trust, extortions, cruelties, and 
other high crimes and misdemeanors, in the execution of the said office;' 
and he was for some time committed to Newgate, but afterwards lived 
in credit to the age of ninety." 

Let this fact not slip the attention of the reader: that several of the 
members of this committee were afterwards associated with Oglethox-pe 
as trustees named in the charter of the Colony of Georgia. 

Dr. Thaddeus Mason Harris * asserts that the attention of Oglethorpe 
was first attracted to the prison conditions of England by the case of 
Sir William Rich, Baronet. It is certain that General Oglethorpe num- 
bered among his friends Robert Castell, whose life was in some respects 

*" Biographical Memorials of James Oglethorpe,'' pp. 10 ami 340. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 7 

remarkable, and whose maltreatment at the hands of the same Bam- 
bridge, while a prisoner in the Fleet, is thus told by Robert Wright, in 
his "Life of Oglethorpe:" 

"Though born to a competent estate, he became involved in debt and 
was arrested. Castell was first carried to a sponging-house attached 
to the Fleet prison and kept by one Corbett, an underling of the 
warden. On giving security by virtue of 'presents,' as they w^ere 
called, to the latter whose name was Thomas Bambridge, he ob- 
tained the liberty of the rules, but at length becoming no longer able 
to gratify the warden's appetite for refreshers, that insatiate officer 
ordered him to be recommitted to Corbett 's, where the small-pox then 
raged ! Poor Castell having informed Bambridge that he had never 
had that disease, and was in great dread of it, earnestly implored to be 
sent to some other sponging-house, or even into the jail itself. But 
though the monster's own subordinates were moved to compassion, and 
endeavored to dissuade him from his purpose, he forced his unhappy 
prisoner into the infected house, where he caught the small-pox, of 
which he died after a few days, leaving a large family in the greatest 
distress, and with his last breath charging Bambridge as his murderer." 
It is asserted that Bambridge was twice tried for the murder of Castell, 
but was acquitted. 

Origin op Savannah 

Just here we find the turning point in the life ofi Oglethorpe 
which led him into an investigation of the treatment of prisoners by 
their custodians and culminating in the founding of Georgia, and the 
building of the city which was the landing-place of the first colonists 
under his leadership. It was Castell 's ease that directed his mind to 
introduce his resolution in the House of Commons. In the year 1728, 
Robert Castell, a skilful architect, published a sumptuous work called 
"The Villas of the Ancients," richly illustrated, and containing matter 
certainly of interest, and very probably of utility to one who might 
have in view the founding of a town or planning the laying 
out of pleasure grounds. The author, in his pi-ef ace, says : ' ' The whole 
work consists of three parts. The first contains the description of a 
Villa Urbana, or country house of retirement near the city, that was 
supplied with most of the necessaries of life from a neighboring market 
town. The second sets forth the rules that were necessary to be ob- 
served by an architect who had the liberty to choose a situation and to 
make a proper distribution of all things in and about the villa; but 
particularly with relation to the farm house, which in this sort of build- 
ings, according to the more ancient Roman manner, was always joined 
to the master's house, or but very little removed from it. In the third 
part is shown the description of another Villa Urbana on a situation 
very different from the former, with the farm house and appurtenances 
so far removed as to be no annoyance to it, and at the same time so near 
as to furnish it conveniently with all necessaries." It was usual at that 
time for books of an expensive sort to be sold by subscription, and a list 
of the subscribers was printed as an appendix to the work. The list so 



8 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

added to this publication shows that James Oglethorpe subscribed for 
two copies. His friendship for the author is thus shown, as well as in 
his visits to the author-prisoner in his confinement within the walls of 
the Fleet. Who can say what suggestions presented in that volume were 
adopted by Oglethorpe in his plan of Savannah, or to what extent he 
was indebted to the author, either in conversation or in written com- 
munication, for the same purpose? jMay not the bond of friendship 
which impelled the noble philanthropist to visit in prison the unfortu- 
nate artist, leading the former to plan an asylum of refuge for "many 
of his Majesty's poor subjects who through misfortunes and want of 
employment were reduced to great necessities ' ' * have also led him to 
take advice from one of these "poor subjects," well-equipped for the 
work, in so important a matter? 

Thus far, by way of introduction, an attempt has been made to ac- 
count for the name of the city whose history we are considering, and to 
show, by way of suggestion only, the probable source whence Oglethorpe 
acquired and finally developed the general plan of the first settlement 
of his followers, having, to some extent, at least, an idea of its future 
growth in beauty and importance among the great cities of the world 
both from a commercial standpoint and otherwise. These two points 
have received our special attention here, for the reason that former 
writers have, whether through lack of knowledge or failure to see their 
importance, passed them by in silence. 

* Charter of the Colony. 



CHAPTER II 

COMING OF THE OGLETHORPE COLONY 

Sailing and Landing op the Colony — ^Message and Assistance from 
South Carolina — Oglethorpe's Reasons for Selecting Site — 
Hutchinson's Island. 

Following the thorough investigation of the matter of the inhuman 
treatment of those who, for causes beyond their own control, were lying 
in English prisons without apparent hope of release, Oglethorpe, in con- 
junction with other influential men, among whom was Lord John, 
Viscount Percival, addressed the privy council in a memorial setting 
forth "that the cities of London and Westminster, and parts adjacent, 
do abound with great numbers of indigent persons who are reduced to 
such necessity as to become burdensome to the public, and who would be 
willing to seek a livelihood in any of his Majesty's plantations in Amer- 
ica, if they were provided with a passage and means of settling there," 
etc. These petitioners further declared their willingness to engage in 
the setting up of a colony on receiving from the Crown a grant of lands 
specified by them and afterwards described in the ample .charter as "all 
those lands, coiuitries and territories situate, lying and being in that 
part of South Carolina, in America, which lies from the most northern 
part of a stream or river there, commonly called the Savannah, all along 
the sea coast to the southward, unto the most southern stream of a cer- 
tain other great water or river called the Altamaha, and westerly from 
the heads of said rivers respectively, in direct lines to the South Seas ; and 
all that shore, circuit and precinct of land within the said boundaries, 
with the islands on the sea lying opposite to the eastern coast of the 
said lands ; w'ithin twenty leagues of the same, which are not inhabited 
already, or settled by any authority derived from the crown of Great 
Britain, together with all the soils, grounds, havens, ports, gulfs and 
bays, mines, as well royal mines oi gold and silver as other minerals, 
precious stones, quarries, woods, rivers, waters, fishing, as well royal 
fishings of whale and sturgeon as other fishings, pearls, commodities, 
jurisdictions, royalties, franchises, privileges and pre-eminences within 
the said frontiers and precincts thereof and thereunto in any sort belong- 
ing or appertaining, and which we by our letter patents may or can 
grant. ' ' 

9 



10 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Sailing and Landing of the Colony 

We are not writing a history of Georgia, and therefore it is not neces- 
sary to enter into detail upon the various matters pertaining to the 
preparations for the departure from the mother country of the emigrants. 
The trustees chose as the medium of transportation a galley, called the 
Anne, whose capacity was only two hundred tons burden, and whose 
commander was one John Thomas. Eighteen days before the vessel set 
sail, that is to say, on the 30th of October, 1732, the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine published this statement: "The Ann, Galley, of above two hundred 
tons, is on the point of sailing from Deptford, for the new colony of 
Georgia, with thirty-five families, consisting of carpenters, bricklayers, 
farmers, etc., who take all proper instruments. The men were learning 
military discipline of the guards, as must all that go thither, and to 
carry musquets, bayonets, and swords, to defend the colouj^ in case of 
an attack from the Indians. She has on board ten tons of Alderman 
Parson 's best beer, and will take in at the Madeiras five tons of wine, for 
the service of the colony. James Oglethorpe, Esq., one of the trustees, 
goes with them to see them settled." The Rev. Dr. Henry Hei'bert went 
with them as chaplain, volunteering to act in that capacity, and to per- 
form all the duties of his sacred office without any pecuniary reward what- 
ever. The following account of the progress made from the date of sail- 
ing until they reached the place selected for the first settlement 
is taken from the South Carolina Gazette of the 31st of March, 1732-3, 
and is generally supposed to have been written by Dr. Herbert : 

"We set sail from Gravesend on the 17th of November, 1732, in the 
ship Anne, of two hundred tons, John Thomas, master, and arrived off 
the bar of Charlestown [now Charleston, S. C] on the 13th day of Janu- 
ary following. Mr. Oglethorpe went on shore to wait upon the Governor, 
and was received with great marks of civility and satisfaction; obtained 
an order for ]^r. ]\Iiddleton, the King's Pilot, to carry the ship into Port 
Royal, and for small craft to carry the colony from thence to the River 
Savannah, with the promise of further assistance froul the Province. 
He returned on board on the l-lth day, and came to anchor within the 
bar of Port Royal, at above sixteen miles distance from Beaufort. On 
the 18th he went on shox-e upon Trench's Island, and left a guard of 
eight men upon John's, being a point of that island which comuiauds 
the channel, and is about half way between Beaufort and the Savannah. 
They had orders to prepare huts for the reception of the colony against 
they should lye there in the passage. From thence he went to Beaufort 
Town, where he arrived at one o'clock in the morning, and was saluted 
with a discharge of all the artillery, and had the new Barracks fitted up, 
where the Colony landed on the 20th day, and were in every respect cheer- 
fully assisted by Lieutenant Watts and Ensign Farriugton, and other 
officers of His JMajesty's Independent Company, as also Mr. Delabare. 
and otlier gentlemen of the neighborhood ; while the Colony refreshed 
themselves there, Mr. Oglethorpe went up the river and chose a situation 
for a town, and entered into a treaty with Tomo-chi-chi, the Mieo, or 
Chief of the only nation of Indians living near it. He returned on the 
24th day and they celebrated the Sunday following [January 28] as a 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 11 

day of thanksgiving for their safe arrival, and a sermon vv^as preached 
by the Rev. Mr. Jones (the Rev. Dr. Herbert, vpho came with the colony, 
preached that day at Beaufort Town). There was a great resort of 
the gentlemen of that neighborhood and their families, and a plentiful 
dinner provided for the colony and all that came, by Mr. Oglethorpe ; 
being four fat hogs, eight turkies, besides fowls, English beef and other 
provisions, a hogshead of punch, a hogshead of beer, a large quantity of 
wine, and all was disposed in so regular a manner that no person was 
drunk nor any disorder happened. 

"On the 30th [Tuesday] the colony embarked on board a sloop of 
seventy tons, and five periaugers * and made sail, but were forced by a 
storm to put in at a place called the Look Out, and to lie there all night. 
The next day they arrived at Johns, where they found huts capable to 
contain them all, and a plentiful supper of venison. They re-embarked 
the next day, and in the afternoon arrived at the place intended for the 
town. Being arrived on the 1st of Febriiary, at the intended town, be- 
fore night they erected four large tents, sufficient to hold all the people, 
being one for each tything ; they landed their bedding and other little 
necessaries, and all the people lay on shore. The ground they encamped 
upon is the edge of the river, where the Key is intended to be. 

' ' Until the 7th was spent in making a crane and unloading the goods, 
which done, Mr. Oglethorpe divided the people, employing part in clear- 
ing land for seed, part in beginning the palisade, and the remainder in 
felling trees where the town is to stand. 

Message and Assistance from South Carolina 

' ' Colonel Bull arrived here with a message from the general assembly 
[of South Carolina] to Mr. Oglethorpe, and a letter from his Excellency 
Governor Johnson, and the Council, acquainting him that the two Houses, 
upon a conference, had agreed to give twenty barrels of rice and one 
hundred head of cattle, besides hogs, to the Trustees; and that they had 
commanded a detachment of the Rangers (which are horse kept in the 
pay of the Province for the scouting the frontiers) and the Scout Boat 
(which is an armed bark employed for the same purpose by water) to 
attend him and take his orders. 

"Colonel Bull brought with him four of his negroes, who were saw- 
years, to assist the Colony, and also brought provisions for them, being 
resolved to put the Trustees to no expense, and by this means to bestow 
his benefaction in the most noble and useful manner. 

"On the 9th [February], Mr. Oglethorpe and Colonel Bull marked 
out the sciuare, the streets, and the lots for the houses for the Town ; and 
the first house (which was ordered to be made of clapboard) was begun 
that day. 

' ' The town lies on the south side of the Savannah, upon a flat on the 

* Sometimes spelled yeriaguas. "Long flat-bottomed boats carrying from 20 
to 30 tons. They have a kind of Forecastle and a Cabin; but the rest open, 
and no deck. They have two masts which they can strike, and sails like Schooners. 
They row generally with two oars only. ' ' Description by Francis Moore, in his 
Voyage to Georgia, p. 49. London, 1744. 



12 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

top of a hill, and sixty yards of it is reserved between it and the Key. 
The river washes the foot of the hill, which stretches along the side of it 
a mile, and formed a terrace forty feet perpendicular above high water. 

"Prom the Key, looking eastward, you may discover the river as far 
as the islands in the sea, and westward one may see it wind through the 
woods above six miles. 

' ' The river is one thousand feet wide ; the water fresh, and deep 
enough for sloops of seventy tons to come up close to the side of the Key. ' ' 

Oglethorpe wrote a letter to the trustees, giving an account of his 
arrival at Charleston, and on his arrival at Savannah he oj^ens his ac- 
count of his progress with a reference to that paper which, however, is 
presumably lost, as no copy of it is given by any writer. That letter, 
if in existence, could probably add but little, if any, information to 
what we now possess ; but it seems strange that it has not been pre- 
served. The Minutes of the Trustees, dated February 28, 1732-3, contain 
this reference to it: "Eead a letter from Mr. Oglethoi-pe dated January 
the 13th, 1732-3, on board the ship Ann, giving an account of his safe 
arrival at Charlestown and the health of the Colony, having lost in the 
passage only Richard Cannon's Youngest Son, Aged Eight ^Months, and 
Robert Clarke's Youngest Son, Aged One Year and a Half." 

Oglethorpe's Reasons for Selecting Site 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the reasons for selecting the site 
of the town and the beginning of the building of houses on the same, and 
so, at the risk of being considered too prolix, the following accounts by 
Oglethorpe himself are inserted : Under date of February 10, 1732-3, 
from the camp at Savannah, he wrote this letter to the trustees : 

"Gentlemen: — I gave you an account in my last of my arrival in Charles- 
town. The Governor and Assembly have given us all possible encouragement. 

' ' Our people arrived at Beaufort on the 20th of January, where I lodged them 
in some new Barracks built for the soldiers, while I went myself to view the 
Savannah Eiver. 

' ' I fixed upon a healthy situation about ten miles from the sea. The river 
here forms a half moon, along the South side of which the Banks are about forty 
foot high ; and upon the top a Flat, which they call a Bluff. 

* ' The plain high ground extends into the country five or six miles, and along 
the Eiver Side about a mile. Ships that draw 12 foot water can ride within ten 
yards of the Bank. 

"Upon the River Side, in the centre of this plain, I have laid out the town; 
over against it is an island of very rich Land, fit for pasturage, which I think 
should be kept for the Trustees ' cattle. 

"The Eiver is pretty wide, the water fresh, and from the key of the town you 
see its whole course to the sea, with the Island of Tybee, which forms the mouth 
of the Eiver; and the other way j'ou see the Eiver for about six miles up into the 
country. 

"The Landscape is very agreeable, the stream being wide, and bordered with 
high woods on both sides. 

"The whole of the People arrived here on the 1st of Feb.;* at night their 
tents were got up. Till the 7th we were taken up in unloading and making a 
crane, which I could not then get finished, so took off the hands, and set some to 
the fortification, and began to fell the woods. 

* Let it be borne in mind that this is according to old style. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ]3 

' ' I mark 'd out the Town and Commons ; half of the former is already cleared, 
and the first house was begun yesterday in the afternoon. ******* 
' ' Mr. Whitaker has given one hundred head of cattle. Col. Bull, Mr. Barlow, 
Mr. St. Julian, and Mr. Woodward, are come up to assist us, with some of their 
own servants. I am so taken up in looking after a hundred necessary Things, that I 
write now short, but shall give you a more particular Account hereafter. A 
little Indian Nation, the only one within fifty miles, is not only at Amity, but 
desirous to be Subjects to his Majesty King George, to have lands given them 
among us, and to breed their Children at our Schools. Their Chief and his Beloved 
Man, who is the Second Man in the Nation, desire to be instructed in the 
Christian Eeligion. 

' ' I am, Gentlemen, 

' ' Your Most Obedient Humble Servant, 

James Oglethorpe." 

IIutchinson's Island 

The reader will perceive that in the foregoing letter the name of the 
island lying opposite the town is not mentioned. Indeed, it is very 
probal)Ie that at that date it had no name. Thus far it has not been 
added to the corporate limits of the city of Savannah which has grown 
to such a large extent since the time of Oglethorpe, but its situation and 
its relation in a business way to the city, especially since its vast im- 
provement by the Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, in the build- 
ing of docks, wharfs and wai-ehouses, demand that some record be here 
made of its history and commercial importance. 

The name Hutchinson's Island first occurs in a tract entitled "A 
Voyage to Georgia, begun in the year 1735," by Francis Moore, Keeper 
of the Stores, and at one time Recorder of Frederiea. Under date Febni- 
ary 9, 1736, he says : "I took a view of the town of Savannah. It is about 
a mile and a quarter in circumference ; it stands upon the fiat of a 
hill, the bank of the river (which they in barbarous English call a 
bluff) is steep and about forty-five foot perpendicular, so that all 
heavy goods are brought up by a crane, an inconvenience designed 
to be remedied by a bridged wharf, and an easy ascent, which in laying 
out the town, care was taken to allow room for, there being a wide 
strand between the first row of houses and the river. From this strand 
there is a very pleasant prospect ; you see the river wash the foot of 
the hill, Avliich is a hard, clear, sandy lieach, a mile in length ; the 
water is fresh, and the river one thousand foot wide. Eastward you 
see the river increased by the northern branch,* which runs round 
Hutchinson's island, and the Carolina shore beyond it, and the woody 
islands at the sea, which close the prospect at ten or twelve miles 
distance. Over against it is Hutchinson's island, great part of which 
is open ground, where they sow hay for the Trust's horses and cattle. 
The rest is woods in which there are many bay trees eighty foot high. 
Westward you see the river winding between the woods, with little 
islands in it for many miles, and Toma Chi Chi's Indian town standing 
upon the southern banks, between three and four miles distance." 
This writer then describes the town as it appeared at the time of his 
visit, and at the proper point we will quote more of his words. We 

* Known as Back Eiver. 



14 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

are now concerned with the island whose name appears for the first 
time in his short history. Oglethorpe used it for the first .time in a 
letter to the trustees a little more than three months after the date set 
down in Moore's journal, namely, May 18th, 1736, written at Fred- 
erica, on St. Simon's Island. In this letter he says: ''The magistrates 
of Savannah have seized and staved large quantities of Rum upon the 
River under the Hill at Savannah. This channel being between Hutchin- 
son's Island and Savannah they deem that the water between the Island 
and the Town is Georgia since the Islands are so." From that time 
the name became commonly known, and the island has had no other 
name. 

No one has, apparently, deemed it of sufficient interest to attempt to 
account for the origin of its appellation. Who first called it by the name 
it has borne since the year 1736 ? Was it so called before that time ? 
Apparently not, or Oglethorpe would have said so in his letter of 
February 10th, 1733. It seems to this writer that the time has now 
come when any matter connected with this thriving, important, busy 
and rapidly growing city should be deemed worthy of interest and 
investigation, and it seems especially important that, if possi1)le. the 
name of this now valuable adjunct to Savannah should be accounted 
for. In the progress of his research he has found nothing upon which 
to base a reasonable conclusion of this matter but a single item in 
connection with the founding of the Colony of Georgia, and that, he 
thinks is convincing evidence of the reasonableness of said conclusion. 
The only time the name Hutchinson occurs in the colonial records is in 
a list kept by the trustees of "Monies Received from the Several 
Persons Hereafter Named for the Following Purposes ; that is to 
say, * * * To be applied for Establisliing the Colony, vizt. : from 
1732 27 Oetob. Archibald Hutchinson, Esq., by the hands £ s d 
of Mr. Oglethorpe 30 

That is all; but need we look further for a solution of the question? 
The amount subscribed by Mr. Hutchinson was not large, and. com- 
pared with that given by some others, may be deemed insignificant ; 
but, when we find the record of the donation coupled with the state- 
ment that it was tendered "by the hands of Mr. Oglethorpe," it is 
probable that behind those words there lies hidden a depth of mean- 
ing which, if by any possibility could be imcovered, would develop the 
true reason — possibly a very strong bond of friendship — for the bestowal 
of his name upon this rich spot of earth. 

The development of the island by the Seaboard Air Line Company 
was, at the time, considered a great undertaking; but the possibility 
of making the river front across the river valuable in both a com- 
mercial and industrial way was seriously considered as far liack as 
the year 1818, when, dui-ing the month of November, two of Savannah's 
aldermen (Charlton and Cope) prepared a memorial to the Georgia 
legislature, in which this matter was touched iipon as follows: "On 
the ojiposite side of that branch of the river which separates the city 
from Hulchinson's island, it is proposed to erect an extensive range 
of wiiarves and warehouses which, carrying with tliem a certain class 
of population and other incidents of commerce will temporarily and 
unquestionably retiuire a very active interposition of city regulations." 



CHAPTER III 

FOUNDING IN DETAIL ' 

The Good South Carolina Friends — Staunch Col. William Bull — 
^[core's Description of Savannah — Progress op the Infant Town 
AND Colony — Savannah's Original Site — The <jrantees. 

We have followed the colonists from England to the shores of 
Georgia and to the spot which, in the succeeding pages, shall have our 
entire attention. On the evening of their arrival they set up "on 
the edge of the river" four large tents, one for each tything, where 
they spent the night. Their leader slept in his own tent, pitched 
under four pine trees, on the top of the bluif, and we are told that 
" this canvas was his abiding place for nearly a year. Subseipiently he 
contented himself with hired lodgings in one of the houses of his 
people." * 

The next day Oglethorpe assembled the people and publicly re- 
turned thanks to God for granting them a safe passage and asked His 
blessing upon their proposed work. In addition to what he said in his 
letter to the trustees, January 13, 1733, concerning the selection at 
Yamacraw bluff of the site for the town, in a letter to that body, dated 
February 20th, he further said: " I chose the Situation for the Town 
upon a high Ground forty foot perpendicular above High-water Mark. 
The Soil dry and sandy, the Water of the River fresh, Springs coming 
out fi'om all Sides of the Hills. I pitched on this place not only for 
the pleasantness of its Situation, Init because from the above-mentioned 
and other signs I thought it healthy, for it is sheltered from the 
Western and Southern winds (the worst in this country) by vast Woods 
and Pine-trees, many of which are one hundred, and few under seventy 
foot high. There is no Moss on the Trees, as in most parts of Carolina 
they are covered with it, and it hangs down two or three foot from 
them. The last and fullest consideration of the Healthfulness of the 
place was that an Indian nation, who knew the Nature of this Country, 
chose it for their Habitation. " 

The Good South Carolina Friends 

Before we take up the matter of the actual work of laying out the 
town, let us see just what outside assistance Oglethorpe received before 

* Jones ' History of Georgia, Vol. I, p. 122. 

15 



16 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

he began. That help came entirely from the good people of South 
Carolina. "We have obtained some idea of the magnitude of this gen- 
erous conduct on their part which must have lifted from the shoulders 
of the leader of the colonists no small part of the heavy burden with 
which he set out. Let us pause here, therefore, and go to the official 
records of South Carolina for a proper understanding of the conduct 
of that noble people. The assembly, through a committee, resolved, 
on the 26th of January, 1733, "That * * * we are unanimously 
of the opinion that all due countenance and encouragement ought to 
be given to the settling of the Colony of Georgia. 

"And for that end your committee apprehend it uecessarj' that 
his Excellency [Gov. Robert Johnson] be desired to give orders and 
directions that Captain McPherson, together with fifteen of the 
rangers, do forthwith repair to the new settlement of Georgia, to cover 
and protect Mr. Oglethorpe, and those under his care, from any insult 
that may be offered them by the Indians, and that they continue and 
abide there till the new settlers have enforced themselves, and for such 
further time as his excellency may think necessary. 

"That the Lieutenant and four men of the Apalachicola Garrison be 
ordered to march to the fort on Cambahee, to join those of the rangers 
that remain ; and that the commissary be ordered to find them with pro- 
vision as usual. 

"That his Excellenej'' will please to give directions that the scout- 
boat at Port Royal do attend the new settlers as often as his Excellency 
shall see occasion. 

"That a present be given Mr. Oglethorpe for the new settlers of 
Georgia forthwith, of an hundred head of breeding cattle and five 
bulls, as also twenty breeding cows and four boars, with twenty barrels 
of good and merchantable rice ; the whole to be delivered at the charge 
of the public, at such place in Georgia as Mr. Oglethorpe shall appoint. 

"That periaguas be provided at the charge of the public to attend 
Mr. Oglethorpe at Port Royal, in order to carry the new settlers, 
arrived in the ship Anne, to Georgia, with their effects, and the artil- 
lery and amnaunition now on board. 

"That Colonel Bull be desired to go to Georgia with the Hon. 
James Oglethorpe, Esq., to aid him with his best advices and assistance 
in settling the place." 

Previous to that time, that is to say on the 13th of January, 
Governor Johnson had published an advertisement in the South Caro- 
lina Gazette, calling on the people of his province to assist in the settling 
of the new colony, which advertisement closed in these words: "The 
piety and charity of so good an Undertaking, 1 hope will be a sufficient 
inducement to every person to contribute something to a work so 
acceptalile to God, as well as so advantageous to this [South Carolina] 
province;" and in commi;nicating to Oglethorpe the action taken by 
the Carolina general assembly. Governor Johnson and his council sent 
him this letter : 

"Sir — "We cannot omit the first opportunity of congratulating you on your 
safe arrival in the province, wishing you all imaginable success in your charitable 
and generous undertaking; in which we beg leave to assure you that any assist- 
ance we can give shall not be wanting in the [nomotion of the same. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 17 

"The General Assembly having come to the Resolution inclosed, we hope you 
will accept it as an instance of our sincere intentions to forward so good a work; 
and of our attachment to a person who has at all times so generously used his 
endeavors to relieve the poor, and deliver them out of their distress ; in which you 
have hitherto been so successful, that we are persuaded this undertaking cannot 
fail under your prudent conduct, which we most heartily wish for. 

' ' The rangers and scout-boats are ordered to attend you as soon as possible. 

Colonel Bull, a gentleman of this Board, and who we esteem most capable 
to assist you in the settling of your new colony, is desired to deliver you this, 
and to accompany you, and render you the best services he is capable of; and 
is one whose integrity you may very much depend on. 

"We are, with the greatest respect and esteem, Sir, your most obedient 
humble servants, 

"Robert Johnson, 
Thomas Broughton, 
Al Middleton, 
A. Skeene, 
Fra. Younge, 
James Kinlock, 
John Fenv^mcke, 
Thomas Waring, 
J. Hammerton. ' ' 

Stanch Col. William Bull 

Farther than this. Governor Johnson, in a letter to Benjamin 
Martyn, secretary of the trustees of Georgia, dated February 12, 1733, 
said of Colonel Bull : "I have likewise prevailed on Colonel Bull, a 
member of the Council, and a gentleman of great probity and ex- 
perience^ in the affairs of this Province, the nature of land, and the 
method of settling, and who is well acquainted with the manner of 
the Indians, to attend Mr. Oglethorpe to Georgia with our compli- 
ments, and to offer him advice and assistance ; and, had not our 
assembly been sitting, I would have gone myself. ' ' 

Fortunate, indeed, was General Oglethorpe in having the aid 
and friendship of Col. William Bull in this most important business. 
All that w^as said of him by Governor Johnson, and others, was true. 
He promised his assistance, and that promise was more perfectly 
realized than the fondest hopes of the colonists had expected. Not 
only did he give his best service, but he added to it materially in 
providing the skilled labor of four of his servants of whom it was 
said that they w^ere expert sawyers. Their part of the work was in 
preparing boards for the houses. As highly appreciated, however, as 
were the friendship and support of this man, whose name has been 
most prominently mentioned, there were others from Carolina whose 
services deserved and received the sincere gratitude and thanks of 
those who at this critical period stood in sore need of help. Ogle- 
thorpe wrote to the trustees : ' ' Mr. Whitaker has given us one hundred 
head of cattle. Mr. Bull, Mr. Barlow, Mr. St. Julian, and Mr. Wood- 
ward are to come up to assist us with some of their servants." In 
return for all the kindness received at the hands of these friends 
Oglethorpe named some of the streets of the town for such as gave 
and did the most. In the naming of the wards and tythings he re- 
membered the trustees of the colony who, from the very beginning, 

Vol. 1—2 



18 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

encouraged him in his great undertaking; but of tliis we shall say 
more later on. 

i 

Moore's Description op Savannah 

It seems proper just here to explain the method by which the town 
was divided into lots, and for this purpose we will again take the 
words of Francis Moore whose "Voyage to Georgia" is accurate. 
Continuing where we left off in Chapter II, he says: "The town of 
Savannah is built of Wood ; all the Houses of the first forty Freeholders 
are of the same size with that Mr. Oglethorpe lives in, but there are 
great numbers built since, I believe one hundred or one hundred and 
fifty, many of these are much larger, some of two or three stories high, 
the Boards plained and painted. The Houses stand on large lotts, sixty 
foot in Front, by ninety foot in Depth ; each lot has a fore and back 
street to it, the lotts are fenced in with split Poles ; some few People 
have pallisades of turned wood before their Doors ; but the generality 
have been wise enough not to' throw away their J\Ioney which, in this 
Country, laid out in Husbandry, is capable of great improvements, though 
there are several People of good Substance in the town who came at 
their own Expense, and also several of those who came over on the 
charity, are in a very thriving way ; but this is observed that the most 
substantial people are the most frugal, and make the least show, and 
live at the least Expense. There are some also Avho liave made but 
little or bad use of the Benefit they received, idling away their time, 
whilst they had Provisions from the Publick store, or else wording for 
hire, earning from two shillings, the price of a labourer, to four or 
five shillings, the price of a carpenter, per diem, and spending the 
money in Rum and Good Living, thereby neglecting to improve their 
Lands, so that when their time of Receiving their Provisions from the 
Publick ceased, they were in no Forwardness to maintain themselves 
out of their own Lands. As they chose to be hirelings when they might 
have improved for themselves, the consequence of that folly forces 
them now to work for their Daily Bread. These are generally dis- 
contented with the Country; and if they have riui themselves in 
Debt, their creditors will net let them go away till they have paid. 
Considering the Number of People there are but very few of these. Tlie 
industrious ones have throve beyond expectation ; most of them that 
have been there three Years, and many others, have Houses in the Town 
which those that let have, for the worst £10 per an)ium, and the best 
let for £30. 

"Those who have cleared their five Acre Lotts have made a very 
great Profit out of them by greens, roots and corn. Several have im- 
proved the Cattle they had at first, and have now five or six Tame Cows; 
others, Avho to save the Trouble of Feeding them, let them go into the 
Woods, can rarely find them, and when brought up, one of them will 
not give half the ([uantity of ]\Iilk which another Cow fed near Home 
will give. 

"Their Houses are built at a pretty large Distance from one another 
for fear of fire ; the Streets are very wide, and there are great scpiares 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 19 

left at Proper Distances for Markets and other Conveniences. Near 
the Riverside there is a Guard-house inclosed with Palisades a Foot 
Thick, where there are nineteen or twenty Cannons mounted, and a 
continual Guard kept by the Free-holders. This Town is governed by 
three Bailiffs, and has a Recorder, Register, and a Town Court which 
is holden every six weeks, where all Matters Civil and Criminal are 
decided by grand and petty juries as in England ; but there are no 
Lawyers allowed to plead for hire, nor no Attornies to take money, but 
(as in old times in England) every man pleads his own cause. In 
case it should be an Orphan, or one that cannot speak for themselves, 
there are Persons of the best Substance in the Town appointed by the 
Trustees to take care of the Orphans, and to defend the Helpless, and 
that without Fee or Reward, it being a Service that .such that is capalile 
must perform in his turn. 

"They have some laws and customs peculiar to Georgia; one is 
that all Brandies and Distilled Li(]uors are prohibited under severe 
Penalties; another is that no Slavery is allowed, nor Negi"oes; a third, 
that all Persons who go among the Indians must give Security for their 
Good Behavior; because the Indians, if any Injury is done to them 
and they cannot kill the man who does it, expect satisfaction from 
the Government, which, if not procured, they break out into War by 
killing the first White Man they conveniently can. 

"No Victualler or Ale-house Keeper can give any Credit, so conse- 
quently can not recover any Debt. 

"The Free-holds are all entailed which has been very fortunate for 
the Place. If People could have sold, the greater part, before they knew 
the Value of their Lotts, would have parted with them for a trifling Con- 
dition, and there were not wanting Rich men who employed Agents to 
Monopolize the Whole Town ; and if they had got Numbers of Lotts into 
their own Hands, the other Free-holders would have had no Benefit by 
letting their Houses, and hardly of Trade, since the Rich, by means of a 
large Capital, woixld underlet and undersell, and the Town must have 
been almost without inhabitants as Port Royal in Carolina is, by the 
best Lotts being got into a few Hands. 

"The mentioning the LaM's and Customs leads me to take notice that 
Georgia is founded upon ]\Iaxims different from those on which other 
Colonies have been begun. The Intention of that Colony was an Asylum 
to receive the Distressed. This was the charitable Design, and the govern- 
mental View besides that was with Numbers of Free White People, well 
settled, to strengthen the southern Part of the English Settlements on 
the Continent of America, of which this is the Frontier. It is necessary 
therefore not to permit Slaves in such a Country, for slaves starve the 
poor Labourer, for, if the Gentleman can have his Work done by a Slave 
who is a Carpenter or a Bricklayer, the Carpenters or Bricklayers of 
that Country must starve for want of Employment, and so of other 
trades. 

"In order to maintain many People it wa.s proper that the Land 
should be divided into small Portions, and to prevent the uniting them 
by Marriage or Purchase. For every Time that two Lotts are united, the 
town loses a Family, and the Inconvenience of this shows itself at Savan- 



20 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

nah notwithstanding the Care of the Trustees to prevent it. They suf- 
fered the moiety of the Letts to descend to the Widows during their Lives ; 
those who remarried to Men who had Lotts of their own, by uniting two 
Lotts made one to be neglected ; for the strength of Hands wlio could take 
care of one, was not suftleient to look and improve two. These uncleared 
Lotts are a nuisance to their neighbors. The Trees which grow upon 
them shade the Lotts, the Beasts take shelter in them, and for want of 
clearing the Brooks which pass thro' them, the Lands are often prej- 
udiced by Hoods. To prevent all these inconveniences the first Regula- 
tion of the Trustees was a strict Agrarian Law, by which all the Lands 
near Towns should be divided, fifty Acres to each Free-holder. The 
quantity of Land by experience seems rather too much, since it is im- 
possible that one poor Family can tend so much Land. If this Alottment 
is too much, how much more inconvenient would the uniting of two be '? 
To prevent it, the Trustees grant the Lands in Tail ^lale, that on the 
expiring of a ]Male-line they may re -grant it to such !Man. having ilo other 
Lott, as shall be married to the next Female Heir of the Deceased, as is of 
good Character. This manner of Dividing prevents also the Sale of 
Land, and the Rich thereby monopolizing the Country. 

"Each Free-holder has a Lott in Town Sixty foot by Ninety foot, be- 
sides which he has a Lott, beyond the Common, of Five Acres for a Gar- 
den. Every Ten Houses make a Tything, and to every Tythiug there is a 
mile Square, which is divided into twelve Lotts, besides Roads ; each Free- 
holder of the Tything has a Lott or Farm of fortj'-five Acres there, and 
two Lotts are reserved by the trustees in order to defray the. Charge of 
the Publick. The town is laid out for two hundred and forty Free-holds ; 
the quantity of lands necessary for that number is twenty-four square 
miles ; every forty houses in town make a ward to which lour square miles 
in the country belong, each ward has a constable, and under him four 
tything men. Where the town-lands end, the villages begin ; four villages 
make a ward without, which depends upon one of the wards within the 
town. The use of this is, in case of war should happen that the villages 
without may have places in the town, to bring their cattle and families into 
for refuge, and to that purpose there is a square left in every ward big 
enough for the out-wards to encamp in. There is ground also kept 
round about the town ungranted, in order for the fortifications when- 
ever occasion shall recjuire. Bey(md the villages commence lotts of five 
hundred acres; these are granted iipon terms of keeping ten servants, 
etc. Several gentlemen who have settled on such grants have succeeded 
very well, and have been of great service to the colony. Above the town 
is a parcel of land called Indian lands ; these are those reserved by King 
Toma-chi-ehi for his people. There is near the town to the east, a garden 
belonging to the trustees, consisting of ten acres; the situation is de- 
lightful, one-lialf of it is i;pon the top of a hill, the foot of which the 
river Savannah washes, and from it you see the woody islands in the 
sea. The remainder of the garden is tlie side and some plain low ground 
at the foot of tlie hill where several fine springs l)reak out. In the garden 
is variety of soils; the top is sandy and dry, the sides of the hill are 
clay, and the bottom is a black rich garden mould, well watered. On the 
north part of the garden is left standing a grove of part of the old wood 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 21 

as it was before the arrival of the colony there. The trees in the grove 
are mostly bay, sassafras, evergreen, oak, pellitory, hickory, American 
ash, and the laurel tulip. This last is looked upon as one of the most 
beautiful trees in the world ; it grows straight bodied to forty or fifty 
foot high ; the bark smooth and whiteish, the top spreads regular like 
an orange-tree in English gardens, only larger; the leaf is like that of 
common laurel, but bigger, and the under-side of a greenish brown. 
It blooms about the month of June; the flowers are white, fragrant 
like the orange, and perfume all the air around it; the flower is round, 
eight or ten inches diameter, thick like the orange-flower, and a little 
yellow near the heart ; as the flowers drop, the fruit, which is a cone with 
red berries, succeeds them. There are also some bay-trees that have 
flowers like the laurel, only less. 

"The garden is laid out with cross-walks planted with orange trees, 
but the last winter a good deal of snow having fallen, had killed those 
upon the top of the hill down to their roots, but they being cut down 
sprouted again, as I saw when I returned to Savannah. In the squares 
between the walks were vast quantities of mulberry trees, this being 
a nursery for all the province, and every planter that desired it, has 
young trees given him gratis from this nursery. These white mulberry 
trees were planted in order to raise silk, for which purpose several 
Italians were brought at the trustees' expense from Piedmont by Mr. 
Amatis ; they have fed worms and wound silk to as great perfection 
as any that ever came out of Italy; but the Italians falling out, one of 
them stole away the machines for winding, broke the coppers, and 
spoiled all the eggs which he could not steal and fled to South Caro- 
lina. The others, who continued faithful, had saved but a few eggs, 
when ]\Ir. Oglethorpe arrived ; therefore he forbade any silk should 
be wound, but that all the worms should be suffered to eat through 
their balls in order to have more eggs against next year. The Italian 
women are obliged to take English girls apprentices, whom they teach 
to wind and feed ; and the men have taught our English gardeners to 
tend the mulberry trees, and our joyners have learned how to make 
the machines for winding. As the mulberry trees increase there will 
be a great quantity of silk made here. 

"Beside the mulberry -trees there are in some of the quarters in the 
coldest part of the garden, all kinds of fruit trees usual in England, 
such as apples, pears, etc. In another quarter are olives, figs, vines 
pomegranates and such fruits as are natural to the warmest parts of 
Europe. At the bottom of the hill, well-sheltered from the north wind, 
and in the warmest part of the garden, there was a collection of West- 
India plants and trees, some coffee, some cocoa-nuts, cotton, Palma- 
Christi, and several West India physical plants, some sent up by Mr. 
Eveliegh, a publick-spirited merchant at Charles-town, and some by 
Dr. Houstoun from the Spanish West Indies, where he was sent at the 
expence of a collection raised by that curious physician. Sir Hans 
Sloan, for to collect and send them to Georgia where the climate was 
capable of making a garden which might contain all kinds of plants; 
to which design his grace the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Derby, 
the Lord Peters, and the Apothecary's Company contributed very gen- 



22 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

erously, as did Sir Hans himself. The quarrels among the Italians 
proved fatal to most of these plants, and they were labouring to repair 
that loss when I was there, Mr. Miller being employed in the room of 
Dr. Houstoun who died in Jamacia. We heard he had wrote an 
account of his having obtained the plant from whence the true Balsa- 
mum Gapivi is drawn ; and that he was in hopes of getting that from 
whence the Jesuit's Bark is taken, he designing for that purpose to 
send to the Spanish West Indies. 

"There is a plant of bamboo cane brought from the East Indies, 
and sent over by Mr. Towers, which thrives well. There was also some 
tea seeds which came from the same place ; but the latter, though 
great care was taken, did not grow. 

"There were no publick buildings in the town, besides a store- 
house ; for the courts were held in a hut thirty-six foot long and twelve 
foot wide, made of split boards, and erected on Mr. Oglethorpe's first 
arrival in the colony. In this hut also divine service was performed, 
but upon his arrival this time, Mr. Oglethorpe ordered a house to be 
erected in the upper square, which might serve for a court house and 
for divine service till a church could be built, and a workhouse over 
against it; for as yet there was no prison here." 

Progress op the Infant Town and Colony 

The foregoing, although somewhat out of chronological order, is 
given for the purpose of showing how the colonists began to build 
the town. Progress in that matter will now receive our attention. The 
Carolinians took a very active part in the beginning. Colonel Bull, 
with four of his servants, spent a month on the spot, and had much to 
do in the matter of directing how the houses should be built. iMr. 
Whitaker and others gave one hundred head of cattle. Several weeks 
were spent by Mr. St. Julian in like manner as Colonel Bull. Mr. 
Joseph Bryan gave two months in the same way. Mrs. Ann Drayton 
gave the work of four men in sawing lumber, besides which Colonel 
Bull and Mr. Bryan furnished twenty servants to generally assist in 
any way that might be helpful. These generous friends were well 
remembered in having their names given to the streets running 
through the town— names which these streets still bear. The name 
Johnson was given the first square laid out, in honor of Gov. Robert 
Johnson who, in a special manner, made the task lighter to the com- 
pany of pioneers, much lighter than they had anj^ reason to expect. 
The street farther north was called Bay, next came Bryan, then St. 
Jiilian, all running east and west ; and intersecting them were Bull, in 
the center, Drayton next on the east with Abercorn following in the 
same direction, while AVhitaker was the only one lying west of Bull. 
One of the principal benefactors of the colony was the Right Honorable 
James, Earl of Abercorn, and he was complimented in the naming of one 
of the first streets, marking the then extreme eastern limit of Savannah. 
In the division of the town into wards and tythings Oglethorpe wisely 
determined to use in their designation the names of the trustees who, 
under the charter, nianaged the business affairs of the colony. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 23 

We have already quoted from the charter those portions of that instru- 
ment declaring the boundaries of the colony, etc., and how its affairs 
should be managed. For that purpose a corporation was formed and 
styled "The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in Amer- 
ica," and the names of the persons composing that body, together with 
the places of their residence, are as follows : 

Lord Percival, Pall Mall ; Lord Carpenter, Grosvernor Square, 
Edward Digby. Esq., Clarges street; James Oglethorpe, Esq., Old 
Palace Yard ; George Heathcote, Esq., Soho Square ; Thomas Towers, 
Esq., Middle Temple; Robert Moore, Escj., Duke street, York Buildings; 
Robert Hucks, Esq., Russell street, Bloomsbury ; Rogers Holland, Esq., 
Essex street; William Sloper, Esq., St. James Place; Prances Eyles, Esq., 
Soho Square; John Laroehe, Esq., Pall Mall; James Vernon, Esq., Gros- 
venor street ; William Belitha, Esq., Kingston, Surrey ; Stephen Hales, 
A. M. Teddington, Middlesex; John Burton, B. D., Oxford; Richard 
Bundy, A. M., Dean street, Soho; Arthur Bedford, A. M., Hab. Hosp., 
Noxton ; Samuel Smith, A. M., Aldgate ; Adam Anderson, Gent., Clerks 
enwell Green; Thomas Coram, Gent., Goodman's Fields. 

Bishop William B. Stevens, in his History of Georgia, Vol. I, pp. 99- 
100, states that the division of towns into tithings and the appointment 
of tithing men was an old Saxon custom, and suggests that it was de- 
rived from the action of Moses as counseled by Jethro, his father-in-law, 
as recorded in the latter part of Exodus 18, and adds: "But in no in- 
stance was a town originally lined out as Savannah was into wards and 
tithings, with officers appropriate to their divisions." Let us add also 
that no town except Savannah was ever so laid out as to have at regular 
intervals grassy parks, or squares as they are called, which some one 
has aptly styled "breathing places" of the city. 

When the building of houses had proceeded to a considerable extent, 
and the divisions indicated through the lines on which they were erected, 
that is to say, on the 7th of July following the landing, a solemn cere- 
mony was observed in the streets. At the command of Oglethorpe the 
people assembled early in the morning, and after being led in prayer 
they were, in the language of Col. Chas. C. Jones, Jr.,* "definitely advised 
of the precise plan of the village, taught the names which he proposed to 
bestow upon the square, streets, wards, and tithings, and participated in 
the assignment of town lots, gardens and farms." At that time four 
wards were named, and each ward was subdivided into four tithings. 
The names of the one square and the streets have already been 
mentioned. The wards and tithings were named as follows: "Percival 
Ward, so named in honor of John, Lord Pervieal, the first Earl of Eg- 
mont, and president of the trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia 
in America ; Heathcote Ward, so named in honor of George Heathcote, 
M. P., an alderman of London, and one of the most active and inflv;ential 
members of the board of trustees ; Derby Ward, so-called in compliment 
to the Earl of Derby, who was one of the most generous patrons of the 
colonization ; and Decker Ward, so named in honor of Sir Matthew 
Decker, whose benefactions to the charitable design had been conspicuous. 
The tithings embraced in Percival Ward were called, respectively, Moore, 

* History of Georgia, Vol. I, p. 149. 



24 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Hueks, Holland and Sloper, in honor of Robert Moore, Robert Hueks, 
Roger Holland and William. Sloper, members of parliament all, and 
influential trustees. Heathcote Ward was composed of Eyles, Laroehe, 
Vernon and Belitha tithings, so named to perpetuate the pleasant memo- 
ries of Sir Francis Eyles, Bart., one of the commissioners of the navy 
and a member of parliament, John Laroehe, also a member of parlia- 
ment, James Vernon, Esq., and William Belitha, all members of the 
trust. The four tithings constituting Derby Ward were Wilmington, 
Jekyll, Tyreonnel and Frederick. These were named in compliment 
to the Earl of Wilmington, Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Rolls, who, 
with his lady, had contributed six hundred pounds in furtherance of the 
laudable design of the trustees. Lord John Tyreonnel, and Thomas P'red- 
erek, M. P., both members of the board of trustees. The tithings into 
which Decker Ward was divided were named Digby, CariDCuter, Tower 
and Heathcote, in honor of Edward Digby, George, Lord Carpenter, 
Thomas Tower, M. P., and George Heathcote, M. P., trustees all."* 

Allotments of the portions of land in the town having been made, 
as we have seen, to the citizens on the 7th of July, let us look a little 
further into this business, and see what steps had been previously taken 
which led to this transaction. 

Among the powers granted to the trustees by the charter was that of 
appointing a common council. This council was composed of the Right 
Honorable Anthony, Earl oc Shaftesbury; the Right Honorable John, 
Viscount Percival; the Right Honorable John, Lord Viscount Tyr- 
eonnel ; the Right Honorable James, Lord Viscoiint Limerick ; the 
Right Honorable George, Lord Carpenter ; the Honorable Edward 
Digby, Esq. ; James Oglethorpe, Esq., George Heathcote, Esq., Thomas 
Tower, Esq. ; Robert Moore, Esq., Robert Hueks, Esq., Roger Holland, 
Esq., William Sloper, Esq., Francis Eyler, Esq., John Laroehe, Esq., 
James Vernon, Esq., Stephen Hales, A. j\L, Richard Chandler, Esq., 
Thomas Frederick, Esq., Henry L'Apostre, Esq., William Heathcote, 
Esq., John White, Esq., Robert Kendal, Esq., alderman, with Richard 
Bundy, D. D., with Benjamin JMartyn, as secretary. The minutes of this 
body show that at a meeting held in the Palace Court, on the 26th of 
October, 1732, among other business attended to there was "Read a 
Lease and Release granting five thousand acres of land in Georgia in 
America to Thomas Christie, Joseph Hughes and William Calvert in 
trust," and on the 1st of November following "A Power to James Ogle- 
thori^e, Es(|., to set out, limit and divide five thousand Acres of Land in 
Geoi-gia in America was read, approv'd and order 'd to pass the Seal. 
* * * Appointment to James Oglethorpe, Esq., to give Directions to 
Thomas Christie, Joseph Huglies and William Calvert concerning the 
division of Land in Georgia in America was read, approved and ordered 
to pass the Seals." 

Savannah's Original Site 

This was the tract of land from which Savannah Avas settled, and 
from which the allotment was made July 7th, 1733. Accompanying the 

* History of Georgia, bj' Chas. C. Jones, Jr., Vol. I, pp. 149-150. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 25 

grant to these three persons named was a plan of Savannah which has 
been lost, but the deed is in the office of the secretary of state of Georgia. 
It is of such great importance that it is deemed worthy of a place here, 
and is as follows : 

' ' To all to whom these Presents shall come : We, Thomas Christie and 
William Calvert, send greeting. Whereas by Indentures of Lease and 
Release made between the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Geor- 
gia in America on the one part; and us the said Thomas Christie and 
William Calvert and Joseph Hughes, deceased, on the other part, bear- 
ing date the twenty-fifth day of October, Anno Domini One Thousand 
seven hundred thirty and two, under the common seal of the said 
Trustees, they the said Trustees did for the considerations therein men- 
tioned Grant and convey unto us the said Thomas Christie and William 
Calvert and the said Joseph Hughes, deceased, and to the Survivors of 
us and our Assigns, Five Thousand Acres of Land lying and being in the 
Province of Georgia in America, being part and parcel of the Land 
which his Majesty graciously granted to the said Trustees by his Letters 
Patent bearing date the Ninth day of June Anno Domini One Thousand 
Seven Hundred thirty and two, to be set out in such parts of the said 
Province as should be thought convenient and proper by such Person 
as should be appointed by the Common Council for that purpose, under 
such limitations and in trust for such uses and purposes as are therein 
mentioned, as in and by the said Indentures, relation being to them had, 
may more fully appear ; And Whereas the said Common Coiincil did by 
deed under the Common Seal of the said Trustees, bearing Date the 
Twenty Sixth day of October Anno Domini One Thousand seven hun- 
dred thirty and two authorize and appoint James Oglethorpe Esquire, 
of Westbrook Place in the County of Surry, to set out and limit the said 
Five Thousand Acres in such part of the said Province as he should 
think most convenient; and Whereas the said James Oglethorpe 
hath set out and limited the said Five Thousand Acres in such a regular 
manner as is most convenient for the support of a Town and the Inhabi- 
tants thereof, and hath set out part of the said Five Thousand Acres 
for a Town called Savannah, with Lotts for Houses, and left a Common 
round the Town for convenience of Air ; And, adjoining to the Commons, 
hath set out Garden Lotts of Five Acres each, and beyond such Garden 
Lotts hath set out Farms of Forty Four Acres, and One hundred 
forty and one Pole each, and hath drawn a Plan of the Town and Plot 
of the Garden Lots and Farms respectively, with proper Numbers, 
References, and Explanations for the more easy understanding thereof 
which Plan and Plot are hereunto annexed and set forth in Folio One 
and Folio Nine of this Book : 

"Now Know Ye, that we, the Said Thomas Christie and William Cal- 
vert pursuant to the said Deed, and in performance of the said Trust, 
do Grant and Enfeoff: unto John Goddard one House Lot in Wilmington 
Tything in Derby AVard, expressed in the said Plan by Number One, 
containing Sixty feet in front and Ninety feet in depth, and one Garden 
Lot containing Five Acres, expressed on the said Plot by Number Eleven, 
lying South East from the Center of the said Town, and one Farm ex- 



26 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

pressed in the said Plot by Number Five and Letter A in the said Ward 
and Tything, containing Forty Four Acres and One Hundred Forty 
and One Pole, making together Fifty Acres of Land: To Have and To 
Hold the said Fifty Acres of Land unto him the said John Goddard 
during the term of his natural life, and after his decease to the Heirs 
Male of his Body forever, Upon the Conditions and under the express 
Limitations hereinafter mentioned." 

Garden lots, farms and town lots in which the location b,y wards and 
tithings was indicated were granted in the same instrument, on the same 
conditions to the following: Walter Fox, John Grady, James Carwall, 
Richard Cannon, Francis Cox, relict of William Cox, William Cox, Jr., 
George Sims, Joseph Fitzwalter, Mary Samms, relict of John Sanims, 
Elizabeth Warren, relict of John Warren, William Warren, son of the 
said John Warren, Mary Overend, relict of Joshua Overend, Francis 
Mugridge, Robert Johnson, William Horn, John Penrose, Elizabeth 
Hughes, relict of Joseph Hughes, Mary Hodges, relict of Richard Hodges, 
Mary Hodges, Elizabeth Hodges, and Sarah Hodges — daughters of the 
said Richard Hodges — James Muir, Thomas Christie, Joseph Cooper, 
John West, James Wilson, Thomas Pratt, William Waterland, Eliza- 
beth Bowling, relict of Timothy Bowling, Mary Bowling, daughter of 
the said Timothy Bowling, Elizabeth Millidge, relict of Thomas ^Millidge, 
Heirs Male of the said Thomas Millidge, AVilliam Little, Jane Parker, 
relict of Samuel Parker, Thomas Parker, son of the said Samuel Parker, 
Mary Magdalene Tibbeau, relict of Daniel Tibbeau, Heirs Male of the 
said Daniel Tibbeau, Hannah Close, relict of Henry Close, Ann Close, 
daughter of the said Henry Close, Joseph Stanley, Robert Clark, Peter 
Gordon, Thomas Causton, John Vanderplank, Thomas Young, Joseph 
Coles, Thomas Tebbitt, John Dearn, John Wright, Noble Jones, Ann 
Hows, relict of Robert Hows, John Clark, William Gough, William 
MacKay, Thomas Ellis, Edward Johnson, Isaac Nunez Henriquez, Wil- 
liam JMears, Moses le Desma, Paul Cheeswright, Samuel Nunez Ribiero, 
John Musgrove, Noble Wimberly Jones, Daniel Ribiero. Charles Philip 
Rogers, Moses Nunez Ribiero, Robert Gilbert, Edward Jenkins, Senior, 
Jacob Lopez d'Olivera, William Savory, Edward Jenkins, Junior, Isaac 
de Val, David Cohen del Monte, Benjamin Shaftell, Bearsley Gough, 
Robert Hows, Abraham Nunez, Monte Santo, John Millidge, Jacob Yowel. 
Samuel Parker, Junior, Abraham Minis, Jacob Lopez de Crasto, and 
David de Pas. Specifying the particular portion of land conveyed to 
each of the persons named, the deed continues and ends as follow^s: 
"yielding and paying for such Town Lott, Garden Lott, and Farm, 
containing together Fifty Acres as aforesaid, to the said Trustees for 
establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, and to their Successors, 
yearly and every year, the Rent or Sum of two Shillings of lawful 
Money of Great Britain, the same to be paid to such person or persons 
and at such place in the said Town of Savannah in the said Province of 
Georgia as by the Common Council (for the time being) of the said 
Trustees shall be appointed. The first Payment to be made on the first 
Day of the Eleventli year to be computed from the Day of the date 
of these Presents; provided always, and these Presents are upon these 
conditions that if it shall happen that the said yearly Rent, of Two Shill- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 27 

ings or any part thereof be unpaid by the space of Twelve Kalendar 
Months next after the day of Payment, on which the same ought to be 
paid as aforesaid, And if the said several persons or their respective 
Heirs above mentioned shall not within the space of Eighteen Kalendar 
Months from the date hereof erect one House of Brick or framed, square 
timber work, on their respective Town Lotts, containing at the least 
Twenty four feet in length, upon Sixteen in breadth, and eight feet in 
height, and abide, settle and continue in the said Province for and during 
the full term of three years to be computed from the date hereof, and if 
the said several Persons and each of them respectively shall not, within 
the space of ten years, to be likewise computed from the date hereof, 
clear and cultivate Ten Acres of the said Land hereinbefore to them re- 
spectively granted ; And if the said several persons afoi-esaid shall not 
plant or cause to be planted. One Hundred plants of the White Mul- 
berry Tree which are to be delivered unto them i-espectively by the said 
Trustees, so soon as the same of sufficient part thereof be cleared, and 
sufficiently fence and preserve the same from the bite of Cattle and in- 
stead of such Trees as shall happen to die or be destroyed shall not set 
other Trees of the same sort. And if any or either of the said several 
persons above mentioned who shall by virtue of these Presents, or of the 
Grant and Enfeoffment hereby made or intended to be made, now or 
at any time or times hereafter become possessed of the said Fifty Acres 
of Land, or any part or parcel thereof respectively, at any time or times 
alien, transfer, or convey the same or any part thereof for any term of 
years, or any estate or interest in the same, to any Person or Persons 
whatsoever without special leave and license of the said Common Council 
(for the time being) or of such Officer as the said Common Council shall 
from time to time authorize to Grant such license ; And if the said Per- 
son or Persons or any other Person who shall by virtiae of these Presents 
and the Grant in Tail Male hereby made from time to time become 
possessed of the said Fifty Acres of Land shall do or commit any 
Treason, Misprison of Treason, Insurrection, Rebellion, Counterfeiting 
the IMoney of Great Britain, or shall commit Murder, Felony, Homicide, 
Killing, Burglary, Rape of women, unlawful Conspiracy or Confederacy, 
and shall be thereof lawfully convicted ; and if any of the said Person or 
Persons hereinbefore mentioned or any other Person or Persons who 
shall by virtue of these Presents and of the Grant thereby made, from 
time to time become possessed of any of the said Fijity Acres of Land 
shall at any time hire, keep, lodge, board, or employ within the limits, 
of the said Province of Georgia any person or persons being Black or 
Blacks, Negro or Negroes, or any other Person or Persons being a Slave 
or Slaves, on any account whatsoever without the special leave and license 
of the said Common Council (for the time being) of the said Trustees, 
that then and from thenceforth in any or either of the aforesaid cases 
it shall be lawful to and for the said Trustees for establishing the Colony 
of Georgia in America and their successors into and upon the said 
Fifty Acres of Land hereby granted of such person so offending and 
upon any and every part thereof in the name of the whole to re-enter 
and the same to have again, retain, repossess and enjoy as if this present 
grant had never been made ; And all and every such Person or Persons 



28 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

so neglecting, or misbehaving him or themselves in any or either of the 
cases aforesaid, all other the occupyers and possessors of the said Fifty 
Acres of Land (to such person so misbehaving as aforesaid belonging) 
or any part or parcel thereof, thereout and from thence utterlj^ to expel, 
put out and amove ; And also upon the Entry in any of the cases before 
mentioned of such Officer or Officers who shall by the said Common 
Council (for the time being) be for that purpose authorized and ap- 
pointed, the Grant hereby made of the said Fifty Acres of Land unto 
such Person so misbehaving as aforesaid shall cease, determine, and be- 
come void. 

"In Witness Whereof the said Thomas Christie, and AYilliam Calvert 
have hereunto set their Hands and Seals this twenty-first day of Decem- 
ber in the year of Our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred Thirty and 
Three. 

"Thos. Christie [L. S.] 
"Wm. Calvert [L. S.]" 

The Grantees 

The following list of grantees is a part of the deed, and it is added 
to the same at the end of it. It is a valuable document inasmuch as it not 
only gives the names of all the grantees, but it also shows the location of 
the land granted to each individual. 

Percival Ward 
Gardens Farms Gardens Farms 



Moore Tything 


No 


1 


Abraham ]\Iinis, 51W 


6 


James Willoughby, 
Robert More, 
Robert Potter, 
Robert Hanks, 
Thomas Egerton, 
John Desborough, 






James Turner, 
Thomas Atwell, 
Hugh Frazier, 
John Graham, 
Samuel Marcer, 
AVilliam Brownjohn, 


9 
2 
5 
3 
4 
8 


Lewis Bowen, 
John Kelly, 
John Lawrence, 






Holland Tything, 
Slopcr Tything, 


L 

M 


Thomas Cheuter, 






Henry Parker, 


7 


Hicks Tything, 




K 


Thomas Gapen, 
Francis Delgrass, 




John Millidge, 


45E 


10 


Jeremiah Papot, 




Jacob Yowell, 


65W 


1 


Peter Baillou, 




Samuel Parker, Jr., 


32W 


7 


James Papot, 






He.' 


lthcote Ward 




Eyles Tything, 


No. 


N 


David de Pas, 27W 




LaRoche Tything, 







Vernon Tything, 


P 


Jacob Lopez de Crasto, 42W 




Bclitha Tything, 


Q 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



29 



Derby Ward 

Gardens Farms 
Wilmington Tytliing, No. A Joseph Cooper, 



Gardens Farms 
27E 3 



John Goddard, 
Walter Fox, 
John Grady, 
James Carivall, 
Richard Cannon, 
-Francis, relict of 

Dr. William Cox, 
George Sims, 
Joseph Fitzwalter, 
Relict of John Samms 
Elizabeth, relict of 

John Warren, 64E 

JcJiijll Tytliing, 

Mary, relict of Joshua 

Overland, 51E 

Francis Mugridge, 37E 

Robert Johnson, 42E 

William Horn, 59E 

John Penrose, 30E 

Joseph Hughes, 26E 

]\Iary, relict of Richard 

Hodges, 36E 

James Muir, 48E 

Thomas Christie, 3E 



33E 


5 


12E 


4 


53E 


8 


61E 


6 


62E 


5 


52E 


7 


41E 


10 


37E 


9 


7E 


3 



B 



9 
2 
6 
5 
1 
4 

10 

7 



Tyrconnel Tything, 

John West, 
James Wilson, 
Thomas Pratt, 
William Waterland, 
Timothy Bowling, 
Elizabeth, relict of 

Tliomas Millidge, 
Elizabeth, relict of 

William Little, 
Samuel Parker, Sr., 
Daniel Tibbeau, 
Henry Close, 

Frederick Tything, 

Joseph Stanley, 
Rol)ert Clark, 
Peter Gordon, 
Thomas Causton, 
John Vanderplank, 
Thomas Young, 
Joseph Coles, 
Thomas Tibbit, 
John Dearn, 
John Wright, 



13E 
63E 
57E 
22E 
4E 

66E 

60E 

49E 

39E 

6E 



34E 

9E 

lOE 

8E 

5E 

38E 

65E 

51E 

24E 

IE 



Decker's Ward 



Dighy Tything, No. E 

John Clark, 34E 5 

William Gough, 36W 2 

William :\Iaekay, 97W 

Thomas Ellis, 35E 9 

Edward Johnson, 36E 1 
Isaac Nunez Henri- 

quez, 33W 7 

William I\Iears, 23E 6 

Moses le Desma, 41W 10 

Carpenter Tything, F 

Noble Jones, 29E 6 

Paul Cheeswright, 40E 5 

Samuel Nunez Ribiero, 63W 3 

John Musgrove, 45E 9 



Noble Wimberly Jones, 25E 
Daniel Ribiero, 43W 

Charles Philip Rogers, 47E 
Moses Nunez Ribiero, 64W 
Robert Gilbert, 2E 

Tower Tything, 

Edward Jenkins, Sr., 40 W 
Jacob Lopez d'Olivero, 30W 
William Savory, 33W 

Edward Jenkins, Jr., 68W 
Isaac de Val, 70W 

Heatheote Tything, 

David Cohen del 

Monte 61W 

Benjamin Shaftell, 72W 



C 

3 
8 
5 
4 
2 



7 

9 

1 

10 

D 

6 
3 
7 
10 
9 
4 
3 
8 
2 
5 



2 

10 
4 
1 

G 

2 

7 
3 
9 



H 

30 
6 



30 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Gardens Farms Gardens 

Bearsley Gough, Abraham Nune^ Monte 
Robert Hows, 23E 5 Santo 34W 
Hows, 44E Peter Tondee 

After assigning the lots, and attending to the matters connected 
with that business, which occupied his attention until the time of the 
mid-day meal, Oglethorpe then entertained his people with a dinner sup- 
plied by himself which, from the accounts coming down to us, must 
have been all that a set of hungry people could wish for. The bill of 
fare included fresh beef, turkeys, venison, and seasonable vegetables, to 
which was added a ({uantity of English beer. The feast was followed 
by the formal establishment of a town court, or court of record, the grant 
for which was read and the officers appointed. The magistrates were 
Peter Gordon, 1st bailiff; Wm. Waterland, 2d bailiff; Thomas Causton, 
3d bailiff; Thomas Christie, recorder; Joseph Fitzwalter, constable for 
Derby ward. The jury, which was the first empanelled in Georgia, 
consisted of Samuel Parker, foreman; Thomas Young, Joseph Cole, 
John "Wright, John West, Timothy Bowling, John IMilledge. Henry 
Close, Walter Fox, John Grady, James Carwell, and Richard Cannon. 

Before closing this chapter, it is proper to state that the deed of July 
•7, 1733, contains allotments to many persons who were not in Georgia 
at that date, including the one hundred and thirty-two persons who left 
England on the 12th of September, in the Savannah. As fhey had been 
previously accepted by the trustees for the Georgia Colony, lots were 
granted to them in anticipation of their joining Oglethorpe in Savannah. 



CHAPTER IV 

OGLETHORPE AND THE INDIANS 

Indian Status When the Colony Came — First Conference with 
Natives — Trustees' Greetings to the Lower Creeks — Declara- 
tion OP Lower Creek Nation — Evidences of ^Mutual Regard — The 
Good Chief Tomo-Chi-Chi. 

It is hardly necessary to remark that Oglethorpe did not immediately 
take possession of the land without coming to some understanding in 
that matter with the Indians, and without considering their claims and 
having a proper respect for their rights. Accordingly we find him say- 
ing, in his second letter to the trustees, dated February 10, 1733, on the 
first report of his arrival at Savannah: "A little Indian nation, the only 
one within tifty miles, is not only in amity, but desirous to be subjects to 
his Majesty, King George, to have lands given them among us. Their 
chief,* ancl his beloved man, who is the second in the nation, desire to be 
instructed in the Christian religion." Indeed, his just treatment of 
that race and his fair dealing with them so impressed them that there 
was never any friction except in the Mary Musgrove affair, which 
will in its place be fully explained. On this point. Dr. T. M. Harris, 
Oglethorpe 's biographer, says : ' ' Realizing how important it was to ob- 
tain the consent of the natural proprietors of the region to the settlement 
of his colony here, and how desirable to be on good terms with those in 
the vicinity, he sought for an interview with Tomo-chi-chi, the ^lico, or 
chief of a small tribe who resided at a place called Yamacraw, three miles 
up the river. ' ' 

Indian Status When the Colony Came 

The status of the Indian tribes in this part of the country at the ad- 
vent of the Georgia Colony is described understandingly by Francis 
Moore in his "Voyage to Georgia." After mentioning the four eastern 
nations, the Choctaws, the Cherokees, the Chickasaws, and the Creeks, 
he says of the last named : ' ' These are divided into several small towns 
and nations, one of which is commanded by Tomo-chi-chi. * * * To 
these belonged all the islands upon the sea, and the mainland, from the 
mouth of the Savannah to the Choctaw and the Florida Indians. The 

* Tomo-chi-chi. 

31 



32 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Creeks did by treaty grant the lands which the English now possess in 
Georgia near Savannah, and for it received presents. 

"The sovereignty was in the crown of Great Britain, ever since the 
discovery of them by Sir Walter Raleigh. All Carolina bounded by the 
river St. John was the Carolina granted to the proprietors in the English 
possession at the Treaty of 1670. They also conceded several islands, 
reserving to themselves several portions of land on the main, as also the 
islands of St. Catherine, Sapola, and Assaba. They granted those of 
Tybee, Warsaw, Skidoway, Wilmington, St. Simons, and all those to the 
southward of it as far as St. John's river to the Colony. The Creek In- 
dians were allies or rather subjects to the Crown of Great Britain, and 
did, Avith the assistance of the English in 1703, beat the Spaniards as 
far as St. Augustine, and besieged that place. But though the siege was 
raised, the Creek Indians still kept possession of all the lands on the 
north of St. John's river, but had made a treaty with General Nicholson 
(who commanded by commission for King George the First in those 
countries) that no private Englishman should possess the property of 
any land to the south or west of the river Savannah, without leave first 
had from the Indians. 

"The first thing Mr. Oglethorpe did in his first voyage was to obtain 
the grant from the Indians ; and upon a meeting of all the upper and 
lower Creeks, upon Tomo-chi-ehi's retu.rn from England, they confirmed 
the grant of all the islands (those reserved as above excepted) also of all 
the lands upon the continent as far as the tide flowed, and two hours' 
walk above it. " 

First Conference with Natives 

The following account of the first conference between Oglethorpe and 
the Indians is taken from "A Brief Account of the Establishment of the 
Colony of Georgia under Gen. James Oglethorpe, February 1, 1733," 
(Tract No. 2, in Vol. 1, of American Tracts, edited by Peter Force) and 
is probably the most accurate on record : ' ' Mr. Oglethorpe set out from 
Charlestown, S. C, on the 14th of May, 1732. and lay at Col. Bull's 
house, on Ashley river, where he dined the next day : — and landed at 
Savannah, on the 18th, at ten in the morning; where he found that J\Ir. 
Whiggan (the interpreter), with the chief men of all the Lower Creek 
nation, were come down to treat of an alliance with the new Colony. — 
The Lower Creeks are a nation of Indians, who formerly consisted of 10, 
but are now reduced to 8 tribes or towns ; who have each their different 
government, but are allied together, and speak the same language. They 
claim from the Savannah river, as far as St. Augustine, and up to the 
Flint river, which falls into the Bay of I\Iexico : — all the Indians inhabit- 
ing this tract speak their language ; Tomo-chi-chi. ]Mico. and the Indians 
of Yamacraw, are of their nation and language. 

"Mr. Oglethorpe received the Indians, in one of the new houses, 
that afternoon: — they were as follows: 

"F'rom the tribe of Coweeta : — Yaliou-Lakee, their king or mico; 
Essoboa, their warrior, the son of old Breen (lately dead), whom the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 33 

Spaniards called the Emperor of the Creeks ; with 8 men, and 2 women, 
attendants. 

"From the tribe of Cussetas: — Cusseta, the mico : Tatchiquatehi, 
the head-warrior, with 4 attendants. 

"From the tribe of Owseecheys : — Ogeese, the mico, or war-king, 
Neathlouthko, and Ougachi, 2 chief-men, with 3 attendants. 

"From the tribe of the Cheehaws. — Outhleteboa, the mico, Thlau- 
thothlukee, Figeer, Sootamilla, war-captains, and 3 attendants. 

"From the tribe of Echetas:— Chutabeeehe, and Robin, 2 war-cap- 
tains (the latter was bred amongst the English), with 4 attendants. 

"From the tribe of Pallachucolas: — Gillatee, the head-warrior and 
5 attendants. 

"From the tribe of Oconas : — Oueekachumpa, called by the English, 
'Long King', Coowoo, a warrior. 

"From the tribe of Eufuale;^ — Tomaumi, the head- warrior and 3 
attendants. 

"The Indians being all seated, Oueekachumpa, a very tall old man, 
stood out, and with a graceful action, and a good voice, made a long 
speech ; which was interpreted by Mr. Wiggan and Mr. John Musgrove, 
and was to the following purpose. — He first claimed all the laud to the 
westward of the Savannah, as belonging to the Creek Indians. Next, 
(he said) that though they Avere poor and ignorant. He who had given 
the English breath, had given them breath also. That He who had 
made both, had given more wisdom to the white men. That they were 
firmly persuaded, that the Great Power which dwelt in heaven, and all 
aroiind (and then he spread out his hands, and lengthened the sound 
of his words), and which hath given breath to all men, had sent the 
English thither for the instruction of them, their wives, and children. 
That therefore they gave them up freely, their right to all the land 
which they did not use themselves. That this was not only his opinion, 
but the opinion of the 8 towns of the Creeks ; each of whom having con- 
sulted together, had sent some of their Chief-men with skins, which is 
their wealth. He then stopped ; and the chief-men of each town, brought 
up a bundle of buckskins ; and laid 8 bundles, from the 8 towns, at Mr. 
Oglethorpe 's feet. He then said, those were the best thing they had ; 
and therefore, they gave them with a good heart. He then thanked him 
for his kindness to Tomo-chi-chi, Mico, and his Indians, to whom he 
said he was related ; and said, that though Tomo chi-chi was banished 
from his nation, that he was a good man, and had been a great warrior; 
and, it w^as for his wisdom and courage, that the banished men chose him 
king. Lastly, he said, that they had heard in the nation, that the 
Cherokees had killed some Englishmen ; and that if he would command 
them, they would enter with their whole force into the Cherokee country, 
destroy their harvest, kill their people, and revenge the English. He 
then sat down. Mr. Oglethorpe promised to acquaint the Trustees with 
their desire of being instructed ; and informed them that there had been 
a report of the Cherokees having killed some Englishmen, l)ut that it 
was groundless : — he thanked them, in the most cordial manner, for 
their affection ; and told them, that he would acquaint the Trustees with 
it. 

Vol. 1—3 



34 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



" Tomo-chi-chi, Mieo, then came in with the Indians of Yamaeraw, 
to Mr. Oglethorpe ; and bowing very low, he said, — I was a banished man. 
— I came here poor and helpless, to look for good land near the tombs of 
my Ancestors ; and the Trustees sent people here. I feared you would 
drive us away, for we were weak and wanted corn ; but you confirmed 
our land to us, gave us food, and instructed our children : — we have al- 
ready thanked you, in the strongest words we could find; but words are 
no return for such favors ; for good words may be spoke by the deceit- 




Tomo-Chaciii. ]\Iico 



fill, as well as by the upright heart. The Chief men of our nation are 
here to thank you for us, and before them I declare .your goodness, and 
that here I design to die ; for we all love your people so well, that with 
them we will live and die. We don't know good from evil, but desire 
to be instructed and guided by you; that we may do well with, and be 
numbered amongst the children of the Trustees. 

"He sat down: — and Yahou-Lakee. ]\lico of Coweeta, stood up and 
said, — We ai-e come 25 days' journey, to see you. I have often desired 
to go to Charlestown ; bxit would not go down, because I thought I might 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 35 

die in the way : but, when I heard you were come, and that you were good 
men, I knew you were sent by Him who lives in heaven, to teach us In- 
dians wisdom. 1 therefore came down, that I might hear good things : — 
for I knew, that if I died in the way, I shouki die in doing good ; and what 
was said, woukl be carried back to the nation, and our Chiklren would 
reap the benefit of it. I rejoice that I have lived to see this day ; and to 
see our friends, that have been long gone from amongst us. Our nation 
was once strong, and had 10 towns; but, we are now weak, and have but 
8 towns. You have but comforted the banished ; and have gathered 
them that were scattered, like little birds before the Eagle. We desire 
therefore to be reconciled to our brethren, who are here amongst you ; 
and we give leave to Tomo-chi-clii, Stimoiche, and Illispelle, to call the 
kindred that love them, out of each of the Creek towns, that they may 
come together and make one town. We must pray you to recall the 
Yamasees ; that they may be buried in peace amongst their ancestors, 
and that they may see their graves before they die; and then our nation 
shall be restored again to its 10 towns. After which he spoke concerning 
the abatement of the prices of goods ; and agreed upon articles of a 
Treaty, which were ordered to be engrossed. 

"Tomo-chi-chi invited them to his town, where they passed the night 
in feasting and dancing. 

' ' On the 21st their Treaty was signed : a laced coat, a laced hat, 
and a ^hirt, was given to each of the Indian Chiefs ; and to each of the 
Warriors, a gun, a mantle of Duffils; and, to all their attendants, coarse 
cloth for clothing. There was also given, a barrel of Gunpowder, 4 
kegs of Bullets, a piece of broad-cloth, a piece of Irish linen, a cask of 
Tobacco-pipes, 8 belts and Ciitlasses with gilt handles. Tape and inkle 
of all colors, and 8 kegs of Rum, for to be carried home to their Towns, 
1 lb. of powder, 1 lb. of bullets, and as much provisions for each man, 
as they pleased to take for their journey home. 

"The peace concluded, — the care of the People, and of carrying 
on the Avorks, being recommended to Mr. James St. Julian, and Mr. 
Scott, Mr. Oglethorpe left the Savannah on Monday, the 21st, dined at 
Mr. Bulloch's at Willtown, on the 22nd, and ai'rived here, early in the 
morning on Wednesday the 23rd." 

Trustees' Greetings to the Lower Creeks 

Desiring that his action in making the treaty with the Indians be rati- 
fied by the trustees of the colony, Oglethorpe forwarded the document 
to that body which confirmed the same at a meeting of the common 
council October 18, 1733, that action being formally recorded in these 
words : 

"The Trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia in America to 
the chief men of the nation of the Lower Creeks, send greetings. 

"Whereas, The great king, Geoi'ge the Second, king of Great Britain, 
did by his letters patent under the great seal of Great Britain, bearing 
date the 9th day of June, in the 5th year of his reign, constitute and 



36 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

appoint a body politic and corporate by the name of the Trustees for 
establishing the colony of Georgia in America : 

"And Whereas, The said Trustees have received from their beloved 
Mr. James Oglethorpe, of West Brook Place, in the county of Surry, Es- 
quire, one of the comon council of the said Trustees, a copy of certain 
articles of friendship and commerce between the said Trustees and the 
said chief men, which is in the words following (that is to say), Articles 
of friendship and commerce between the Trustees for establishing the 
colony of Georgia in America, and the chief men of the nation of the 
Lower Creeks. 

' ' First. The Trustees bearing in their hearts great love and friend- 
ship to you the said head-men of the Lower Creek nation, do engage to 
let their people carry up into your toAvns all kinds of goods fitting to 
trade in the said towns, at the rates and prices settled and agreed upon 
before you the said head-men, and annexed to this treaty of trade and 
friendship. 

"Secondly. The Trustees do by these articles promise to see restitu- 
tion done to any of the people of your towns by the people they shall 
send among you ; proof being made to the beloved man they shall at any 
time send among you, that they who have either committed murder, 
robbery, or have beat or wounded any of your people, or any wise 
injured them in their crops, by their horses, or in any other ways what- 
ever; and upon such proof the said people shall be tried and punished 
according to the English law. 

"Thirdly. The Trustees when they find the hearts of you the said 
head-men and your people are not good to the people they shall send 
among you, or that you or your people do not mind this paper, they will 
withdraw the English trade from the town so offending. And that you 
and your people may have this chain of friendship in your minds and 
fixed to your hearts, they have made fast their seal to this treaty. 

Declaration by Lower Creek Nation 

"Fourthly. We, the head-men of the Coweta and Cuseta towns, 
in behalf of all the Lower Creek nation, being firmly persuaded that He 
who lives in Heaven and is the occasion of all good things, has moved the 
hearts of the Trustees to send their beloved men among us, for the good 
of our wives and children, and to instruct us and them in what is straight, 
do therefore declare that we are glad that their people are come here ; 
and though this land belongs to us (the Lower Creeks), yet we, that we 
may be instructed by them, do consent and agree that they shall make 
use of and possess all those lands which our nation hath not occasion to 
use ; and we make over unto them, their successors and assigns, all such 
lands and territories as we shall have no occasion to use ; provided always, 
that they, upon settling every new town, shall set out for the use of our- 
selves and the people of our nation such lauds as shall be agreed upon 
between their beloved men and the head-men of our nation, and that 
those lands shall remain to us forever. 

"Fifthly. We, the head-men, do promise for ourselves and the 
people of our towns that the traders for the English which shall settle 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 37 

among us, shall not be robbed or molested in their trade in our nation ; 
and that if it shall so happen any of our people should be mad, and 
either kill, wound, beat or rob any of the English traders or their people, 
then we the said head-men of the towns aforesaid do engage to have jus- 
tice done to the English, and for that purpose to deliver up any of our 
people who shall be guilty of the crimes aforesaid to be tried by the 
English laws, or by the laws of our nation, as the beloved man of the 
Trustees shall think fit. And we further promise not to suffer any of the 
people of our said towns to come within the limits of the English settle- 
ments without leave from the English beloved man, and that we will not 
molest any of the English traders passing to or from any nation in friend- 
ship with the English. 

' ' Sixthly. We, the head-men, for ourselves and people do promise to 
apprehend and secure any negro or other slave which shall run away 
from any of the English settlements to our nation, and to carry them 
either to this town, or Savannah, or Palachuckola garrison, and there 
to deliver him up to the commander of such garrison, and to be paid by 
him four blankets or two guns, or the value thereof in other goods ; pro- 
vided such runaway negro, or other slave, shall be taken by us or any of 
our people on the farther side of Oconee river ; and in case such negro or 
runaway slave shall be taken on the hither side of the said river, and 
delivered to the commanders aforesaid, then we understand the pay to be 
one gun, or the value thereof ; and in case we or our people should kill 
any such slave for resistance or running away from us in apprehending 
him, then we are to be paid one blanket for his head, by any trader, 
for carrying such slave's head unto him. 

"Lastly. We promise with stout hearts, and love to our brothers 
the English, to give no encouragement to any other white people, but 
themselves, to settle amongst us, and that we will not have any corre- 
spondence with the Spaniards or French ; and to show that we both for 
the good of ourselves, our wives and children do firmly promise to keep 
the talk in our hearts as long as the sun shall shine or the waters run in 
the rivers, we have each of us set the marks of our families." 

Schedule of the prices of goods agreed on, annexed: — 

Two yards of stroud Five buck-skins. 

One yard of plains One ditto. 

White blanket One ditto. 

Blue ditto Five ditto. 

A gun Ten ditto. 

A pistol Five ditto. 

A gun-lock Four ditto. 

Two measures of powder .... One ditto. 

Sixty bullets Ditto ditto. 

One white shirt Two ditto. 

One knife One doe-skin. 

Eighteen flints One buck-skin. 

Three yards of cadiz One doe-skin. 

Ditto ditto of gartering Ditto ditto. 



38 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

One hoe Two buck-skins. 

One ax Ditto ditto. 

One large hatchet Three doe-skins. 

One small ditto One buck-skin. 

Brass kettles per lb Ditto ditto. 

Doe-skins were estimated at half the value of the bucks. 

"And, Whereas, The said Trustees are greatly desirous to maintain 
and preserve an inviolable peace, friendship and commerce between the 
said head-men of the Lower nations of Creeks, and the people the said 
Trustees have sent and shall send to inhabit and settle in the province 
of Georgia aforesaid, to endure to the world 's end : 

"Now know ye that we the said Trustees for establishing the colony 
of Georgia in America do by these presents ratify and confirm the 
said articles of friendship and commerce between the Trustees for estab- 
lishing the colony of Georgia in America, and the chief men of the Lower 
Creeks, and all and every of the articles and agreements therein con- 
tained, and also the rates and prices of goods above mentioned, settled 
and agreed upon before the said head-men, and annexed to the said 
treaty of trade and friendship. 

"In witness whereof the Common Council of the said Trustees for es- 
tablishing the Colony of Georgia in America have to these presents 
made fast the common seal of the corporation of the said Trustees, the 
eighteenth day of October, in the seventh year of the reign of our sov- 
ereign lord George the Second, by the Grace of God of Great Britain. 
France and Ireland king, defender of the faith, etc., and in the year of 
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and thirty-three. 

"By order of the said Common Council, 

"Benjamin Martyn, Secretary." 

Evidences op Mutual Record 

Oglethorpe held in high esteem the tribe of Indians inhabiting the 
territory in which his new settlement was situated, and his good opinion 
of them, formed from his very first interview with Tonio-chi-ehi, was sus- 
tained by the continued good feeling and fellowship of tliose people who 
were whollj^ influenced by that good chief who was no ordinary man. An- 
nexed to an interesting pamphlet by an unknown author entitled "A 
New Voyage to Georgia," is printed "A Curious Account of the Indians, 
by an Honorable Person," published in 1735. It is now generally under- 
stood that this curious account was written by Oglethorpe, and it is here 
reproduced as further evidence of his proper regard for that race and his 
Christian spirit in dealing with them: "There seems to be a door opened 
to our colony, towards the conversion of the Indians. I have had many 
conversations with their chief men. the whole tenor of which shows that 
there is nothing wanting to their conversion, but one, who understands 
their language well, to explain to them the mysteries of religion ; for as 
to the moral part of Christianity they understand it and assent to it. 
They abhor adultery, and do not approve of a plurality of wives. Theft 
is a thing not known among the Creek nations, though frequent, and 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 39 

even honorable, amongst the Uehees. IMurder they look at as a most 
abominable crime, bnt do not esteem the killing of an enemy, or one 
that has injvired them, murder. The passion of revenge, which they call 
honor, and drunkenness, which they learn from our traders, seem to be 
the two greatest obstacles to their l)eing truly Christians. But upon 
both these points they hear reason, and with respect to drinking rum, i 
have weaned those near me a good deal from it. As for revenge, they 
say, as they have no executive power of justice amongst them, they are 
forced to kill the man who has injured them, in order to prevent others 
from doing the like ; but they do not think that any injury, except adul- 
tery or murder, deserves revenge. They hold that if a man commits 
adultery, the injured husband is obliged to have revenge, by cutting off 
the ears of the adulterer, which if he is too sturdy and strong to submit 
to, then the injured husband kills him the first opportianity he has to do 
it with safety. In cases of murder, the next in blood is obliged to kill 
the murderer, or else he is looked on as infamous in the nation where he 
lives; and the weakness of the executive power is such, that there is no 
other way of punishment but by the revenge of blood, as the Scripture 
calls it. For there is no coercive power in any of their nations. Their 
kings can do no more than to persuade. All the power they have is 
no more than to call their old men and captains together, and to pro- 
pound to them the measures they think proper. After they have done 
speaking, all the others have liberty to give their opinions also ; and they 
reason together with great temper and modesty, till they have brought 
each other into some unanimous resolution ; then they call in the young 
men, and recommend to them the putting in execution the resolution, with 
their strongest and most lively eloquence. And, indeed, they seem to me, 
both, in action and expression, to be thorough masters of true eloquence. 
In speaking to the young men, they generally address to the passions : 
in speaking to their old men they apply to reason only. Tomo-chi-chi, 
in his first set speech to me, among other things, said, here is a little 
present; and then gave me a buffalo's skin, painted on the inside with 
the head and feathers of an eagle. He desired me to accept it, because 
the eagle signified speed and the buffalo strength. That the English 
were as swift as the bird, and as strong as the beast ; since, like the first, 
they fiew from the utmost parts of the earth over the vast seas, and, like 
the second, nothing could withstand them. That the feathers of the 
eagle were soft, and signified love; the buffalo's skin warm, and signified 
protection ; therefore he hoped that we would love and protect their little 
families. One of the Indians of the Cherokee nation being come down 
to the governor, told him that he need fear nothing, but might speak 
freely. He answered smartly, I always speak freely ; what should I 
fear? I am now among my friends, and I never feared even among my 
enemies. Another instance of their short manner of speaking was. 
when I ordered one of the Carolina boat-men, who was drunk, and beaten 
an Indian, to be tied to a gun, till he was sober, in order to be whipped ; 
Tomo Chichi came to me. to beg me to pardon him, which I refused to 
do, unless the Indian, who had been beaten should also desire the pardon 
for him. Tomo Chichi desired him to do so. but he insisted upon satis- 
faction; i;pon which Tomo Chichi said, Fonseka (for that was his 



40 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

name), this Englishman being drunk has lieat you; if he is whipped for 
so doing, the Englishman will exjDect, that if an Indian should insult 
them when drunk, the Indian shou,ld be whipped for it. When you are 
drunk you are quarrelsome, and you know you love to be drunk, but you 
do not love to be whipped. Fonseka was convinced, and begged me to 
pardon the man ; which, as soon as I granted, Tomo Chichi and Fonseka 
ran and untied him, which I perceived was done to show that he owed his 
safety to their intercession." 

The Good Chief — Tomo-Chi-Chi 

The novelist, James Fennimore Cooper, in his introduction to "The 
Last of the Mohicans, ' ' says of the Indian : ' ' Few men exhibit greater 
diversity, or, if we may so express it, greater antithesis of character, 
than the native warrior of North America. In war, he is daring, boast- 
ful, cunning, ruthless, self-denying, and self-devoted ; in peace, just, 
generous, hospitable, revengeful, superstitious, modest, and commonly 
chaste. These are qualities, it is true, which do not distinguish all alike ; 
but they are so far the predominating traits of these remarkable people 
as to be characteristic." "What he says appears to be the opinion of all 
who have studied the character of the Indian, and his opinion is true in 
respect to the usual experience of the early colonists of this country with 
that race, except as regards Georgia. In Tomo-chi-chi Oglethorpe found 
a friend from first to last in all his intercourse with him and those whom 
he governed, and the former was in peace, which was the only condition 
prevailing during the stay of the latter on American soil, nothing but 
just, generous, hospitable and modest; while, if anything happened to 
cause the slightest friction between the two races, in the nearest approach 
to a warlike attitude the red man's conduct was marked with a spirit 
of forgiveness and meekness to the whites under the leadership of Ogle- • 
thorpe who was regarded, properly, as an exceptionally good, genei'ous, 
and forbearing white chief. No wonder, then, that so much respect was 
paid. to the old warrior in his death and in the conduct of his funeral! 
No wonder that the good women of this age have honored his memory 
by erecting in a prominent spot in this city a monument to that noble 
specimen of a so-called heathen tribe to point out to posterity that he 
was truly without a shadow of doubt ' ' the companion of Oglethorpe and 
a friend and ally of the Colony of Georgia." 

Before proceeding to give an account of Tomo-chi-chi 's visit to Eng- 
land, we will quote from several letters of Oglethorpe to the Trustees 
showing his high regard for the friendly Indians, his manner of treating 
tliem, and their fair dealing with the colonists in return for their good 
will. In a letter dated Februai'y 13, 1735-6, he said "I will write a 
particular letter about the Indian Affairs which the Carolina people 
have in vain strove to put into confusion. Tomo-Chawchi has main- 
tained the Trustees Interest among the Creeks till my arrival. And 
the French having insulted the Choctaws have made them jealous." 
Again, in the 16th of March following, "The Indian King Tomo-Chachi 
and his Nephew Toonahowhi and the Beloved ]\[an Umpechee who were 
in England with me have joined us with a jiarty of Indians and declared 



SAA^ANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 41 

that they will live and die by us. They agreed that we shall possess the 
Island of St. Simons, but reserve that of St. Catharine for themselves. 
The War Capt. Hillispilli was sent before my arrival by Tomo Chachi up 
to ye lower Creek Nation to keep up our interest with them and have 
brought down a large body of men, but I have denied Tomo-Chachi yet. 
He may bring no more than two hundred, that being sufficient for any 
service we can have for them," and later on in the same letter, "Tomo- 
Chachi ami I at his desire go out tomorrow to hunt ye Buffaloe as far as 
the utmost extent of his dominions towards Augustine. We shall then 
know how far ye lands possess by ye English Confederate Indians ex- 
tend. Tomo-Chachi is willing that we should settle upon any place with- 
in his lands provided the lower Creek Nations agree to it. ' ' Soon after, 
on the 28th of the same month, he wrote "The Indians and the High- 
landers have behaved with great courage, fidelity and affection and the 
English that came with me are not far behind with them." Lastly, 
we close these few quotations, taken from many to the same effect, with 
one from Frederica, dated May 18, 1730: "The Uchees * * * sent 
up their King and twenty Warriors with a message of thanks to me. * * * 
They told me that my having done them justice before they asked it 
made them love me and not believe the stories that were told them 
against me and that therefore instead of beginning a war with the 
English they were come down to help me against the Spanish and that 
if I wanted them they would bring down four score more of their War- 
riors who would stay with me a whole year. You see how God baffles the 
attempts of wicked men." After seeing the first colonists comfortably 
fixed in their homes, and being satisfied that he could safely leave them 
for a time, Oglethorpe made preparations to return to England in 1734. 
He greatly desired to take with him his friend Tomo-Chachi whom he per- 
suaded to make the voyage. Accordingly the General, accompanied by 
Tomo-Chachi and Scenawki his wife, Toonahowhi his nephew and adopted 
son, together Avith the war chief Hillispilli, four other chiefs of the 
Creek nation named Apakowtski, Stiraalchi, Sintouchi and Himguithi, 
and a chief from the Palachocolas (Umphichi by name), w'itli an inter- 
preter, set out from Savannah for Charleston on the 3d of March. Ar- 
riving in Charlestown without accident, they remained there until the 
7th of May when they embarked in the man-of-war Aldborough for 
England where they landed in June. 

Of the adventures of the Indians in the old world we need not say 
much ; but will only relate such as happened of a public nature. 

It was planned that a presentation to the king of these people should 
be held in Kensington Palace, and on the 1st of August, they were 
escorted to that place by Sir Clement Cotterell in three of the royal 
carriages each of which was drawn by six horses. Arriving at the palace 
the king's body-guard met them and they were presented to the king by 
the lord chamberlain, the Duke of Grafton. Of this ceremony the 
Gentleman's Magazine gave this description: 

"Thursday, August 1, 1734. — Tomo-Chachi, the king, Scenawki his 
wife, with Tooanahowhi their son, Hillispilli the war captain, and the 
other Cherokee Indians brought over by jMr. Oglethorpe from Georgia, 



42 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

were introduced to his Majesty at Kensington, who received them seated 
on his throne ; wlien Tomo-eha-chi, micho, or king, made the following 
speech, at the same time presenting several eagle's feathers which are 
trophies of their country : 

" 'This day I see the majesty of your face, the greatness of your 
house, and the number of your people. I am come for the good of the 
whole nation called the Creeks, to renew the peace which was long ago 
had with the English. I am come over in my old days, although I can- 
not live to see any advantage to myself. I am come for the good of the 
children of all the nations of the Upper and of the Lower Creeks, that 
they may be instructed in the knowledge of the English. 

" 'These are the feathers of the eagle which is the swiftest of birds, 
and who flieth all round our nations. These feathers are a sign of peace 
in our land, and have been carried from town to town there ; and we 
have brought them over to leave witli you, great king! as a sign of 
everlasting peace. 

" '0 great king, whatsoever words you shall say to me I will tell 
them faithfully to all the kings of the Creek nations.' 

' ' To which his Majesty graciously answered, ' I am glad of this oppor- 
tunity of assuring you of my regard for the people from whom you 
come, and am extremely well pleased with the assurances you have 
brought me from them, and accept very gratefully this present as an 
indication of their good disposition to me and my people. I shall always 
be ready to cultivate a good correspondence between them and my own 
subjects, and shall be glad of any occasion to show you a mark of my 
particular friendship and esteem.' 

"Tomo-cha-chi afterwards made the following speech to her 
Majesty: 'I am glad to see this day, and to have the opportunity of 
seeing the mother of this great people. As our people are joined with 
your Majesty's, we do humbly hope to find you the common mother and 
protectress of vis and all our children. ' 

"And her Majesty returned a most gracious answer. The war- 
captain and other attendants of Tomo-cha-chi were very importunate to 
appear at court in the manner they go in their own country — which is 
only with a proper covering round their waist, the rest of their lx)dy 
being naked, — but were dissuaded from it by Mr. Oglethorpe. But their 
faces were variously painted after their country manner, some half black, 
others triangular, and others with bearded arrows instead of whiskers. 

' ' Tomo-Chachi and Seenawki, his wife, were dressed in scarlet trimmed 
with gold." 

One of the Indians was at this time sick with the small pox and could 
not attend the reception. He died on the 3d of August, and his death 
had a very depressing effect on his companions. 

Concerning his burial Dr. T. I\[. Harris* says: "He was interred 
after the manner of their country, in St. John's burial ground, West- 
minister. The corpse, sewed up in two blankets, with a deal board 
under and another over, and tied down with a cord, was carried to the 
grave on a bier. There were present only Tomo-cha-chi, three of the 

* Memorial Biograiihy of James Oglethorpe, pp. 96-97. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 43 

chiefs, the upper church warden, and the grave-digger. When the body 
was laid in the earth, the clothes of the deceased were thrown in ; after 
this, a quantity of glass beads and some pieces of silver ; the custom of 
these Indians Ijeing to bury such effects of the deceased with him. As 
all methods made to console them were disregarded, Oglethorpe took 
them out to his estate, that in the country retirement they might have 
a better opportunity to bewail the dead according to their custom, and 
that the change might serve to abate their sorrow." Altogether they 
spent four months in England, sight-seeing and receiving attention 
everywhere they went, returning to America in the transport ship Prince 
of Wales, commanded by Captain George Dunbar, and arriving at Sa- 
vannah December 27th, 1734. Oglethorpe remained in England until 
October, 1735, when he made his second voyage to Georgia. 



CHAPTER V 

THE JEWISH ELEMENT 

Attitude Toward Hebrew Colonists — Thrifty, Industrious and Hon- 
est People — Record by Jewish Descendant — Jewish Congrega- 
tions AND Synagogues — Hebrew Burial Grounds — Early Vine- 
yard OP A Portuguese Jew — Both Progressive and Patriotic. 

While the people were engaged in active operations in the way of 
building their homes and making themselves comfortable and settling 
down to business, nothing of special interest occurred until the arrival 
of the second party of colonists on the 14th of May in the ship "James," 
commanded by Captain Yoakley. Seventeen persons comprised this 
party, among whom were some Italian experts in the keeping of silk- 
worms and the manufacture of silk. It was thought in the beginning 
that this would become a paying industry in the colony, and special 
efforts were made for its development. The seal of Georgia had as its 
device on one face silk-worms at work, with the motto Non Sibi Sed 
AUis, a suggestion of one source of profitable labor as well as the pro- 
posed conduct of those interested in the development of the new settle- 
ment. 

The arrival of this addition to the settlers was recorded in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine in a communication from Savannah dated May 20, 1733, 
as follows: "The James, Captain Yoakley. 110 tons and 6 guns arrived 
here on the 14th, with passengers and stores. The ship rode in two 
fathoms and a half water close to the town at low water mark. The Cap- 
tain received the Price appointed by the Trustees for the first ship 
that should unload at this town, there is a safe riding for much larger 
vessels. ' ' 

Attitude Toward Hebrew Colonists 

We have seen how the town was laid out in a very imposing manner 
on the 7th of Jul.y, 1733. This important epoch was closely followed 
by an incident which caused much trouble and brought forth some bitter 
words from the trustees in their official capacity and from individuals 
who became discontented and, as a consequence, denounced the whole 
work so far accomplished in Georgia. This was the arrival of a vessel 
from England with forty Hebrew colonists. The action of the trustees 
in this matter, when thorouiihly explained, seems incomprehensible. 
The charter, as has been noted, prohibited Catholics from settling in 

44 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 45 

the province, but nothing was said in that instrument which could be 
construed as being unfavorable to the Jews. In fact, as early as Sep- 
tember 21, 1732, the minutes of the trustees show that "commissions 
were desired by Thomas Frederick, Esq., Mr. Anthony Da Costa, Mr. 
Francis Salvador, Jr., and Mr. Alvaro Lopez Suasso, to take subscrip- 
tions and collect money for the purposes of the charter," and it was 
* ' ordered accordingly ; ' ' and on the same date it was stated that ' ' sealed 
commissions for taking subscrij^tions and collecting money for the pur- 
poses of the charter [were] granted to Thomas Frederick, Esq., Mr. 
Francis Salvador, Jr., Mr. Anthony Da Costa, and Mr. Alvaro Lopez 
Suasso." Those men were Jews, and the trustees knew it. They 
were willing to accept their services in collecting fuhds for the develop- 
ment of the scheme to assist poor but honest men and women in making 
homes for themselves, but, as will appear, they did not want any of 
their race to receive the benefit of the money so collected. They virtually 
said to them "We are willing to have you take part in the charitable 
work to which we have pledged our own support and influence, so far as 
you choose to relieve us of the unpleasant duty of soliciting subscrip- 
tions to carry on that work, but you must not expect any of your race 
to partake of the benefits flowing from your successful efforts." They 
did not use those words, but they wdllingly accepted their offer, coupled 
with the mental reservation which that language implies. That such 
was the case there can be no doubt, as the action of their body on the 
31st of January following, does not admit of any other construction. 

The minutes of that date contain the following language: "Ordered, 
That the secretary do wait on Mr. Alvaro Lopez Suasso, Mr. Francis 
Salvador, Jr., and Mr. Anthony Da Costa with the following message in 
writing: Whereas commissions were granted to the said Mr. Alvaro 
Lopez Suasso, Mr. Francis Salvador, Jr., and Mr. Anthony Da Costa to 
collect such monies as should be contributed for establishing the colony 
of Georgia in America, and to transmit the same to the trustees, by them 
to be applied to the purposes in the charter mentioned ; And the trus- 
tees being informed that certain expectations have from thence been 
raised, contrary to their intentions, which may be of ill consequence 
to their said designs, Therefore, to obviate any difficulties that may 
attend the same, they desire the said Mr. Alvaro Lopez Suasso, Mr. 
Francis Salvador, Jr., and Mr. Anthony Da Costa will re-deliver to Mr. 
Martyn, their secretary, the said commissions." 

It was doubtless about this time that the trustees began to be criti- 
cized for their action in granting the commissions.* Indeed, one of 
their own number in a communication to his fellow members, at a later 
date, had this to say : ' ' But I beg leave to say something of the Jews, 
who, to the number of between forty and fifty, have procured them- 
selves to be already settled there contrary to the will, and without the 
consent of the trustees, and there are more of their nation now going 
over to them. I humbly conceive these shocking matters require your 
most serious attention for unless you speedily take some vigorous reso- 
lution to suppress effectually the two great evils aforesaid (the first 

* The communication is dated 27th March, 1734. 



46 SAVj^NNAH and SOUTH GEORGIA 

was what lie conceived to be an error in the matter of land grants) 
Georgia will soon become a Jewish colony, for that all the Christians 
there will, for the reasons aforesaid, fall off and desert it, as leaves from 
a tree in autumn, until there will not be a valuable Christian remaining 
except some few carpenters, sawyers, smiths, etc., whom the Jews will 
find most necessary and useful, and encourage them to remain to be 
employed in their buildings and otherwise, and that all Christian bene- 
factions for that colony will soon cease. Therefore, for these considera- 
tions, I beg leave to recommend the speedy entering into proper meas- 
ures for preventing as well the ruin of the Colony of Georgia as the 
reproach and scandal of the trustees." The letter from which the fore- 
going extract is taken is embodied in "A brief Account of the Causes 
that have Retarded the Progress of the Colony of Georgia in America, ' ' 
printed in London in 1743, and was evidently written by Thomas 
Stephens, son of William Stephens, Secretary of the Colony, and Sir 
Richard Everhard, son of the Sir Richard Everhard who was a governor 
of North Carolina. The letter, so quoted, was written by Thomas Coram. 

On the 7th of February, 1732-3, "the secretary acquainted the Board 
that he had waited on Mr. Alvaro Lopez Suasso, Mr. Anthony Da Costa, 
and Mr. Francis Salvador, Jr., for the commissions granted to them, 
and had left a copy of the Minutes of January the 31st with Mr. Da 
Costa." No notice having been taken by the three persons named of 
that communication, the trustees, on the 2nd of December, 1733, took 
this peremptory action : ' ' Ordered, That the Secretary do wait on ^Messrs. 
Alvaro Lopez Suasso, Francis Salvador, Jr., and Anthony Da Costa with 
the following message in writing: Whereas a message dated Januaiw 31, 
1732-3, was sent for the Redelivery of their commissions with which they 
did not think proper to comply, and which on their said Refusal Avere 
vacated by the trustees : And whereas the trustees ai'e informed that 
by monies raised by virtue of their connnissions (which monies ought 
to have been transmitted to the trustees) certain Jews have been sent 
to Georgia contrary to the intentions of the trustees, and which may be 
of ill conse(|uence to the Colony : the Trustees do hereby require the said 
Messrs. Alvaro Lopez Suasso, Francis Salvador, Jr., and Anthom- Da 
Costa immediately to redeliver to Mr. Llartyn, their Secretary, the said 
Commissions, and to render an Account in Writing to the Trustees of 
what monies have been raised by virtue thereof; and if thej'^ refuse 
to comply with this Demand, that then the Trustees will think them- 
selves oblig'd not only to advertise the AVorld of the Demand and Re- 
fusal of their Commissions and Account, and of the Misapplication lie- 
fore mentioned, in order to prevent any further impositions on his 
Majesty's subjects under Pretence of Aiithority granted by those Va- 
cated Commissions, but likewise to recover those Commissions, and de- 
mand an Account of the monies collected in such manner as their Coun- 
cil shall advise." 

In response to this, at a meeting held January 19, 1733-4. the 
secretai'v acquainted the board that, pursuant to their order of January 
5th instant, he had waited on ^Messrs. Alvaro Lopez Suasso. Francis 
Salvador, Jr., and Anthony Da COsta, and left with tluMu the message 
of the trustees in writing, and that he had received the commissions 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 47 

formerly given to them ; and then he delivered the said commissions 
to the board. 

"Resolved, That the said Commissions be laid by, and the further 
consideration of this affair be postponed till Mr. Oglethorpe comes home." 

It does not appear tliat the trustees ever again took this matter under 
consideration. 

Thrifty, Industrious and Honest People 

The excitement caused by the coming of those people ended by their 
being permitted to stay, although no definite action towards that end 
was taken. They had come without apparent reason to believe that in 
doing so they had no authority, and it would have been heartless on the 
part of Oglethorpe to refuse a landing under the circumstances. 

They were thrifty, industrious and honest people, with everything 
connected with their advent greatly in their favor, with the single ex- 
ception that their qualifications as colonists had not been passed upon by 
the trustees and the fund collected for their transportation and sup- 
port had not passed through their hands. The trouble soon ended, and 
they participated in the allottment of lailds equally with the colonists. 
Among them were the families of Isaac Nunez Henriquez, IMoses le 
Desma, Samuel Nunez Ribiero, Daniel Ribiero, Moses Nunez Ribiero, 
Jacob Lopez d'Olivero, Benjamin Sheftall, Abraham Nunez, Monte 
Santo, Abraham ]\Iinis, and others. Some of them did not re- 
main in Georgia, but went over into South Carolina. Descend- 
ants of some of those who remained in Savannah are now 
numbered with her best citizens. Oglethorpe made special men- 
tion to the trustees of the good work of Dr. Nunis and they 
requested him to offer pay to that humane physician for the medi- 
cal services rendered by him. At a later date the valuable aid rendered 
by one of that race in the matter of the cultivation of the grape vine is 
thus acknowledged by the secretary of the colony. Mr. Benjamin Mar- 
tyn : "One, Abraham de Lyon, Portuguese Jew, in the year 1736, by 
encouragement from the Trustees, planted about a score [of vines] , which 
he had received from Portugal, where he had been bred among the 
vineyards ; in the next year, by his skill in priining and dressing them, 
they bore plentifully a beautiful large grape, as big as a man's thumb, 
almost transparent, and in great bunches. A shoot, in one year, grew 
from the root of a bearing vine as big as a walking cane, and ran over 
a few poles placed to receive it, at least twelve or fourteen feet; and he 
has now a very promising vineyard.* " 

Record by Jewish Descendant 

The names of some of the first Jewish settlers who remained in 
Savannah are found in the list of persons to whom lands were alloted 
already given on a preceding page ; but, as that list differs in some 

* "An Impartial Inquiry into the State and Utility of the Province of Georgia." 
London, 1841. 



48 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

respects from the one given by a descendant of one of tliose families 
to the Rev. George White and printed by the latter in his Statistics 
of Georgia in 1849, the whole account of this matter is here quoted as 
perhaps the most accurate that can be found. i\Ir. White says, on 
pages 101 and 102 of his book: "The compiler of this work is indebted 
to the kindness of Hon. Mordecai Sheftall, Sr., for the following par- 
ticulars in relation to the history of the Jews in this state. Upon 
their authenticity every reliance can be placed, as they were derived 
from manuscripts prepared by the grandfather of Mr. Sheftall. On 
the 11th day of July, 1733, the following persons belonging to the 
Hebrew nation arrived in Savannah : — Dr. Nunis and his mother, Mrs. 
Nunis ; Daniel, Moses and Sipra Nunis, and Shem Noah their servant ; 
Mr. Henriques and wife, and Shem, their servant ; Mr. and Mrs. Borual ; 
David Olivera ; Jacob Olivera and wife and three children, David, 
Isaac, and Leah ; Aaron Depivea ; Benjamin, Gideon, Jacob Costa ; 
David Depass and his wife ; Vene Real, Molena, David Moranda ; Jacob 
Moranda; David Cohen, wife and four children, Isaac, Abigail, Hannah, 
and Grace; Abraham Minis and wife, mth their two daughters, Leah 
•and Esther; Simeon Minis; Jacob Yowall; Benjamin Sheftall and 
wife; and Abraham De Lyon. 

"The above-named persons sailed from London in the second ship 
which left that port for Savannah, and arrived four days after the 
wards and tithings were named. They brought Avith them the Safer 
Tora and the Hechal, which are still used in the Synagogue of Savannah. 
Many of the first settlers lived to an advanced age. A. Minis lived 
63 years, Benjamin Sheftall 73 years, Daniel Nunis 85 years, ]\Ioses 
Nunis 82 years. The descendants of only three of the first settlers 
are now living in Savannah, viz.: Sheftall's. Minis 's and De Lyon's. 
Shortly after their arrival, they erected a house in Market Square for 
the purpose of divine worship. The synagogue was called 'K. K. 
Mickva Israel. ' Here for many years they continued to observe the 
forms of their religion until 1740 or 1741, when the congregation was 
dissolved on account of the many removals to Charleston. In the year 
1774, it was determined that new efforts should be made to resuscitate 
their congregation ; and accordingly J\Ir. Mordecai Sheftall, a gentle- 
man strongly attached to his religion, fitted up, at his own expense, 
a room in his house for the accommodation of the people, and worship 
was regularly observed until the American Revolution, when again 
the congregation was temporarily dissolved. 

"In 1786 the Jews met, and i-esolved to re-establish their congrega- 
tion K. K. Mickva Israel. A house was hired in St. James square 
[now Telfair Place] and the heads of the congregation chosen. For 
many years service was performed regularly on the Sabbath and holy 
days, but a combination of causes again produced a suspension of 
public worship. 

"For a long period there was no place for religious worship; but 
in 1820 a neat synagogue was consecrated, and which was accidentally 
destroyed by fire in 1829. After this event Dr. ]\Ioses Sheftall. who 
was then I^resident of the congregation, was very active in devising plans 
by which money could be raised to build another synagogue. Sub- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 49 

scriptions were liberally made, not only by the Jews, but by Christians 
of every denomination ; and in a short time another synagogue of 
brick was erected, and afterwards consecrated." 

Jewish Congregations and Synagogues 

At the time the above account was written there was but the one 
synagogue in the city, and it was situated on the north-east corner of 
Liberty and Whitaker streets. The building erected in 1820 was a 
frame structure and was, as stated, destroyed by fire in 1829. It was in 
1838 that the brick building spoken of was erected, and in it the people 
worshiped until 1878, when the present synagogue on Monterey Square 
was built, the corner-stone having been laid in 1876. In 1860, in the 
month of September, another Jewish congregation was organized, called 
The Congregation B'nai B'rith Jacob, and it was incorporated in 1861, 
holding services in Armory hall. The corner-stone of a synagogue was 
laid by that band in 1867, on the north-east corner of State and Mont- 
gomery streets ; but the temple erected at that time was so small and 
the congregation has increased to such an extent that it was found 
necessary to rebuild on a larger plan, and the present commodious and 
comfortable house of worship, amply sufficient in space to accommodate 
them for many years, was erected in the year 1909. 

There are other Jewish congregations in the city, but at present 
the people composing them hold services in rented halls. 

Hebrew^ Burial Grounds 

The families comprising the early Hebrew settlers did not make use 
of the colonial burying ground for the interment of their dead, but 
established a cemetery of their own at a point then far outside of the 
limits of the town. The space set aside for that purpose was very 
small. Indeed there were two such places of interment, nearly adjoin- 
ing each other, still existing; though the walls of the smaller one are 
nearly gone, one of which is said to have been for the exclusive use of 
the Sheftall family, and the other, somewhat larger, for more general 
use. Both were enclosed within substantial brick walls, and; if is 
probable that within them burials were made at least as early as in 
the public, or colonial, cemetery, now known as Colonial Park, and at 
one time recognized as the Christ Church Parish Burying Ground. 
The oldest graves in these two Jewish places of sepulture are not 
marked by inscriptions; though what served as gravestones are still 
standing and have the appearance of being hard mortar or tabby 
which could not be cut into by engraving tools. 

The lot, thus divided and enclosed in two sections, was doubtless 
a portion of the land parcelled out to the Hebrew settlers when they 
arrived here, as it is thus mentioned in the pamphlet of the malcontents 
Tailfer, Anderson, and Douglas: "Upon the west side of Savannah 
lie the township lots of the Jews, now [1741] deserted (they having 
all gone to other colonies, except three or four) as are all others on 
that quarter, excepting one or two." 

Vol. 1—4 



50 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

In September, 1762, a deed from the town was made to Mordecai 
Sheftall of garden lot 22 west, containing five acres of land, and 
Mordecai Sheftall conveyed to Philip Minis et al., trustees of the 
Jewish cemetery, in August, 1773. one acre and a half of the same 
tract, but this land was entirely used, as already stated, for burial 
purposes long before. 

These two old burial spots of the Jews are interesting places, and 
it seems a pity that they are now not so well cared for as they were 
formerly. They are located just where Stewart and Wilson streets 
meet. In one of them lies the body of Mr. Philip ]Minis who was 
probably the second child born in Savannah. He died on Friday, 
the 6th of March, 1789, and was buried, as stated, in the Georgia 
Gazette of Thursday, the 12th of the same month, "in the Jews' burial- 
place on Sunday morning, attended by a large number of respectable 
citizens, who, by their solemn attention, envinced how sensibly they 
felt the loss the community had sustained in so valuable a member." 
This statement is also made in the account of his death recorded in 
the same paper: "He was the tirst white male born in this state," 
and his age is there given as 55 years. It is elsewhere recorded that 
at the time of the landing of the first colonists Mr. Hume gave a silver 
bowl. and spoon for the first child born in Georgia, which being born of 
Mrs. Close, were given accordingly. From these two statements it is 
fair to conclude that the Close infant was a girl. The Hebrew place 
of sepulture was in the midst of the important scene of action in the 
siege of Savannah in the month of October, 1779, when the combined 
American and French troops endeavored to retake the city from the 
British. In his orders, issued on the Sth, Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, in 
command of the land forces, after instructing his officers to endeavor 
to enter the redoubt on the left of the Spring Hill on the following 
day, commanded that "In case of repulse, after having taken the* 
Spring Hill redoubt, the troops will retreat and rally in the rear of the 
redoubt. If it cannot be effected in that way, it must be attempted 
by the same route at which they entered. The second place of rally- 
ing, or the first, — if the redoubt should not be can-ied, will be at the 
Jews' burying groinid, where the reserve will be placed. If these two 
halts should not be effectual, they will retire towards camp." As the 
Spring Hill redoubt was not taken, that part of the instruction as to 
the Jews' burying ground was obeyed. 

Early Vineyard op a Portuguese Jew- 
As a matter of interest concerning the industry of the Jews as well as 
to show what efforts were made to develop the natural resources of the 
colony and to determine what the soil might be made to produce, the 
following account of JMr. De Lyon's vineyard is quoted from Col. William 
Stephens, secretary to the trustees in his JoiiDiaJ of Proceedings in 
Georgia, Vol. 1, page 48: "Tuesday, December 6, 1737 — After dinner, 
walked out to see what Improvement of Vines were nuide by one i\Ir. 
Lyon, a Portuguese Jew, which I had heard some talk of; and indeed 
nothing had given me so iiuich Pleasure since my arrival as what I 



J 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 51 

found here; though it was yet (if I may say it properly), only a Min- 
iature, for he had cultivated only for two or three Years past about half 
a score of them which he received from Portugal for an Experiment ; and 
by his Skill and ^Management in pruning, etc., they all bore this Year 
ver.y plentifully a most beautiful, large Grape as big as a Man's Thumb, 
almost pellucicl, and Bunches exceeding big; all which was attested by 
Persons of unquestionable Credit (whom I had it from), but the Season 
now would allow me only to see the Vines they were gathered from, 
which were so flourishing and strong that I saw one Shoot, of this last 
year only, which he allowed to grow from the Root of a bearing Vine, 
as big as my Walking-Cane, and run over a few Poles laid to receive it, 
at least twelve or fourteen Foot, as near as I could judge. From these 
he has raised more than a Hundred, which he has planted all in his little 
Garden behind his House at about Four Foot distance each, in the Manner 
and Form of a Vineyard. They have taken Root and are about one Foot 
and a half high ; the next Year he says he does not doubt raising a 
Thousand more, and the Year following at least five Thousand. I could 
not believe (considering the high Situation of the Town upon a Pine 
Barren, and the little Appearance of such Productions in these little Spots 
of Ground annexed to the House) but that he had found some proper 
Manure wherewith to improve the sandy Soil ; liut he assured me it was 
nothing but the natural Soil, without any other Art than his Planting 
and Pruning which he seemed to set some Value on from his Experience 
in being bred among the Vineyards in Portugal ; and, to convince the 
World that he intends to pursue it, from the Encouragement of the Soil 
proving so proper for it, he has at this Time hired four Men to clear and 
prepare as much Land as they possibly can l^pon his forty-five Acre Lot, 
intending to convert every Foot of the whole that is fit for it into a 
Vineyard ; though he complains of his present Inability to be at such an 
Expence as to employ Servants for Hire. From hence I could not but 
reflect on the small Progress that has been made hitherto in propagating 
Vines in the publick Garden where, the Soil being the same, it must be 
owing to the Unskilfulness or Negligence of those who had undertaken 
that Charge." 

Both Progressive and Patriotic 

Among the most progressive citizens Savannah has had during all 
the periods of her history, the Jews have always taken a prominent 
stand. No class of people has done more for her advancement and none 
has done better work in advancing the city's interests and to promote 
her increase in all that is implied in the word "progress" than that 
people. It is well to remember that among the many who from first to 
last deserted the cause of American independence during the struggle 
which lasted from 1776 to 1783, and whose names are mentioned in the 
several acts passed by the Georgia legislature in reference to the person 
and property of those misguided ones who, fearing the coercion of the 
colonies by England, abandoned the cause which they deemed hopeless, 
there cannot be found a single Israelite ; while it is equally true that 
many of that race valiantly fought for independence and contributed 



52 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

liberally of their means to the support of that cause. It is true also that 
in the war between the states, from 1861 to 1865, many of that race did 
their full duty in standing by the seceding states until all hope of suc- 
cess was finally abandoned. Of the commendable conduct of many of 
them in time of action, particular mention will be made in situ; but, as 
proof of the patriotism of this people, we note just here that, when Gen- 
eral Washington visited Savannah in May, 1791, a special address was 
made to him by the Congregation Mickva Israel. 



CHAPTER VI 

SALZBURG AND SILK 

Accession of Salzburg (German Protestant) Colonists — Encourag- 
ing THE Silk Industry — The Filature Buildings — Drawbacks In- 
surmountable. 

The attention of the trustees was called, at a very early date after 
receiving the charter, to the needs of foreign Protestants seeking a home 
where they could be free to worship God after the manner of their an- 
cestors and as conscience led them. Thus, at a meeting held July 
27, 1732, the minutes show that they "drew up a Proposal for trans- 
porting a number of the Salzburg Exiles, and desired ]\Ir. Vernon to lay 
the same before the Gentlemen now concerned in collecting benefactions 
for their Relief. Next month, August 3d, Mr. Vernon reported that he 
had followed the instructions given him, and that matter met with the 
approval of the persons before whom he had laid it. Still later in the 
month, August 31st, — "Jacob Winekler, Theobald Kupper, Ludwig Koel, 
Henric Croneberger, George Menglesdorff, Andereas Winekler and 
Nicolas Rizer, German Swiss, being labourers and vine dressers, at- 
tended, and received from Lord Carpenter, Mr. Vernon and Mr. Ogle- 
thorpe three guineas towards furnishing them with working tools; they, 
with their familys being the first Germans that are to establish the town 
of Purisburgh." Again, on the 12th of October of the same year, the 
minutes record that "Mr. Vernon and Dr. Bundy acquainted the Trus- 
tees that the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge were desirous 
that the persecuted Salzburghers should have an asylum provided for 
them in Georgia." 

Accession of Salzburg (German Protestant) Colonists 

Willing though they were to provide at an early period homes in 
Georgia for those good people, the trustees were forced to put them off 
for a while because the funds collected for the support of the colony 
were well-nigh exhausted. As soon, however, as the means were pro- 
vided for the purpose the good intention was brought to a delightful 
realization which added not only a substantial increase to the population 
of the colony but gave an impulse to the upbuilding of the design of its 
founders which could hardly have been looked for elsewhere. It is not 
positively stated how the trustees became possessed of an interest in cer- 

53 



54 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

tain lands in the Island of- St. Christopher, but we do have the record that 
by an act of parliament the money paid for said lands was put at the 
disposal of the trustees to be by them applied "towards defraying the 
charges of the carrying over and settling foreign and other Protestants 
in said colony." Through this means the band of Salzburghers came to 
Georgia, and settled, in ]\Iarch, 1734, in that portion of the colony now 
known as Effingham county, at a place they named Ebenezer. Descend- 
ants of these people now live in the city of Savannah, and most of them 
are among the truly good and exemplary citizens. The leaders of 
them were Baron Philip George Frederick Von Reck, the Rev. John 
Manin Bolzius and Israel Christian Gronau. £u his diary, the iirst 
named of these wrote an account of their arrival in Georgia, from which 
we make the following extracts : 

"March 7 — At nine there came from Charlestown a pilot on board 
our ship. We immediately cast anchor, and at ten the captain, the Rev- 
erend divines and I, went into the pilot's boat. At one in the after- 
noon, we came to Charlestown, where I immediatelj' waited on his 
excellency, Robert Johnson, Esq., and Mr. Oglethorpe. They were glad 
to hear that the Salzburgers were come within six leagues, all safe and 
in good health, without the loss of any one person. Mr. Oglethori^e 
showed me a plan of Georgia, and gave me liberty to choose a settle- 
ment for the Salzburgers, either near the sea or further in the conti- 
nent. I accordingly accepted his favour and chose a place 21 miles 
from the town of Savannah, and 30 miles from the sea, where tliere are 
rivers, little hills, clear brooks, cool springs, a fertile soil, and a plenty 
of grass. Mr. Oglethorpe sent on board our ship, by the Pilot's Sloop, 
a large quantitj^ of fresh beef, two butts of Wine, two tun of Spring 
Water, Cabbage, Turnips, Radishes, Fruit, etc., as a present from the 
Trustees, to refresh the Salzburgers. 

"March 9 — ^We beg'd of God that he would permit us to go to our 
Georgia. We went away this morning at ten, and got on board our 
ship at two in the afternoon. 

"March 10— God blessed us this day with the sight of our country, 
our wished-for Georgia, which we saw at ten in the morning, and brought 
us unto the Savannah River, and caused us to remember the vows we 
had made unto Him, if he did, through His infinite Goodness, bring us 
hither. We were today very much edified with the 32d chapter of 
Genesis, and the 26th of Leviticus. At noon we cast anchor, because of 
the Tide ; at night, during the Evening Prayers, we entered the river of 
Savannah. 

"Marcli 12 — The magistrates of the town sent on l)oard our sliip 
an experienced Pilot, and we were carried up to the town of Savannah 
by eleven in the Forenoon. They returned our salute of five guns, with 
three, and all the Magistrates, the citizens and the Indians, were come to 
the river sides. The two Divines, Mr. Dunbar, some others and myself, 
went asliore in a boat. We were received with all possible demonstra- 
tions of Joy, Friendship, nnd civility. Tlie Indians reached their hands 
to me, as a testimony of their joy also for our arrival. The Salzburgers 
came on shore after us, and we immediately pitched a tent for them in 
the Square of the Town. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 55 

"March 13 — I went to see the Indians, and their King, Tomo-Chaehi. 
I caused some raisins, of which thej' are very foud, to be distributed 
amongst them. 

"March 14 — Mr. Oglethorpe had given orders for three horses to be 
ready for my service, to take a view of the country, and to ride to the 
place where the Salzburgers were to settle. I went this morning at nine 
of the clock, with a Constable and a Guide ; but after we had gone a 
m^le or two, we entered some thick woods, divided by deep brooks of 
water, and though we could with great difficulty pass over some, yet there 
were others we could not pass ; wherefore we returned back to the town. 

' ' Mr. Oglethorpe, and Mr. Jenys, Speaker of the Assembly of Carolina, 
arrived at Savannah from Charlestown; the first having, out of love to 
our Salzburgers, put off his Journey to England, being resolved to see 
them settled before he went. Having informed him that the floods had 
made it impossible for me to pass the woods by land, he said he would 
go himself, to show me the country and see what place I would choose. 
The speaker desired to accompany him, and I did myself the honour to 
make one of the company. He sent to the Indian King to desire two 
Indians to hunt for him in the Journey; who not only granted them, 
but his chief War Captain, Tuskeneoi, out of civility to Mr. Oglethorpe, 
came along with them to accompany us. We went on board a ten-oared 
boat to the place where a house was l)uilding by INIr. Musgrove, six 
miles up the Savannah river. 

"March 16 — Having slept well in a tent, which we pitched under 
the shade of a tree by the river side, last night, I accompanied Mr. Ogle- 
thorpe on horseback, and the speaker and others went by water. If you 
ask how a country that is covered with wood, and cut with rivers and 
morasses, is passable, I must acquaint you that since the colony was set- 
tled, the ways were marked by barking off the trees, to show where the 
roads should go, and where the rivers were passable. After passing 
through a morass covered with canes, we came to an unfordable river, 
through which the Indians swam the horses, and we crossed over upon 
a great tree, cut down for that purpose. The tree was cut dowTi so as 
to lie across the river and serve for a bridge. And after riding some 
leagues in the woods, we passed another river. Night overtaking us, 
we were obliged to take up our quarters upon a little hill, round a fire 
with the Indians, who brought us a wild turkey for our supper. 

"March 17 — We continued our journey, and set out by break of day, 
and at nine arrived at the place where the Salzburgers were afterward 
settled. Frcfm hence I returned to the town of Savannah, through 
Abercorn, a village newly settled by order of the trustees, upon the 
Savannah river, near where Ebenezer falls into it." 

The Reverend ^Ir. Bolzius described their arrival in his journal in 
these words: "Savannah, Tuesday, March 12 — At the place of our land- 
ing almost all the inhabitants of the town of Savannah were gathered 
together ; they fired off some Cannons and cried, huzzah ! which was 
answered by our sailors and other English people in our ship, in the 
same manner. A good dinner was prepared for us. We, the commis- 
sary, and Mr. Zwefler, the physician, were lodged in the house of the 
Reverend Mr. Quincy, the English minister here. 



56 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"March 14 — Last night we prayed on shore for the first time in the 
English chapel, made of boards, and used for divine worship till a church 
can be built ; the use of Avhich is allowed us during our stay here. The 
inhabitants join with us, and show much devotion. The Jews, likewise, 
of which there are twelve families here, come to church, and seemed to 
be very devout. 

"March 15 — This day, Mr. Oglethorpe arrived here, and received 
our Salzburgers and us in a friendly manner, and Ave dined with him. 
He being very solicitous that these poor Indians should be brought to 
the knowledge of God, has desired us to learn their language, and we, 
with the blessing of God, will joyfully undertake the task. Tuesday, 
March 26 — It is a great pleasure to us that Mr. Oglethorpe approved of 
our calling the river, and the place where our houses are to be built, 
Ebenezer. ' ' 

Encouraging the Silk Industry 

Prom the knowledge previously obtained of the climate of the country 
just south of the colony of South Carolina, which was to become the 
Colony of Georgia, it was considered, as already noted, most favorable to 
the breeding of silk worms and the making of silk. In this work it was 
thought that women and children, as well as old persons, would be use- 
ful, as not a great deal of care and little labor were required in the 
feeding of the worms. Oglethorpe himself considered it of great im- 
portance in the advancement of the colony. Pursuant to this generally 
accepted belief, coupled with the recently invented machinery by Mr. 
John Lombe for increased facility in the winding and reeling processes, 
the trustees early took steps to provide for the fostering of this industry. 
The fact that they held this opinion brought to them applications from 
persons skilled in that business for passage to Georgia. At their meeting 
on the 14th of February, 1732-3 — "Mr. Nicolas Amatis attended the 
board, and acquainted them that he and Signor Giocomo Ottone, a man 
of experience in making the silk machines, Jacques Camuse and his 
wife (both winders of silk) and Camuse 's three boys of the following 
ages — thirteen, four and three, were lately arrived in England, and 
ready to enter into agreement with the trustees to go and settle in 
Georgia." Mr. Amatis was one of the emigrants embarking in the Ann 
galley, November 16, 1732, and reaching Savannah February 1, 1733. 

The production of raw silk in Georgia was apparently prosperous 
for a while, and the business Avas carried on for many years ^\•ith fluctuat- 
ing degrees of success so that on the Avhole, it did not approach the im- 
portance for Avhich its promoters prayed and earnestly desired. Dr. T. 
M. Harris, in an appendix to his "Biographical Memorials of James 
Oglethorpe," pages 391-413, gives an exhaustive account of this 
matter, prepared by W. B. Stevens, in Avhich he says: "In 
June, 1734, General Oglethorpe carried eight pounds of raw 
silk, the first produced in Georgia, to England, Avhich was fol- 
loAved by a small trunk full of the same article, on the 2d of April, 1735, 
and after being made into orgazine, by the engine of Sir Thomas Lombe, 
at Derby, Avho said that it ' proved exceedingly good through all the oper- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 57 

ations, ' was sent up to London on the 13th of Aixgust, 1735, when the 
trustees, together with Sir Thomas Lombe, waited on her majesty. Queen 
Caroline, and exhibited to her the elegant specimin of Georgia silk. 
The queen selected a portion of the parcel to be wove into a pattern, and 
being again waited on by these gentlemen and Mr. Booth, the silk 
weaver, on the 21st of Septemljer, she expressed 'a great satisfaction for 
the beauty and fineness of the silk, the richness of the pattern, and at 
seeing so early product from that colony,' and to express her pleasure 
at such a favourable result, a complete court-dress was made from it, 
and on his majesty's next birthday she appeared at the levee in a full 
robe of Georgia silk." 

Mr. Samuel Augspourger carried to England, in 1739, some of the 
silk which he obtained from the trustees' store-keeper, Mr. Jones, and it 
was classed by judges as "equal to any Italian silk, and worth full 
twenty shillings per pound." During some years a considerable quan- 
tity was produced, while at other times the production was, for various 
reasons, much reduced. In 1746 the president of the Salzluirgers wrote 
to Mr. Martyn, secretary of the trustees: "The fundamental cause of its 
stagnation is the unaccountable backwardness of some of our dames and 
damsels to employ themselves in attending to the worms during the time 
of feeding;" at one time the falling off was attributed to the fact that 
"so few were disposed to this culture" to which it was added that "one 
reason for this reluctance is ascribed to the circumstance that, by ordi- 
nary labor, about two shillings may be obtained per day, whereas scarcely 
a shilling could be earned in the same time by the silk concern." One 
season "nearly half of the silk worms died at Savannah, owing as was 
then supposed, either to poisoned dew or warm weather," and in 1748 
"small trees were destroyed, and some of the larger ones injured, by the 
late frost." In 1766 the small amount of silk made was said to be on 
account of "the badness of the seed, and consequent inferiority of the 
worms. ' ' 

The Filature Buildings 

On the 4th of March, 1751, Mr. James Habersham and Mr. Pickering 
Robinson, commissioners to promote more effectually the culture of silk, 
began the erection of a filature in the city of Savannah, and work pro- 
gressed on it so rapidly that on the 8th of May reeling began. This 
building stood on the lot bounded by Abercorn, St. Julian, Lincoln and 
Bryan streets, and was used for the purposes for which it was built 
until 1774, in which year, on the 19th of January, Sir James Wright, 
governor of the province of Georgia, sent a message to the common 
house of assembly in which he said : ' ' The filature buildings seem to be 
going to decay and ruin ; may it not, therefore, be expedient to consider 
what other service or use they may be put to?" and the assembly an- 
swered, "We shall not fail to consider how it may be expedient to apply 
the Filature to some public use. ' ' From that time it was lased as a public 
hall, in which balls were given, and as a place for political gatherings 
and meetings of all sorts, including those for religious purposes. Fin- 
ally, it was used as a dwelling-place, when, as such, it was destroyed by 
fire during the afternoon of March 25, 1839. Numerous advertisements 



58 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

in the old Georgia Gazette announced that meetings would be held "at 
the Filature." 

Drawbacks Insurmountable 

The business of silk-making in Georgia, though started with the 
general expectation that it would be the chief industry in the province, 
failed to reach the point which might have placed it on a paying basis, 
and it is not at all to be concluded that, if it had been given an absolutely 
fair trial under the most favorable conditions, it would never have be- 
come remunerative.' From its inception until it was finally abandoned 
it was, at all points, hampered by unfortunate circumstances which had 
a tendency to retard the work and to discourage those who had the 
matter most at heart. Much was expected, in the very beginning, from 
the man Camuse, who seemed to know the business thoroughly and from 
whom so much was expected in the development of the business ; but he 
proved to be quarrelsome, and could not be depended on, and the dis- 
appointment at that point was great. Again, persons who at first took 
hold with the very highest zeal, soon became despondent, and left off all 
desire to continue the work. Thus we are told that "though Oglethorpe 
gave Mr. Bolzius trees, silk worms, and a book of instructions, yet he 
confesses that he felt no interest in the business, nor inclination to pur- 
sue it."* 

* Memorials of James Oglethorpe, by T. M. Harris, p. 395. 



CHAPTER VII 

ORIGINAL SAVANNAH DESCRIBED 

Feeding and Housing of First Colonists — Father Oglethorpe — 
Gordon's First Town Plat — Pioneer Points of Interest — Names 
OF First Streets — The Trustees' Garden. 

Returuiug now to the colonists and their first efforts in making them- 
selves secure and free to enjoy home-life in their new abiding-place, let 
us look upon them as they employ themselves daily under their respec- 
ted leader. Pursuing the course he had from the very first mapped 
out, Oglethorpe treated his people more as members of his own family 
than as subordinates, advising and admonishing them as a father would 
advise and warn his children. He told them, among other things, "It 
is my hope that through your good example the settlement of Georgia 
may prove a blessing, and not a curse, to the native inhabitants." He 
set them to work felling trees, putting up a crane for hauling up the 
bluff the material brought in the Ann, unloading that vessel, and hewing 
the stuff to be used in stockading the town. The people not only assisted 
in the building of edifices to be used for public purposes, but they 
erected homes for themselves into which they moved, discarding the 
tents, as soon as the houses could be made habitable. Besides this they 
labored in the building of the fort which was to occupy a place at the 
extreme eastern end of the settlement, on the liluff. So busy were they 
from the first moment of their landing that Oglethorpe in his letter to 
the trustees, announcing their safe arrival, said: "I am so taken up in 
looking after a hundred necessary things, that I write now short, but 
shall give you a more particular account hereafter." 

Feeding and Housing of First Colonists 

Of course, the people had to be fed, and it is a pleasure to observe 
that, in addition to the help rendered by the good people of South 
Carolina in the way of contributing negro laborers and personally 
assisting Oglethorpe in every possible way, donations of food were 
liberally made by them, Mr. Whitaker and some friends alone, at one 
time, as we are told, adding to the store one hundred head of cattle, and 
the people of Edisto sixteen sheep. 

On the 12th of March, 1733, a little more than a month after landing, 
General Oglethorpe wrote to the trustees: "Our people still live in tents, 

59 



60 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 




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SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 61 

there being only two clap-board houses built and three small houses 
framed. Our crane, our battery, cannon and magazine are finished. 
This is all that we have been able to do by reason of the smallness of 
our number, of which many have been sick and others unused to labor; 
though I thank God they are now pretty well, and we have not lost one 
since our arrival here." 

Father Oglethorpe 

Showing that every precaution was used to avoid attacks by enemies 
from outside, an account of the visit of som'e South Carolina gentlemen, 
published in the Gazette of that province, March 22d, 1733, contained 
this statement : ' ' Some time before we came to the Landing the Sentinel 
challenged us, and understanding who we were, admitted us ashore," 
and, in praise of Oglethorpe, continued, "Mr. Oglethorpe is indefatig- 
able, takes a great deal of Pains ; his fare is but indifferent, having little 
else at present but salt Provisions. He is extremely well beloved by all 
his People ; the general Title they give him is Father. If any of them is 
sick he immediately visits them and takes a great deal of care of them. 
If any difference arises, he is the Person that Decides it. Two happened 
while I was there, and in my presence ; and all the Parties went away, 
to outward Appearance, satisfied and contented with his Determination. 
He keeps a strict Discipline ; I neither saw one of his People drunk, nor 
heard one swear all the time I was there ; he does not allow them rum, 
but in lieu gives them English beer. It is surprising to see how cheer- 
fully the men go to work, considering they have not been bred to it ; 
there are no idlers there ; even the boys and girls do their Parts. ' ' 

Gordon's First Town Plan 

The first plan of the town of Savannah was made by Peter Gordon, 
of whom our knowledge is not very extensive. This plan was made a 
little more than a year after the landing of Oglethorpe's colonists, and 
bears this dedicatory inscription: "To the Honorable, the Trustees, for 
establishing the Colony of Georgia in America this View of the Town of 
Savannah is humbly dedicated by their Honours Obliged and most Obedi- 
ent Servant, Peter Gordon." We have seen that the common council 
made ' ' a deed dated the 7th of November, 1732, appointing Peter Gordon, 
William Waterland, and Thomas Christie, bailiffs of Savannah," and 
that at the same time Peter Gordon and six others were appointed "con- 
servators to keep the peace in the said town. ' ' For some reason not 
mentioned, action as to him was re-considered and George Symes named 
in his place. By the action alloting lands to the colonists, Peter Gordon 
drew as his share garden lot lOE and farm lot 7 in Frederick tything, 
Derby ward. Whether he was employed to make the plan there is no 
way for us to ascertain, as the minutes of both the trustees and the com- 
mon council are silent on this point ; but we do find the entry in the 
latter, under date, April 6, 1734: "Ordered that sixteen guineas be 
paid to Mr. Peter Gordon as a consideration for his Draught of Savan- 
nah." On May 10, 1735, he appeared before the common council and 



62 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"delivered in a Memorial to the Trustees with several Letters and Papers 
from several of the Inhabitants of Savannah." And that is about the 
substance of all the information we have of the man. The plan gives 
us this information : At that time stairs had been built leading from the 
margin of the river up to the top of the bluff, and slightly to the east of 
the place where General Oglethorpe pitched his tent which is shown 
under the four pine trees near the edge of the bluff. 

Pioneer Points of Interest 

If this plan is accurate, then the stone seat lately erected by the 
Georgia Society of Colonial Dames of America to mark the place where 
Oglethorpe's tent was placed is much too far westward of the true spot. 
In truth it is located too far from Bull street and too near to Whitaker 
street. The crane and bell were placed just midway between those two 
streets. The tabernacle and courthouse were at the corner of 
Bull street and Bay street lane ; the public hall was in the center of the 
lot facing Bryan street, from Bull to Whitaker, and occupied that lot 
entirely through to St. Julian street ; south of that hall, on the north 
side of St. Julian and precisely opposite was the house for strangers, 
while the public oven was built at the southeast corner of Whitaker 
and Congress streets. The draw well was in the center of Bull street 
just where Congress street lane intersects Bull, and the lot for the 
church just where Christ church stands, bounded by Bull. Congress, 
Drayton and St. Julian streets. Facing Johnson square on Bull street, 
and extending north and south from Bryan to St. Julian, stood the pub- 
lie stores, but occupying only about one-fifth of the lot which runs back 
to Drayton. The fort was built on the northeast corner of South Broad 
and Drayton streets, and the parsonage was directly opposite the church, 
on the southeast corner of Drayton and St. Julian. On a line with the 
eastern side of Drayton street, extending from Bay southward to 
Bryan street, the palisades were located. At the foot of Drayton, on 
Bay street north, were placed the guardhouse and battery of cannon. 
By this plan it seems that in the course of a little over one year the 
number of houses erected for the people exclusive of public buildings, 
was about eighty. 

Names of First Streets 

It is a fact not to be accounted for that ]\Ir. Gordon did not, in what 
he called his "view" of the town, give the names of the streets. The 
names of those public-spirited South Carolinians, Joseph Bryan, I\Ir 
St. Julian, Mr. Whitaker and Mrs. Ann Drayton, who so materially 
assisted the first settlere. were given to the streets which still bear theii 
names, and one street was named for the Earl of Abercorn. who was a 
generous benefactor of the colony. Barnard street was named for Sir 
John Barnard who contributed liberally to the fund of the trustees. 
Jefferson street was then the western limit of Savannah, but apparently 
had no name given to it, but when the city grew beyond its west side, the 
city council by ordinance of January 12, 1791, declared that the street 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 63 

parallel to Montgomery (named in the same instrument) which street 
"is the one between the old limits and the present addition on the west 
common, shall be called Jefferson street." Within the limits shown on 
Peter Gordon's "view" were included what were probably at the time 
of their laying out called King, Prince, and Duke streets. Those names 
remained unchanged until the year 1803, when, by ordinance of Febru- 
ary 21st, they were changed in the following words: "Whereas, the 
names or titles of King, Prince, and Duke are unknown to the consti- 
tution of Georgia, or the United States, and the permitting or suffering 
several streets in the city to be still called by those obnoxious names 
reflects highly on the police (sic) thereof: 

"No. 517. (1.) The streets now called King street, Prince street, 
and Duke street, shall be, hereafter, called and known by the names 
following: That is to say, the street now called King street shall be 
called President strefet ; the street called Prince street shall be called 
State street, and the street called Duke street shall be called Congress 
street." 

The Trustees' Garden 

Mr. Peter Gordon did not indicate the locality of the trustees' gar- 
den which was at that time perhaps just beginning to show the results 
of the care bestowed upon it from its first planting in the preceding year. 
It is hardly necessary to say much about this matter, considering the 
fact that it was not kept up many years, but, as it was deemed of great 
importance when laid out, and as it formed an important adjunct to 
the town as long as it was cultivated, the description of it by Secretary 
Moore, in his Voyage to Georgia in 1735 has been given in full in Chap- 
ter III. 



CHAPTER VIII 

RELIGIOUS, MORAL AND INDUSTRIAL 

Pioneer Churches — Oglethorpe Returns to England — LTnpopular 
Colonial Deputy — Intoxicated with Power and Pride — Anti-Ruji 
AND Anti-Slave Laws— The Trustees Against Slavery — White- 
field in Favor of Slavery. 

The manifestly great importance of the actual settling of Savannah 
and the incidents connected with that matter, including the work done in 
improving the place and in making the soil as productive as possible, 
necessitated the use heretofore of considerable space, and henceforward 
the many incidents to follow in this history will be recited in a more con- 
densed form. Wherever it was possible, the facts have been given in the 
very words of the documents found in all cases — surely the best evidence 
to be had. 

Apprehending trouble with the Spaniards on the southern frontier, 
Oglethorpe's first separation from his people occurred in January, 
1734, when, early on the 23d, he departed, with Captain Ferguson and 
sixteen men, including two Indian guides, on a recounoitering trip. Then 
it was that the sites for the future towns of Frederica and New Inverness 
(afterwards Darien) were chosen. 

Pioneer Churches 

The first minister to the colony was, as we have seen, the Rev. Dr. 
Henry Herbert, who volunteered to act in that position, performing all 
necessary services without compensation. Religious services were held 
at first, according to the statement of Francis ]\Ioore. in a hut thirty-six 
feet long and twelve feet wide, made of split-boards, which was liuilt 
for a courthouse at the time of the first landing.* On the return of Ogle- 
thorpe from his first visit to England iu 1735, he "ordered a house to 
be erected in the upper square which might serve for a Courthouse and 
for divine service till a church could be built." The hut which was the 
first place of worship was on the northeast corner of Bay street lane 
and Bull street, and the second place mentioned was on the lot bounded 
by Bull, President, Whitaker and York streets, wliere the postoffiee now 
stands; and the Colonial Dames have nuirked the spot with a bronze 
tablet recording the fact that there stood the courthouse built by Ogle- 

* Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. I, p. 100. 

64 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 65 

thorpe as well as the information that John Wesley preached in that 
building from May 6 to November 27, 1736. Doctor Herbert's term of 
service as rector of the cliurch of the colony did not last long, and we 
have no information as to the exact time or the cause of his leaving. 
We only know that he was succeeded probably before the expiration of 
a year, by the Rev. Samuel Quincy, who himself was succeeded in 1736 
by the great John Wesley. From the time of Moore's voyage until the 
arrival of Mr. Wesley the affairs in the town apparently went on in a 
quiet way, as no matters of interest during that period have been found 
recorded anywhere. 

Oglethorpe Returns to England 

The Salzburgers, on coming to Georgia, settled at a point south of 
what is now the thriving town of Springfield, in Effingham county, to 
which they gave the name Ebenezer, and Oglethorpe feeling the relief 
from the anxiety which his concern for that people had caused, felt that 
it was a proper time to return to England and render in person an 
account of the progress made in a little more than a year of experience 
as the steward of the trustees. We have seen how he carried out his 
plan of taking with him his friend Tomo-Chachi and others of the 
Indian tribe whose kind treatment had helped materially in the success- 
ful development of the settlement. To Mr. Thomas Causton he com- 
mitted the care of the town and province, and that man, who was the 
storekeeper of the trustees as well as a bailiff of the court, was assured 
of the advice and counsel of Mr. James St. Julian, a South Carolina 
gentleman deeply interested in the Georgia people, and of Mr. Francis 
Scott who had cast his lot with Oglethorpe's band and was a man of 
influence and integrity. 

Unpopular Colonial Deputy 

In the allotment of lands Causton had drawn garden lot 8E and 
farm lot 10 in Frederick tything G of Derby ward. To his suburban 
place he gave the name Oxstead, of which the three writers of "A True 
and Historical Narrative of the Colony of Georgia in America," printed 
in 1741, said : ''About three miles southeast of Savannah, upon Augustine 
creek, lies Oxstead, the settlement of Mr. Thomas Causton, improven by 
many hands and at a great charge, where he now resides with a few 
servants." This place now bears the name Causton 's Bluff. 

Though left in charge of the colony during the absence of the leader, 
Causton was fully advised beforehand as to the duties he was to per- 
form and what authority he should exercise. Notwithstanding this, he 
acted in such a way as to cause great displeasure to the people and to 
be the subject of the special rancor of those men who have become known 
by the title of "malcontents," the authors of the work from which we 
have .just quoted, and from which we again quote. They arraigned him 
in this language : 

"Whilst we labored under those difficulties in supporting ourselves, 
our civil liberties received a more terrible shock ; for instead of such a 

Vol. 1—5 



66 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

free government as. we had reason to expect, and of being judged by the 
laws of our mother country, a dictator (under the title of bailiff and 
store-keeper) was appointed and left by Mr. Oglethorpe, at his de- 
parture, which was in April, 1734, whose will and pleasure were the 
only laws in Georgia. In regard to this magistrate, the others were 
entirely nominal, and in a manner Init ciphers. Sometimes he would 
ask in public their opinion, in order to have the pleasure of showing 
his power by contradicting them. He would often threaten juries, and 
especially when their verdicts did not agree with his inclination or humor, 
and in order the more fully to establish his absolute authority, the store 
and disposal of the provisions, money, and public places of trust, were 
committed to him ; by which alteration in his state and circumstances 
he became in a manner infatuated, being before that a person of no sub- 
stance or character, having come over with Mr. Oglethorpe amongst the 
first forty, and left England upon account of something committed by 
him concerning his majesty's duties. However, he Avas fit enough for a 
great many purposes, being a person naturally proud, covetous, cunning 
and deceitful, and would bring his designs about by all possible ways 
and means. 

Intoxicated with Power and Pride 

■ "As his power increased so did his pride, haughtiness and cruelty, 
insomuch that he caused eight free-holders with an officer to attend at 
the door of the court every day it sat, with their guns and bayonets, 
and they were commanded by his orders, to rest their firelocks as soon as 
he appeared, which made people in some manner afraid to speak their 
minds, or juries to act as their consciences directed them. He was sel- 
dom or never uncovered on the bench, not even when an oath was admin- 
istrated ; and being perfectly intoxicated with power and pride he threat- 
ened every person without distinction, rich and poor, strangers and in- 
habitants, who in the least opposed his arbitrary proceedings, or claimed 
their just rights and pi'ivileges, with the stocks, whipping-post and log- 
house, and many times put those threatenings into execution, so that the 
Georgia stocks, whipping-post and log-house soon Avere famous in Caro- 
lina, and everywhere in America where the name of the province was 
heard of, and the very thought of coming to the qolony became a terror to 
people's mind." There is much more of the same sort in the pamphlet 
from which we will make further (quotations as we proceed with this nar- 
rative. 

Anti-Rum and Anti-Sl.we Laws 

Among the instructions given to Causton when he was clothed with 
aiTthority to govern during Oglethorpe's absence was one specially 
relating to the acts recently adopted prohibiting the use of intoxicating 
drinks. Legislation on this subject had been forced upon the people 
by reason of the fact that in the month of August, 1733, several per- 
sons residing in Savannah had died, as was then stated, from the use 
of rum, and, in response to a report to that effect by Mr. Oglethorpe, 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 67 

the common council passed a resolution on the 21st of November "that 
the drinking of rum in Georgia be absolutely prohibited, and that all 
which shall be l)rought there be stored." As no such law existed in 
the neighboring colony of Soutli Carolina, rum was freely imported 
there from both the West Indies and New England, and the traders 
of that colony who could get all tliey wanted supplied the trustees' 
store at Savannah with it. This law against the sale of rum Mr. Causton 
endeavored to enforce, and his action relative thereto was severely 
criticized by the malcontents. In their tirade against Causton, they 
asserted that by reason of the punishments alleged to have been in- 
flicted by him the people of South Carolina "who had, in private and 
public donations, given in upwards of 1,300£ sterling, seeing these 
things and liow the public money was thrown away, began to despise 
the colony, and out of regard to the welfare of their fellow creatures, 
persuaded everybody they could from settling in it." They then de- 
clared his efforts to restrain the sending of rum from South Carolina 
into Georgia as an intentional "design further to exasperate the people 
of Carolina," adding that "he caused their boats to be searched, and 
whatever rum was found therein was directly stored, in pursuance of 
an act, as he alleged, entitled an act against the importation of rum into 
the colony of Georgia." 

At the same time another act was passed by the common council 
of the trustees which, later, became the subject of much talk and excite- 
ment, but which, together with the resolution forbidding the importa- 
tion of rum, was some sixteen years later rescinded. It was "an act 
for rendering the province of Georgia more defensible by prohibiting 
the importation of black slaves or negroes into the same," the reason for 
its adoption being the fear of the trustees that by the aid of negro 
labor the people would relax their ' ' habits of labour, industry, economy, 
and thrift by personal application." Objection to this measure was 
made by the malcontents, in a petition to the trustees calling their at- 
tention to the caiises of what they called their "personal misfortunes" in 
these words: "The want of the use of negroes, with proper limitations; 
which if granted, would both occasion great numbers of white people 
to come here, and also render us capable to subsist ourselves, by raising 
provisions upon our lands, until we could make some produce fit for 
export, in some measure to ])alance our importation. AVe are very 
sensible of the inconveniences and mischiefs that have already and do 
daily arise from an unlimited use of negroes; but we are as sensible 
that these may be prevented by a due limitation, such as so many to 
each white man, or so many to such a quantity of land or in any manner 
which your Honour shall think most proper." 

The Trustees Against Slavery 

This question of slavery was a matter of some concern to the trustees, 
and the advisability of changing the positive law on the subject was 
brought to their attention from time to time. On the 20th of June, 
1739, they declined to accede to the request of the magistrates, and other 
citizens, in a letter addressed to the latter, in which, after acknowl- 



68 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

edging the receipt of a " representation signed by you, the magistrates 
and many of the inhabitants of Savannah on the 9th of December last, 
for altering the tenure of the lands, and introducing negroes into the 
Province," they go on to say "they direct you to give the complainants 
this anwser from the Trustees : That they should deem themselves very 
unfit for the trust reposed in them by his Majesty on their behalf if 
they could be prevailed upon by such an irrational attempt to give 
up a constitution framed with the greatest caution for the preservation 
of liberty and property, and of which the laws against the use of 
slaves and for the entail of lands are the surest foundations." 

Oglethorpe reported to the trustees that their decision had been 
received and promulgated, and that its effect was noticeable for the 
good it had accomplished, and they took from the magistrates who 
had signed the petition their commissions. At the same time the 
malcontents who had stirred up strife by their unruly behavior in 
many ways departed from Georgia. In their severe arraignment of 
the office-holders and others, whose conduct did not meet with their 
approval, those discontented persons magnified the little mistakes of 
those whom they despised, made assertions they could not prove, and 
showed a remarkable degree of spite, while, at the same time, they said 
some things which were true. 

Whitefield in Favor op Slavery 

Once before the trustees had positively refused to yield to the de- 
mand for the employment of slaves in Georgia, and the fight was kept 
up so persistently that a modification of the law finally resulted, and 
slave labor was permitted. Among those who advocated the rescinding 
of the prohibitory measure, strange to say, was the Rev. George 
Whitefield who played a prominent part in Georgia's history in 
connection, principally, with the orphan home established by him, 
with the aid of Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, at Bethesda, near 
Savannah. He believed that the bringing of slaves from Africa was 
demanded by the claims of humanity, and declared that it was 
greatly to their advantage to be permitted to toil in useful labor, and 
went so far as to say that it was an established fact that the colony 
could not prosper without the use of slave lal)or. His views were shared 
by the Hon. James Habersham who came to Georgia with him. These 
names are here mentioned somewhat out of the regular chronological 
order because we are now on a suliject in the discussion of which it 
becomes necessary to state their position. It must be borne in mind 
that this question was under discussion a long time before it was 
definitely settled and the parts taken in it by these two men was of such 
importance as to call for a statement of their view of the matter at 
this point ; and we now quote from ]\Ir. Whitefield who thus wrote to 
the trustees oi" Georgia from Gloucester, December 6, 17-18: "I need 
not inform you how the Colony of Georgia has been declining, and at 
what great disadvantages I have maintained a large family in that 
wilderness. * Upwards of £5,000 have been expended in that under- 

* Ecferriuf; to the orphau-lioiiio ;it Botbosila which will be presented to the 
reader's atteutiou presently. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 69 

taking; and yet very little proficiency has been made in the cultiva- 
tion of my tract of land ; and that entirely owing to the necessity I 
lay under of making use of white hands. Had negroes been allowed, 
I should now have had a sufficient to support a great many orphans, 
without expending above half the sum that has been laid out. An un- 
willingness to let so good a design drop induced me, two years ago, 
to purchase a plantation in South Carolina, where negroes are allowed. 
This plantation has succeeded ; and, though I have only eight working 
hands, in all probability there will be more raised in one year and with 
a quarter of the expense than has been produced at Bethesda for 
several years past. This confirms me in the opinion I have long enter- 
tained that Georgia never can be a flourishing province lanless negroes 
are employed. * * * My chief end in writing this is to inform you 
that I am as willing as ever to do all I can for Georgia and the orphan 
house, if either a limited use of negroes is approved of, or some more 
indentured servants be sent from England. If not, I cannot promise to 
keep any large family or cultivate the plantation in any considerable 
manner. ' ' 

Commenting on this letter, Whitefield's biographer, the Rev. Luke 
Tyerman, pointedly remarks : ' ' From such a pen this is a strange 
production. Whitefield, with his large heart, urging the introduction 
of slavery into the province of Georgia and almost threatening to 
abandon his Orphan House unless his proposal be granted! White- 
field's honour is best eared for by saying as little about the incident 
as possible. ' ' But there were many others in Georgia who were strongly 
urging the trustees to rescind the act against the use of negroes. 
Among them, as first stated, was the Hon. James Habersham, founder 
of the family of that name in Georgia, who came over with Whitefield 
in 1738, and whose intercourse with the celebrated preacher was in- 
timate and of the most friendly nature for many years and until 
broken by death. Others, in close touch with the trustees, stood by 
these men, and in spite of the repeated failures they met with, stub- 
bornly contended the point until their demand was granted. 



CHAPTER IX 

JOHN AND CHARLES WESLEY 

John AVesley and His Labors — Abuse of Wesley — New "Secretary 
OP THE Trust" — AVesley and Sophia (Hopkins) AVilliamson^ — Mr. 
Wesley's Statement of the Trouble — The Trustees Treat the 
Matter Lightly — Charles AVesley Departs for England — ^AN^'hite- 
FiELD Succeeds John Wesley. 

After a stay of some seven months in England, Tomo-chi-chi returned 
to Georgia, reaching Savannah on the 27th of December, 1734. Ogle- 
thorpe remained in England resviming his seat in parliament 
where he saw to the enactment of the laws concerning slavery and rum 
referred to in the preceding chapter. He secured for the colony a 
large number of emigrants to go with him on his return, and they, 
amounting to two hundred and twenty in all, left London on the 13th 
of October, 1735. The next day Oglethorpe, accompanied by the Rev. 
John AVesley, Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, Rev. Charles Wesley, 
his brother, student of Christ's Church College, and Reverend Mr. 
Ingham, of Queen's, went by land to Gravesend, where they embarked 
on board the Symouds, commanded by Capt. Joseph Cornish. Besides 
this ship there was the London Merchant, Capt. John Thomas, which 
took on board such of the people as could not be accommodated on the 
Symonds. 

Just before this the Moravians, led by the Rev. Gottlieb Spangen- 
berg and assisted by Count Zinzendorf, arrived in Georgia and made 
their home on the Savannah river between the town and Ebenezer; and 
they were closely followed by the Scotch Highlanders, under the care 
of their spiritual guide, the Rev. John McLeod, who settled at a point 
about sixteen miles above St. Simon's Island up the Altamaha river 
which they called New Inverness. Here they lived, and they were a 
great help to Oglethorpe in the troubles with the Spanish in Florida, 
as well as to Georgia in her dark days covering the period of the 
American Revolution. Among these highlauders were the Mcintosh 
•family and the Mackays. A road from their settlement to Savannah 
was laid out by Capt. iEugh IMackay, aided by Indian guides furnished 
by Toino-chi-clii, which is still known as the Darien road, Dai'ien being 
the present name of the first settlement known as New Inverness. 

70 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



71 



John Wesley and His Labors 

John Wesley, in his journal on Thiirsday, February 19, 1736, says 
o&his arrival: "My brother and I took boat, and passing by Savannah, 
went to pay our first visit in America to the poor heathens. But 
neither Tomo-Chaehi nor Sinauky was at home. Coming back we 
waited upon Mr. Causton, the chief magistrate of Savannah. From 
him we went with j\Ir. Spangenberg to the Germ.an brethren. About 
eleven we returned to the boat, and came to our ship about four in the 
morning." Charles Wesley came to Georgia with a commission from 
the trustees as secretary of Indian affairs for the colony of Georgia, and 
was the private secretary to General Oglethorpe. While considering 




L .NiTKD States C'ustom House, Savannah 
This building stands on spot where John Wesley preached his first sermon in Georgia 



the matter of providing for the spiritual care of the colonists and the 
conversion of the Indians, John Wesley was named to the trustees as 
a man well qualified for that work by Doctor Burton, president of 
Corpus Christi College as well as one of the Georgia trustees. Mr. 
Wesley was introduced to Oglethorpe by Doctor Burton, and the mis- 
sion was at once tendered to him but was promptly declined. He was 
finally persuaded to accept the position and the two brothers together 
engaged to accept service in the new colony. Of his first act in entering 
upon his duties John Wesley made this note in his journal under date 
Sunday the 7th of March. "I entered upon my ministry at Savannah 
by preaching on the epistle for the day, being the thirteenth of the 
first of Corinthians. " In a postscript to a letter written to the trustees 
February 27, 1786, Oglethorpe mentioned the fact that "Mr. Wesleys' 
are gone up to Toma-chi-chi Mico, and live with Mr. Musgrove in his 
neighborhood six miles from Savannah where he has built a new 
town" and on the 16th of ]\Iarch following he said: "Mr. John Wesley 



72 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

is at Savannah and I have desired him to state ye case of ye Salzburgers. 
Mr. Charles Wesley and Mr. Ingham are working with me. ' ' 

At this time there was some trouble among the Salzburgers, and 
that fact is evidently alluded to in the quotation just given. On the 
same day Oglethorpe wrote a letter to Mr. Vat, from Frederica, which 
so clearly shows his ability to handle difficult matters and to act 
impartially in every affair in life that it is here given in full as showing 
his determination to render justice at all times. "I have received the 
favor of yours and am very sorry to find there' are any discontents 
among the Salzburgers. Mr. Von Reek complains much of you, as 
well as you of him, I have wrote to him upon the occasion and sent 
him the heads of what you objected to him, that he may make his defence. 
I have also desired him to make good what he objects to you, and recom- 
mended to the Rev. Mr. John Wesley to state the matter how things 
have past at Ebenezer, that when I have seen things in a clear light, 
I may be able to determine them, which I would not do in a matter 
where such worthy people are concerned, till the truth appeared fully, 
least I should by rash judgment injure any man's reputation or 
character." The trouble was that Mr. Von Reck and Mr. Bolzius 
preferred charges against Mr. Vat who had been "appointed secretary 
of the Salzburgers by the trustees and to him were the stores at Ebenezer 
entrusted," as said Oglethorpe in a letter to Von Reck the same da}% 
and he added : ' ' He is answerable for them, and till such time as by 
his behavior I am entitled to dismiss him, it is improper for me to 
take them from his care nor can I determine any more in his than in 
your ease without a hearing. ]\Ir. Bolzius and you have both accused 
him, therefore, as I cannot come myself yet to Savannah I refer exam- 
ining into the matter to Mr. John Wesley who is there entirely unprej- 
udiced. I must again repeat the uneasiness I am under in not being' 
able to assist them personally." 

John Wesley succeeded the Rev. Samuel Quincy as spiritual 
guide to the colony, although he always averred that he undertook the 
task of a missionary with the purpose of using all his powers in the 
conversion of the Indians. "I never promised to stay here one month 
I openly declare, both before, and ever since my coming hither, that 
I neither would nor could take charge of the English any longer than 
till I could go among the Indians." "S^Hien reminded that his appoint- 
ment was to be minister at Savannah, he answered: "It was done 
without either my desire or knowledge. Therefore I cannot conceive 
that that appointment could lay me under any obligation of contini;ing 
here longer than till a door is opened to the heathen ; and this I expressly 
declared at the time I consented to accept that appointment." He 
had been thoroughly impressed with the idea before consenting to leave 
England for America, that the work among the Indians would be 
rewarded Avith favorable results, and that without any vast amount 
of persuasion. He took literally to heart the impression conveyed to 
Oglethorpe in one of his letters that "a door seemed opened for the 
conversion of the Indians;" but he was doomed to be greatly dis- 
appointed, and his discouragement was manifest before he had been 
in Georgia many weeks. He was very favorably impressed with 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 73 

Savannah and its climate. In a letter to his mother he said "the place 
is pleasant beyond imagination and by all I can learn exceedingly 
healthful even in summer for those who are not intemperate." His 
disappointment was twofold. Not only did he find the task of leading 
the Indians into a true knowledge of Christianity hopeless, but he had to 
admit after trial that his church work was not acceptable to most of his 
parishioners. Among those whom he counted as his friends one whom 
he questioned on this point severely remai'ked : "I like nothing you 
do ; all your sermons are satires upon particular persons. Therefore 
I will never hear you more and all the people are of my mind, for we 
won 't hear ourselves abused. Besides, they say they are Protestants, but 
as for you they can't tell what religion you are of. They never heard 
of such religion before. They do not know what to make of it. And 
then your private behavior, all the quarrels that have been here since 
you came have been along of you. Indeed there is neither man nor 
woman in the town who minds a word what you say, and so you may 
preach long enough, but nobody will come to hear you." His stay 
in Georgia lasted only a year and ten months, but his experience during 
that short time was varied and exciting. The month of July, 1737, 
was spent by him partly in visiting from house to house, and he then 
estimated the number of inhabitants in the town to be 518, all of whom 
except 149 were over the age of sixteen years. 

Abuse op Wesley 

The malcontents, of course, made him one of the objects of their 
abusive publication. They said "And now to make our subjection the 
more complete, a new kind of tyranny was this summer (1737) begun to 
be imposed upon us; for Mr. John Wesley, who had come over and Avas 
received by us as a clergyman of the Church of England, soon discovered 
that his aim was to enslave our minds, as a necessary preparative for 
enslaving our bodies. The attendance upon prayer, meetings and ser- 
mons inculcated by him, so frequently, and at improper hours, incon- 
sistent with necessary labor, especially in an infant colony, tended to 
propagate a spirit of indolence and of hypocrisy amongst the more 
abandoned ; it being much easier for such persons, by an affected show 
of religion, and adherence to Mr. Wesley's novelties, to be provided by 
his procurement from the public stores, than to use that industry which 
true religion recommends ; nor indeed could the reverend gentleman 
conceal the designs he was so full of, having frequently declared that 
he never desired to see Georgia a rich, but a religious* colony. 
At last all persons of any consideration came to look xapon 
him as a Roman Catholic," and then follow four reasons for 
so considering him, as (1) "he most unmercifully damned all 
dissenters of whatever denomination, who were never admitted 
to communicate with him until they first gave up their faith and 
principles entirely to his moulding and direction, and in confirmation 
thereof declared their belief of the invalidity of their former baptism, 

* According to his system. 



74 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

and then to receive a new one from him"; (2) "persons suspected to 
be Roman Catholics were received and caressed by him as his first rate 
saints"; (3) "his endeavors to establish confession, penance, mortifica- 
tion, mixing wine with water in the sacrament, and suppressing in the 
administration of the sacrament the explanation adjoined to the words 
of communicating by the Church of England"; (4) "as there is always 
a strict connection betwixt popery and slaverj^, so the design of all this 
fine scheme seemed to the most judicious to be calculated to debase and 
depress the minds of the people, to break any spirit of liberty, and 
humble them with fastings, penances, drinking of water, and a thoi-ough 
subjection to the spiritual jurisdiction which he asserted was to be 
established in his person ; and when this should be accomplished the 
minds of people would be equally prepared for the receiving civil or 
ecclesiastical tyranny." They charged that, in order to bring about a 
perfection of his "avcII concerted scheme" families were divided in 
parties, spies were engaged in many houses, and the servants of others 
bribed and decoyed to let them into all secrets of the families they be- 
longed to; nay, those who had given themselves up to his spiritual guid- 
ance (more especially the women) were obliged to discover to him their 
most secret actions, nay even their thoughts and the subject of their 
dreams. ' ' 

Mr. Wesley would have done well, and would have succeeded, at 
least in his work among the colonists, had he followed the advice given 
"him by his friend Doctor Burton who induced him to take up the work 
in Georgia: "With regard to your behavior and manner of address, 
you will keep in mind the pattern of St. Paul who became 'all things to 
all men, that he might gain some.' In every case distinguish between 
what is essential and what is merely circumstantial to Christianity ; be- 
tween what is indispensable and what is variable ; between what is of 
divine and what is of human authority. I mention this because men are 
apt to deceive themselves in such cases, and we see the traditions and 
ordinances of men frequently insisted on with more vigor than the com- 
mandments of God to which they are subordinate." 

At the time that the malcontents wrote their bitter specifications 
against John Wesley, they charged that Mr. Thomas Causton was his 
companion and abettor in the mischief which they alleged was being 
made. And, indeed, at that period the two were good friends and acted 
to a certain extent in co-operation. Those vilifiers asserted of Mv. 
Wesley that "Mr. Causton and he were hand in hand." Strange to 
say, however, this same Causton and his family were the instruments 
through whom Mv. Wesley's career in Georgia not only ended in failure 
of accomplisliing what lie confidently expected to do but broiight a last- 
ing sorrow to that good man and brought about his leaving Georgia 
under a heavy cloud which in the minds of some has never been cleared 
away. Friendship and close fellowship Suddenly turned into bitter 
hatred and the severing of ties which in this life were never re-united. 

New' " Secret .vry of the Trust" 

On the 8th of April, 1737, IMr. William Stephens, of the Isle of 
Wight, was appointed "Secretary of the Trust within the Province of 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 75 

Georgia," as appears by the minutes of the common council of the 
trustees, and on the 27th of the same month "a grant of enfeoffment of 
five liundred acres of land was made by the same body to the said Will- 
iam Stephens and his third son Thomas, and the father was then sworn 
in as secretary, and instructions to the new officer were read, approved, 
countersigned and sealed by the Secretary of the Trustees." This was fol- 
lowed by the reading of "a paper of private instructions to William 
Stephens." For some reason the trustees requested this officer to delay 
the time of his departure for Georgia, and on the 10th of August they 
voted to pay him the sum of thirty-one pounds ten shillings "his expenses, 
he having waited three months at the request of the trust before he was 
ordered to imbark for Georgia." From the same minutes we learn that 
he "sailed the middle of August." He relates in his journal that owing 
to adverse circumstances he did not reach Charleston, South Carolina, 
until October 20 ; that he departed from that jjlace on the 28th ; and he 
arrived at Savannah at ten o'clock in the morning of the 1st of Novem- 
ber. His attention was almost immediately called to the trouble between 
Mr. John Wesley and a number of the inhabitants, particularly the 
family of Causton and their followers, for, under date Thursday, Novem- 
ber 3d, in concluding his record of the events of the day, he adds : ' ' After- 
wards I heard from ditt'erent hands a long detail of the cause of discord 
between Mr. Causton and the parson ever since Mr. Williamson married 
Miss Hopkins (niece of Mr. Causton) which was told me variously, as 
the relators were inclined ; but it was carried now to that height as to 
engage great part of the town which was so divided that Mr. Causton 
and Mr. Wesley drew their greatest attention, and the partisans on both 
sides did not stick to throw plenty of scandal against their adversaries." 

Wesley and Sophia (Hopkins) Williamson 

Unfortunately for Mr. Wesley he had received as a pupil a young 
woman, Sophia Hopkins, the niece of Thomas Causton, whom he engaged 
to instruct in the French language. His influence with her was so great 
that she was converted by his preaching, and joined the church. She 
was attractive in manners, and was accomplished, and it is generally 
believed that Mr. Wesley desired to marry her. Charles Delamotte, 
who accompanied the Wesleys to Georgia and who was their friend, 
saw the danger which this intimacy, if continued, was sure to cause, 
and warned his companion against a too close friendship with his pupil, 
and it is not a matter of wonder that the clergyman did follow the advice 
of one whom he knew to be a true friend. Mr. Delamotte had worked in 
the greatest harmony with John Wesley, had organized a school of 
between thirty and forty children whom he is said to have taught to 
"read, write, and cast accounts," and whom Mr. Wesley catechised 
every Saturday afternoon and before evening service on Sunday. Added 
to the admonition of this friend was the advice of the Moravian elders, 
who also became apprehensive that a marriage between the two seemed 
possible, and that such union could hardly be a happy one. Thus cau- 
tioned, Wesley had the good sense to be more guided in his conduct while 
with the lady, and his changed manner while in her presence was morti- 



76 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

fying to her, so that she and her friends harbored a feeling of hostility 
to him which brought to an unhappy end his missionary career in 
Georgia from Avhieh he expected far different results and which he 
fondly hoped would close in a much more glorious way. He went from 
one extreme to the other, and, following her marriage to Mr. Williamson 
shortly after, he dealt severely with her in the matter of her conduct as 
a church member, declaring that in certain matter she was acting in 
a manner which warranted him in forbidding her to participate in 
celebrating the Lord's Supper. This, of course, angered her and her 
relatives, and on the 8tli of August, 1737, Wesley Avas arrested under a 
warrant issued by the town recorder in the following terms : 

" Georgia- Savannah, s.s. — To all Constables, Tythingmen, and others whom these 
may concern: You and each of you are hereby required to take the body of John 
Wesley, Clerk, and bring him before one of the Bailitfs of the said Town to answer 
the complaint of William Williamson and Sophia, his wife, for defaming the said 
Sophia, and refusing to administer to her the Sacrament of the Lord 's Supper in a 
publick Congregation without cause, by which the said William Williamson is damaged 
One Thousand Pounds Sterling. And for so doing this is your Warrant, certifying 
what you are to do in the premises. 

"Given under my hand and seal the 8th day of Aug., Anno. Doni., 1837. 

"Tho. Christie." 

Mr. Wesley's Statement op the Trouble 

Considering the character of Mr. Wesley and his subsequent honor- 
able arid saintly life, as well as the circumstances connected with the 
founding by him of that influential and Godly sect of Christian people, 
which has done and is still doing, and will continue to do great things in 
the matter of saving souls, it is only just and proper that his own state- 
ment of this unfortunate matter be here given. 

The tirst time he alludes to any unpleasantness between himself and 
Mr. Causton 's people is in the following words : ' ' Sunday. July 3 — 
Immediately after the holy communion I mentioned to ]\Irs. Williamson 
(Mr. Causton 's niece) some things which I thought reprovable in her 
behaviour. At this she appeared extremely angry ; said she did not 
expect such usage from me, and at the turn of the street through which 
we were walking home went abruptly away. The next day Mrs. Causton 
endeavored to excuse her ; told me she was exceedingly grieved for what 
had passed the day before, and desired me to tell her in writing what I 
disliked ; which I did the day following. 

But first I sent I\Ir. Causton the following note : ' ' Sir. — To this hour 
you have shown yourself my friend. I ever have and ever shall acknowl- 
edge it. And it is my earnest desire that He who hath hitherto given me 
this blessing would continue it still. But this cannot be unless you will 
allow me one request which is not so easy a one as it appears ; do not 
condemn me for doing, in the execution of my oflfiee, what I think it my 
diity to do. If you can prevail upon yotirself to allow me this, even 
when I act without respect to persons, I am persuaded there will never 
be, at least not long, any misunderstanding between us. For even those 
who seek it shall, I trust, And no occasion against me, 'except it be con- 
cerning the law of mv God.' 

"July 5, 1737. " I am, etc." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 77 

The next day he wrote: "Mr. Causton came to my house with Mr. 
Bailiff Parker and Mr. Recorder, and warmly asked 'How could you 
possibly think I should condemn you for executing any part of your 
office?' I said, short, 'Sir, what if I should think it the duty of my office 
to repel one of your family from the holy communion?' He replied, 
'If you repel me or my wife I should require a legal reason, but I shall 
trouble myself about no one else. Let them look to themselves.' " 

We find the next item bearing on the subject recorded by Wesley 
one month later, when he made this record: "Sunday 7 — I repelled Mrs. 
Williamson from the holy communion. And Monday 8, Mr. Recorder 
of Savannah issued out the warrant following." This warrant has 
already been quoted in full. He tells us that he was taken by Jones, 
the constal)le, to the recorder's court where he met also the bailiff 
Parker, and Mr. Williamson ; there he denied the charge that he had 
defamed Mrs. Williamson, and as to the other averment he made answer 
that "the giving or refusing the Lord's Supper being a matter purely 
ecclesiastical" he refused to acknowledge the authority of a magistrate 
to question him on such a point ; that IMr. Parker gave him notice that he 
must appear at the next court to be held in Savannah, when Mr. William- 
son said: "Gentlemen, I desire Mr. Wesley may give bail for his ap- 
pearance," to which Parker responded, "Sir, Mr. Wesley's word is 
sufficient." 

On Wednesday, August 10th, he writes that "Mr. Causton (from a 
just regard, as his letter expressed it, to the friendshij) which had 
existed between us till this affair) re((uired me to give the reasons in the 
courthouse why I repelled Mrs. Williamson from the holy communion. 
I answered I apprehend many ill consequences may arise from my so 
doing; let the cause be laid before the trustees." 

"Thu. 11. Mr. Causton came to my house, and among other 
sharp words said, 'Make an end of this matter; thou hadst best. My 
niece to be used thus ! I have drawn the sword, and will never sheath 
it until I have satisfaction.' 

"Soon after he added 'Give the reasons of your repelling her before 

the whole congregation.' I answered, 'Sir, if you insist upon it, I will; 

and so you may be pleased to tell her. ' He said, ' Write to her and tell 

her so yourself. ' I said, ' I will, ' and after he went I wrote as follows : 

" ' To Mrs. Sophia Williamson : 

" ' At Mr. Causton 's request T write once more. The rules wiiei'eby 
I proceed are these : 

" 'So many as intend to be jjartakers of the holy communion shall 
signify their names to the curate at least some time the day before. This 
you did not do. "And if any of these have done any wrong to his 
neighbors, by word or deed, so that the congregation be thereby offended, 
the curate shall advertise him that in any wise he presume not to come to 
the Lord's table until he hath openly declared himself to have truly 
repented." If you offer yoi;x'self at the Lord's table on Sunday I will 
advertise you (as I have done more than once) wherein you have done 
wrong. And when you have openly declared yourself to have truly 
repented, I will administer to you the mysteries of God. 

" 'John Wesley.' 

" 'August 11. 1737' 



78 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"Mr. Delamotte carrying this, Mr. Causton said, among other warm 
sayings, ' I am the person that am injured. The affront is offered to 
me ; and I will espouse the cause of my niece. I am ill used ; and I will 
have satisfaction if it is to be had in the world.' 

"Which way this satisfaction was to be had I did not yet conceive. 
But on Friday and Saturday it began to appear: — Mr. Causton de- 
clared to many persons that 'Mr. Wesley had repelled Sophy from the 
holy communion purely out of revenge ; because he had made proposals 
of marriage to her which she rejected and married Mr. Williamson.' 

"Tues. 16. Mrs. Williamson swore to and signed an affidavit, in- 
sinuating more than it asserted ; but asserting that Mr. Wesley had many 
times proposed marriage to her, all which proposals she had rejected. 
Of this I desired a copy ; Mr. Causton replied : ' Sir you may have one 
from any of the newspapers of America.' 

"On Thursday or Friday was delivered out a list of twenty -six men 
who were to meet as a grand jury on Monday the 22d. But this list 
was called in the next day and twenty-four names added to it. Of this 
grand jury (forty-four of Avhom only met) one was a Frenchman who 
did not understand English, one a Papist, one a professed infidel, three 
Baptists, sixteen or seventeen others Dissenters, and several others who 
had personal grounds against nie, and had openly vowed revenge. 

"To the grand jury on Monday the 22d Mr. Causton gave a long and 
earnest charge 'to beware of spiritual tyranny, and to oppose the new, 
illegal authority which was usurped over their consciences.' Then Mrs. 
Williamson's affidavit was read: after which Mr. Causton delivered to 
the grand jury a paper entitled 'A list of grievances presented by the 
Grand Jury for Savannah this — day of August, 1737.' 

"This the majority of the grand jury altered in some particulars, 
and on Thursday, September 1, delivered it again to the Court under 
the form of two presentments containing ten bills which were then read 
to the people. 

"Herein thej' asserted upon oath 'That John Wesley, Clerk, had 
broken the laws of the realm, contrary to the peace of our sovereign lord 
the King, his crown and dignity. 

" '1. By speaking and Avriting to Llrs. Williamson against her hus- 
band's consent. 

" '2. By repelling her from the Holy Communion; 

" '8. By not declaring his adherence to the Church of England; 

" '4. By dividing the morning service on Sundays; 

" '5. By refusing to baptize Mr. Parker's child otherwise than by 
dipping, except the parents would certify it was weak and not able to 
bear it; 

" '6. By repelling Wm. Gough from the Holy Communion; 

" '7. By refusing to read the burial service over the bodv of Natlian- 
ielPolhill; 

" '8. By calling himself Ordinary of Savannah; 

" '9. By refusiiig to receive Wm. Aglionby as a God-father only be- 
cause he was not a connuuuicant ; 

" '10. By refusing Jacob Matthews for the same reason, and bap- 
tizing an Indian trader's child with only two sponsors.' (This I own was 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 79 

wrong; for I ought at all hazards to have refused baptizing it till he 
had procured a third.) 

"Fri. Sep. 2 was the third court at which I appeared since my being 
carried before Mr. Parker and the recorder. I now moved for an imme- 
diate hearing on the first bill, being the only one of a civil nature; but 
it w^as refused. I made the same motion in the afternoon ; but was put 
oif till the next day. On the next court day I appeared again ; as also 
at the two courts following; but could not be heard because (the judge 
said) Mr. Williamson was gone out of town. 

"The sense of the minority of the grand jurors themselves (for they 
were by no means unanimous) concerning these presentments may 
appear from the following paper which they transmitted to the Trustees : 

" ' To the Honorable the Trustees for Georgia : Whereas two Present- 
ments have been made, the one of August 23d, the other of August 31st, 
by the Grand Jury for the Tovi'n and County of Savannah in Georgia, 
against John Wesley, Clerk : 

" 'We, whose names are underwritten, being members of the said 
Grand Jury, do humbly beg leave to signify our dislike to the said Pre- 
sentments, being by many and divers circumstances thor'ly persuaded in 
ourselves that the whole charge against Mr. Wesley is an artifice of Mr. 
Causton's, designed rather to blacken the character of Mr. Wesley than 
to free the Colony from Religious Tyranny as he was pleased in his 
charge to us to term it. But as these circumstances will be too tedious to 
trouble your Honors with, we sliall only beg leave to give the Reasons of 
our Dissent from the particular Bills. 

" 'With regard to the First Bill we do not apprehend that Mr. Wesley 
acted against any laws by writing or speaking to ^Irs. Williamson, since 
it does not appear to us that the said Mr. Wesley has either spoke in 
private or wrote to the said Mrs. Williamson since March 12,* except one 
letter of July the 5th, which he wrote at the request of her aunt, as a 
Pastor, to exhort and reprove her. 

" 'The Second we do not apprehend to be a true Bill becaixse we humbly 
conceive Mr. Wesley did not assume to himself any authority contrary to 
Law: for we understand every person intending to communicate should 
"signify his name to the Curate at least some time the day before," 
which Mrs. Williamson did not do: altho' Mr. Wesley had often, in full 
congregation, declared he did insist on a compliance with that Ru- 
brick, and had before repelled divers persons for non-compliance there- 
with. 

" 'The Third we do not think a true Bill because several of us have 
been hearers when he has declared his adherence to the Church of Eng- 
land in a stronger manner than by a formal Declaration ; by explaining 
and defending the Apostles,' the Nicene, and the Athanasian Creeds, the 
Thirty-Nine Articles, the whole Book of Common Prayer, and the Homi- 
lies of the said Church: and because we think a formal Declaration is 
not required but from those who have received Institution and Induction. 

" 'The fact alleged in the Fourth Bill we cannot apprehend to be con- 
trary to any law in being. 

* Sophia Hopkins and William Williamson were married that day. 



80 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

" 'The Fifth we do not think a true Bill because we conceive Mr. 
Wesley is justified by the Ruliriek, viz.: "If they (the Parents) certify 
that the child is weak, it shall suffice to pour water upon it : '.' intimating 
(as we humbly suppose) it shall not suffice if they do not certify. 

" 'The Sixth cannot be a true Bill because the said William Gough, 
being one of our members, was surprised to hear himself named without 
his knowledge of privity, and did publiekly declare it was no grievance 
to him, because the saicl John Wesley had given him reasons with which 
he was satisfied. 

" 'The Seventh we do not apprehend to be a true Bill, for Nathaniel 
Polhill was an Anabaptist, and desired in his lifetime that he might not 
be interred with the Office of the Church of England. And further, we 
have good reason to believe that Mr. Wesley was at Frederica, or on his 
return thence, when Polhill was buried. 

" 'As to the Eighth Bill, we are in doubt, as not well knowing the 
meaning of the word Ordinary. But for the Ninth and Tenth we think 
Mr. Wesley is sufficiently justified by the Canons of the Church which 
forbid any person to be admitted Godfather or Godmother to any child 
before the said person has received the Holj' Communion ; whereas Will- 
iam Aglionby and Jacob IMatthews had never certified Mr. Wesley that 
they had received it. ' 

"This was signed by twelve of the grand jurors of whom three were 
constables and six more were tithingmen who consequently would have 
made a majority had the jury consisted, as it regularly should have done, 
of only fifteen members, viz., the four constables and eleven tithingmen. 

"Oct. 7. I consulted my friends whether God did not call me to 
. return to England ? The reason for which I left it had now no force, 
there being no possibility as yet of instructing the Indians; neither had 
I as yet found or heard of any Indians on the continent of America who 
had the least desire of being instructed. And as to Savannah, having 
never engaged myself, either bj^ word or letter, to stay there a day longer 
than I should judge convenient, nor ever taken charge of the people any 
otherwise than as in my passage to the Heathens I looked upon myself 
to be fi^lly discharged thereupon by the vacating of that design. Be- 
sides there was a good probability of doing more service to tliat unhappy 
people in England than I coiild do in Georgia l\v representing, without 
fear or favor, to the Trustees the real state the colony was in. After 
deeply considering these things they were unanimous 'That I ought to 
go; but not yet.' So I laid the thoughts of it aside for the moment, 
being persuaded that when the time was come God would 'make the way 
plain before my face.' 

"Thu. Nov. 8. I appeared again at the court holden on that day. 
and again at the court held Tues. Nov. 22d, on which day ]\Ir. Causton 
desired to speak with me. He then read me some affidavits whieli had 
been made Sept. 15th last past, in one of which is was affirmed that 
I had abused Mr. Causton in his own house, calling him a liar, villain, 
and so on. It was now likewise repeated before some persons, which, in- 
deed, I had forgot, that I had been reprimanded at the last court for an 
enemy to and liindrance of the public peace. 

"I again consulted my friends who agreed with me that the time we 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 81 

looked for was now come. And the next morning, calling on Mr. Caus- 
ton, I told him I designed to set out for England immediately. I set up 
an advertisement in the Great Square to the same effect, and quietly 
prepared for my journey. 

' ' Fri. Dec. 2. I proposed to set out for Carolina about noon, the tide 
then serving. But about ten the magistrates sent for me and told me I 
must not go out of the Province ; for I had not answered the allegations 
laid against me. I replied 'I have appeared at six or seven courts suc- 
cessively, in order to answer them. But I was not suffered to do so, 
when I desired it time after time. ' Then they said I must not go unless 
I would give them security to answer those allegations at their court. I 
asked, 'What security?' After consulting together about two hours, 
the recorder showed me a kind of bond engaging me, under a penalty of 
fifty pounds, to appear at their court when I should be required. He 
added, 'But Mr. Williamson too has desired of us that you should give 
bail to answer his action.' I then told him plainly. 'Sir, you use me 
very ill, and so you do the Trustees. I will give neither any bond nor 
any bail at all. You know your business and I know mine. ' 

"In the afternoon the magistrates published an order requiring all 
the officers and centinels to prevent my going out of the Province, and 
forbidding any person to assist me so to do. Being now only a prisoner 
at large in a place where I knew by experience every day would give 
fresh opportunity to procure evidence of words I never said and actions 
I never did, I saw clearly the hour was come for leaving this place and 
as soon as evening prayers were over, about eight o'clock, the tide then 
serving, I shook off the dust of ray feet, and left Georgia, after having 
preached the Gospel there (not as I ought, but as I was able) one year 
and nine months. ' ' 

Mr. Wesley does not state in his journal who went with him, or how 
the journey was made, except that he landed at Purysburg the next 
morning and went thence to Beaufort on foot, and that there he took a 
boat which conveyed him to Charleston. William Stephens in his "Jour- 
nal of the Proceedings in Georgia," Vol. 1, pp. 41-47, relates that he had 
as companions from Savannah three men whose character was not good, 
named Coates, Gough and Campbell, but he seems to have been preju- 
diced against Mr. Wesley, and it is not likely that Wesley willingly asso- 
ciated, in this emergency, with dissolute pei-sons. Stephens had little 
use for any clergyman who did not strictly conform to the rules and 
practice of the Church of England as demanded by the Book of Common 
Prayer, and he doubtless exaggerated somewhat the facts as they came 
to his knowledge. 

The Trustees Treat the Matter Lightly 

The Trustees did not apparently consider the Williamson-Causton 
suit against Mr. Wesley a matter of serious import. In the minutes of 
that body on December 7, 1737, this record was made: "Read several 
letters from ]\Ir. Williamson of Savannah, complaining of the Rev. Mr. 
John Wesley's having refused the sacrament to his wife, Mrs. Sophia 
Williamson, with Mr. Williamson's affidavit thereupon, and two pre- 



82 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

sentments of the Grand Jury of the Rev. Mr. Wesley for the said refusal, 
and for several other facts laid to his chai-ge. Ordered, that copies of 
the said letters and affidavit be sent over to the Rev. Mr. John Wesley, 
desiring him to return his answer for the same as soon as possible ; and 
that a letter be sent to Mr. Williamson to acquaint him of the said 
copies being sent to Mr. Wesley ; and that if he has anything new to lay 
before the Trustees he should show it first to ]\Ir. Wesley and then send it 
over to them; and that the Trustees think he should not have made his 
application to the World by advertising his complaints before acquaint- 
ing the Trustees with them. ' ' 

Not until February 22, 1738, did this matter again appear in the 
minutes of the Trustees, when it was recorded that ' ' The Rev. Mr. John 
Wesley attended and delivered into the Board a Narrative of his own re- 
lating to the complaints of Mrs. Williamson and three cei'tificates, one 
signed by James Burnside, dated Savannah, November 1, 1737. another, 
of the same date, signed by Margaret Burnside, and another signed by 
Charles Delamotte, dated Savannah, October 25, 1737." 

And lastly, on the 26th of April, 1738, the final action of the Trustees 
in this matter is thus mentioned : 

"The Rev'd Mr. John Wesley attended, and left the appointment of 
him by the Trustees to perform Ecclesiastical offices in Georgia : 

"Resolved, That the authority granted to the Rev'd Mr. John Wesley 
to do and perform all religious and Ecclesiastical offices in Georgia, 
dated October 10, 1735, be revoked." 

Charles Wesley Departs for England 

Meanwhile Charles Wesley, the brother, who had accepted the posi- 
tion of secretary to General Oglethorpe, as also secretary of Indian 
Affairs for the colony of Georgia, and had made Frederica his home, 
had his own troubles and had, after a stay in Georgia of only five months 
and one week, departed for England. He landed on Georgia soil on the 
19th of February, 1736, and after a short stay in Savannah he reached 
his new home on St. Simon's island on the 9tli of IMarch. His reception 
was not at all such as he had anticipated and his services were distasteful 
to the people. His biographer, Southey, says : " He attempted the doubly 
difficult task of reforming the gross improprieties and reconciling some 
of the petty jealousies and quarrels with each other; in which he etfeeted 
little else than making them unite in opposing him, and caballing to get 
rid of him in any way." Those discontented persons complained to 
Oglethorpe, and on this point Soiithey adds: "The Governor, who had 
causes enough to discjuiet him, arising from the precarious state of the 
colony, Avas teased and soured )\y the complaints which were perpetually 
brought against the two brothers, and soon liegan to wish that he had 
brought with him men of more practicable tempers." However, Ogle- 
thorpe did not long harbor a spirit of vexation, and felt that he had been 
unjust toward that godly man who, in his deep distress, wrote concerning 
the unfriendly conduct of Oglethorpe "I know not how to account for his 
increasing coldness." But the Christian spirit of tlie founder of Georgia 
asserted itself in this as in all other instances, and the reconciliation 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 83 

was as complete as either of the men could have wished. Writers who 
have touched upon this matter have referred to this reconciliation as 
happening at a time when Oglethorpe was "on the eve of setting out 
upon a dangerous expedition."* This must have been the occasion 
described on his return in a letter to the Trustees, dated May 11, 1736 : 
"I have been down to the Southward' to quell a Mutiny among our Fron- 
tier Garrison. The Spaniards have, I appreliend, detained the persons 
I sent down to treat with them, contrary to faith, and I have sent up some 
launches to view us. I am forced to set out immediately to throw suc- 
cour into the Frontier Garrison, who I expect will be attacked every 
hour." Charles Wesley describes the scene with his superior, saying 
that on that occasion General Oglethorpe sent for him and said to him ; 
"You will soon see the reasons for my actions. I am going to death. 
You will see me no more. Take this ring and carry it from me to Mr. 
V . If there is a friend to be depended upon, he is one. His in- 
terest is next to Sir Robert's. Whatever you ask within his power he 
will do for you, your brother, and your family. I have expected death 
for some days. These letters show that the Spaniards have long been 
seducing our allies, and intend to cut us off^at a blow. I fall by my 
friends : — Gaseoigne whom I have made, the Carolina people upon whom 
I depended to send their promised succour. But death is to me nothing. 

T will pursue all my designs, and to him I recommend them and 

you." "He then gave me a diamond ring," continued Charles Wesley, 
in his journal, "I took it and said, 'If, as I believe. Post remit m fato 
quod te aUoquor, hoc est, hear what you will quickly know to be 
true as soon as you are entered upon a separate state. This ring I shall 
never make use of for myself. I have no worldly hopes. I have re- 
nounced the world. Life is bitterness to me. I came hither to lay it 
down. You have been deceived as well as I. I protest my innocence of 
the crimes I am charged with, and take myself to be now at liberty to 
tell you what I thought I should never have uttered.' [Cipher words in 
the manuscript.] When I finished this relation he seemed entirely 
changed and full of his old love and confidence in me. After some ex- 
pressions of kindness, I asked him 'Are you satisfied?' He replied 
'Yes, entirely.' 'Why then, sir, I desire nothing more upon earth, and 
care not how soon I follow you. ' * * * He then embraced and kissed 
me with the most cordial atfection. ' ' 

Mr. Wesley then describes the departure of Oglethorpe from Fred- 
erica, and how they met again on his return from the South. Returning 
the ring he said to the general "I need not, sir, and indeed I can not 
tell you how joyfully and thoughtfully I return this." To this Ogle- 
thorpe replied "When I gave it to you I never expected to receive it 
again, but thought it would be of service to your brother and you. I 
had many omens of my death, particularly their bringing me my mourn- 
ing sword, t but God has been pleased to preserve a life which was never 
valuable to me, and yet in the continuance of it, I thank God, I can re- 

* History of Georgia, by Chas. C. Jones, Jr., Vol. I, pp. 277-278. 

t Whicli hail been handed to him twice while he was preparing for his going south- 
ward and which he refused, taking finally his own sword that had belonged to his 
father, with which he asserted he had never been unsuccessful. 



84 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

joice. " Wesley answered "I am now glad of all that has happened here, 
since without it I could never have had such a proof of your affection 
as that you gave me when you looked upon me as the most ungrateful 
of villains." 

Charles Wesley fully resolved in the month of June to resign his 
commission and when he left Georgia he believed another would 
shortly take his place. He and General Oglethorpe were as good 
friends as ever, and he was the bearer of important papers from the 
latter to the trustees. His intention, however, was not made known 
to the board at that time, and on this subject Mr. Wesley wrote what 
Oglethorpe said to him as follows : "I would not M the trustees know 
your resolution of resigning. There are many hungry fellows ready to 
catch at the office, and, in my absence, I cannot put in one of my own 
choosing. The best I can hope for is an honest Presbyterian, as many 
of the trustees are such. Perhaps they may send me a bad man, and 
how far such a one may influence the traders and obstruct the recep- 
tion of the Gospel among the heathen, you know. I shall be in 
England before you leave it. Then you may either put in a 
deputy or resign." He retained his office until the month of 
April, 1738, at which time Oglethorpe, who said he was "unwilling 
to lose so honest and faithful an officer," still tried to persuade 
him to hold on to the work; but Charles Wesle.y felt that it 
was time to let some other man take his place, and his resignation 
was accepted in May. Thus the service of Charles came to an end in 
a shorter time than did that of his more famous brother Johii, although 
his troubles were really small compared with those of the latter. The 
only record in the minutes of the trustees bearing on the subject of the 
resignation appears in the journal of the common council of that body of 
May 3, 1738, when it was "resolved that Mr. John Clarke be appointed 
secretary for the Indian Affairs in the room of the Rev. Mr. Charles 
Wesley." 

Whitefield Succeeds John Wesley 

In recording the incidents connected with the life of John Wesley 
in Georgia some writers have used language which may be termed harsh 
and even bitter. How they could apply to him some of the expressions 
employed in criticising his conduct, with all the evidence before them, 
seems incredible. That he was indiscreet in some instances cannot be 
denied ; but that he was the tyrant that some of his enemies would have 
us ])elieve is utterly untrue. Let tliese facts not be lost sight of: that 
his most implacable enemy, Thomas Causton, himself a man of higli 
ambition with the determination at all times of showing his aathority 
and unceasingly endeavoring to assert and enforce it, was a bad man, 
and, as his subsequent career shows, was at the very time he was perse- 
cuting Mr. Wesley far exceeding tliat authority in many respects and 
held under his lash many who, but for fear of him, would have sided 
with the latter; that William Stephens, whose journal is made the basis 
of the worst attacks on Llr. Wesley's character, did not reach Savannah 
until the matters complained of were the suliject of the town talk, and 
that he persistently opposed all departures from the forms and customs 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 85 

of the Church of England ; that Caiiston was, for the time being, what is 
now termed a "political boss" in the district in which he lived, abso- 
lutely controlling the officers of the court and seeing to it that a major- 
ity of the jurors drawn for the trial would render a verdict such as 
would please him ; and finally that the incident which led to the abrupt 
departure of Mr. Wesley was one which should never have had pub- 
licity and that it was made public just because Mr. Causton wanted to 
humiliate him for his daring to assert authority, even ecclesiastical 
authority, over one of his household. 

Not having the slightest suspicion of the trouble in store for him, 
and with the anticipation of having a hearty co-worker with him in the 
good work he expected to do in Georgia, John Wesley, some time between 
the 3d and the 22d of December, 1736, wrote a letter from Savannah to 
George Whitefield, who had been ordained to the ministry in the June 
previous, saying: ''Only Mr. Delamotte is with me, till God shall stir 
up the hearts of some of His servants who, putting their lives in His 
hands, shall come over and help us, when the harvest is so great, and 
the labourers so few. What if thou art the man, Mr. Whitefield?" We 
are told by j\Ir. Whitefield himself that in another letter Wesley said : 
"Do you ask me what you shall have? Food to eat, and raiment to put 
on ; a house to lay your head in, siach as your Lord had not ; and a crown 
of glory which f adeth not away ; ' ' and Whitefield adds ' ' Upon reading 
this my heart leaped within me, and, as it were, echoed to the call. 
IMany things concurred to make my way clear. * * * These things 
being thoroughly weighed, I at length resolved to embark for Georgia." 
He was, indeed, the man, as Wesley predicted, but it so happened that 
the two men were destined not to work together in the same field. Be- 
fore Whitefield sailed from England the clouds began to gather about 
Wesley, and his way was changed so abruptly that at the time he was 
entering the port of Deal, England, in February, 1738, as he states it 
"on the anniversary festival in Georgia, for Mr. Oglethorpe's landing 
there," Whitefield departed from the same point, as the Rev. Dr. T. M. 
Harris said "on a mission; not to be his coadjutor, as he expected, but, 
as it proved, his successor." * 

The strength of John Wesley's influence and the growth of the power- 
ful church with which his name is indissolubly associated are both at- 
tested by the building of that most suitable monument in the form of 
an ecclesiastical edifice in the heart of the city which was his home and 
which once spurned his labors and rejoiced in his speedy departure from 
her borders, but now rejoices in the fact that he did live in her midst and 
walk her streets. 

* Memorials of Oglethorpe, p. 170. 



CHAPTER X 

DARK COLONIAL CHAPTER 

Oglethorpe 's Administration Approved by English Trustees — Forti- 
fying Georgia's Southern Frontier — Promoted to "General" 
Oglethorpe — Causton's Finances go Wrong — Oglethorpe's Self- 
Sacrifice — The Fall of Causton. 

Closely following the events recorded in the last chapter came the 
downfall of Thomas Causton. Oglethorpe, believing that he had placed 
the southern boundary of the colony in a position of security against the 
attacks of the Spaniards, left Georgia in the month of November, 1736, 
to lay before the British ministers an account of the attitude of that 
people towards the province, and to urge that he be authorized to resort 
to such measures as would place Georgia in a stronger condition to re- 
ceive the attacks which he was sure would come from the enemy. 

Oglethorpe's Administration Approved by English Trustees 

Arriving in England at the close of the year, Oglethorpe received 
the unanimous thanks of the trustees, at a meeting of the board held 
January 19, 1737. The minutes of the trustees show that James Ogle- 
thorpe was present at a meeting held on the 12th of Januaiy, 1737, and 
' ' made a report to the Board of his proceedings in Georgia from the time 
of his landing there in February last, and of the present state of the 
colony ; and likewise laid before them two treaties of peace between the 
people settled at Georgia and the Spaniards at St. Augustine concluded 
and ratified, the first by Charles Dempsey, Esq.. (appointed by ]Mr. 
Oglethorpe for that purpose) and the Council of War at St. Augustine; 
the other by the said Charles Dempsey, Esq., and Don Francisco Del 
Moral Sanchez, governor of St. Augustine, dated October 26th," and 
following that record this important item was adopted: "Resolved that 
James Oglethorpe, Esq., be congratulated on his safe return to England, 
and that the thanks of the Trustees be given to liim for the many and 
important services done by him for the Colony of Georgia." 

Oglethorpe remained in England until July, 1738, and on the 5th of 
that month he sailed from Portsmouth, arriving at Jekyll sound on the 
18th of September. The following day he addressed a letter to Sir 
Joseph Jekyll, for whom he had on a former trip to the southward named 
both the sound and the island. He began the letter by saying "I am 

86 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 87 

now got to an anchor in a harbour and near an island that bears your 
name. God has given me, the greatest marks of His visible protection 
to this colony." Proceeding on his course he landed on the south end 
of St. Simon's island, and, on the 21st, arrived at Frederica. This place 
was chosen as a settlement by Oglethorpe when he determined, in 1784, 
to choose a place which would be of the greatest advantage in protecting 
the southern border of the colony against the Spaniards and otliei* 
enemies. It was on the 26th that he and his comrades, Captain Ferguson 
and sixteen others who started on the trip on the 23d of January, landed 
on that spot, and "lay all night under the shelter of a large live-oak tree 
and kept themselves dry." Seeing the importance of having a military 
station in that portion of his territory, he decided that a fort should be 
erected there. The plans were matured, and the fort, built of tabby, was 
finished in April, and a town was laid out which he named Frederica, 
after the Prince of Wales. Here the people who were to possess the place 
assembled and took possession of the lots assigned to them on the 19th. 

Fortifying Georgia's Southern Frontier 

The statement is frequently made that Oglethorpe spent too much of 
his time while in Georgia at Frederica, and that consequently he neg- 
lected to look with proper care over the affairs in the town of Savannah. 
The malcontents in their "True and Historical Narrative of the Colony 
of Georgia in America" made this statement:* "In February, 1735-36, 
Mr. Oglethorpe arrived in Georgia, for the second time, with great 
numbers of people, in order to settle to the southward, where he soon 
after carried them. Upon the Island of St. Simon's he settled a town, 
which he called Frederica; and about five miles distance from thence, 
towards the sea, he placed the independent company which he removed 
from Port Royal in Carolina, their former station. On one of the 
branches of the Altamaha he settled the Highlanders in a village which 
was called Darien. Then he settled a fort on Cumberland, which he 
named St. Andrews ; and some time after he caused a garrison of about 
fifty men to be placed upon a sandy island (without fresh water) in 
the mouth of St. John's river, opposite to a Spanish lookout, where pos- 
session was kept for about six months, and several fortifications built; 
but at last he was obliged to abandon it, after several people had lost 
their lives by the inconveniences of the place, besides great sums of 
money thrown away in vain;" and, further on,t "Mr. Oglethorpe staid 
not long at Savannah, his common residence being at Frederica, where 
they had, in imitation of us, built a few houses, and cleared some land ; 
but finding planting not answer, they left it off, and as soon as the 
regiment came, almost everybody betook themselves to the keeping public 
houses; and in this manner do the few that now remain live." 

In this way Oglethorpe has been often charged with the offense of 
turning his attention too much to places outside of Savannah ; but those 
who have taken that position do not seem to have directed their atten- 

* Collection^ of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. II, p. 206. 
t Ibid., p. 216. 



88 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

tion to the importance of fortifying the southern frontier against the 
troublesome Spaniards. Had Oglethorpe neglected that one serious 
feature of his work as he saw it from a military point of view, there is 
no reason to doubt that advantage of that lack of judgment would have 
been taken by the commander at St. Augustine, and disaster would have 
overtaken the young colony of Georgia. His training as a soldier clearly 
pointed out the necessity of having a force of troops stationed at a well- 
fortified post in that neighborhood, and he communicated his views to 
the Trustees v>^ith such telling effect that we find this record in their 
minutes of August 10, 1737: "Read a memorial to his Majesty setting 
forth that the Colony of Georgia being very much exposed to the powei" 
of the Spaniards and become an object of their envj' bj' having valu- 
able posts upon the homeward passage from the West Indies, and the 
Spanish having increased their forces in the neighborhood thereof; that 
the Trustees in consequence of the great trust reposed in them find them- 
selves obliged to lay before his Majesty their inability sufficiently to 
protect his Majesty's charter against this late increase of forces; and 
therefore become humble supplicants to his Majesty on behalf of his 
Majesty's subjects settled in the Province of Georgia, that by a neces- 
sary supply of forces the province may be protected against the great 
dangers that seem immediately to threaten it." 

Promoted to "General" Oglethorpe 

This memorial was answered favorably, and the minutes. of October 
5, 1737, open with a list of the Trustees present at that time in which 
Oglethorpe's name appears with the title of colonel prefixed to it. the 
reason for it being disclosed in the journal of the common council of 
that body of the same date, in these words: "Mr. Oglethorpe acquainted 
the common council that in j^ursuance of the Trustees' memorial to his 
Majesty, dated August 10, 1737, setting forth the state of the Colony o^ 
Georgia and the inability of the Trustees to protect his Majesty's subjects 
settled there against the dangers which they are apprehensive of from the 
late increase of Spanish forces at Havauna and St. Augustine, and pray- 
ing that his ]\Iajesty will order a necessary supply of forces for the pro- 
tection of the province; that his Majesty had ordered a regiment of 
six hundred effective men to be raised for the defence of the Colony and 
to be sent thither, and trliat his jMajesty had appointed him Colonel. James 
Cochran, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel, and William Cook, Esq., Major of the 
said Regiment." The title of colonel was soon changed for that of a 
higher rank, and in a short time he received a commission as "General 
and Commander-in-Chief of all and singular the forces emplo.ved and to 
be employed in the provinces of South Carolina and Georgia in 
America." 

It is to be presumed that a description of the uniform worn by the 
officers of Oglethorpe's regiment will be acceptable to some readers who 
take an interest in even the smallest particulars relating to the affairs 
of that good man. If the uniform has ever been heretofore descri])ed 
this writer has not had the good fortune to see it in print, and he takes 
pleasure in giving it here as written in a letter to the late Bishop William 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 89 

Bacon Stevens from Professor William MacKenzie of the University of 
Edinburgh, dated 15th September, 1845, in which the writer said it was 
a "description of the uniform of Oglethorpe's regiment, taken from a 
painting of a soldier of that regiment, in a ]\IS. volume in the library 
of the deceased Duke of York : Hat, old style three cornered, low roofed ; 
coat red and of ample dimensions, wide in the skirts — facings green, 
with a narrow stripe of white between and the body of the dress. ' ' 

The rank of general was probably conferred about the 7th of June, 
1738, as he is there mentioned with that title in the minutes of both the 
trustees and the common council. 

Causton's Finances Go Wrong 

Added to the suspicions of the trustees that the finances of the 
colony, as shown by Causton 's accounts, were improperly managed, and 
that the increase in the number of certified accounts was not warranted, 
came complaints from certain persons of his overbearing spirit as well 
as representations of the grand jury of Savannah charging him with 
all sorts of misdeeds. Awakened to the fact that something was wrong, 
an investigation was made by a committee, and at a meeting held ^lay 
1, 1738, the following record was made in the minutes of the common 
council: "Read a report from the 'committee on accounts to the follow- 
ing purport : That they had examined several accounts lately received 
from Georgia whereby they find that large credit has been given to sev- 
eral persons by Mr. Causton for wliich no orders had l)een sent from 
the Trustees, and were of opinion that he must be called upon to give an 
account to the Trustees why such credits were given." 

At a meeting of the Trustees, held on the 7th of June following, a 
copy of a letter written by order of that body to General Oglethorpe by 
Harmon Verelst, accountant, was inserted in the minutes. It begins 
with this statement : ' ' The Trustees being greatly alarmed at the great 
number of certified accounts, amounting to one thousand four hundred 
and one pounds thirteen shillings and two pence brought for payment 
since Tuesday last, immediately met to concert the most proper measures 
to secure their effects in Georgia and Mr. Causton's person to answer for 
his conduct." To this letter Oglethorpe replied, "I have the Trustees' 
order for making an immediate seizure on Causton, his books and papers, 
and shall see them immediately executed. This must be kept with the 
greatest secrecy, for if he should know the orders before they are executed 
the effect will perhaps be prevented. I have not trusted even my clerk." 
On the same day the common council met and recorded this action which 
was communicated to Oglethorpe: "The Common Council have this day 
sealed the removal of ]\Ir. Thomas Causton from the office of first Baliff 
and the appointment of Mr. Henry Parker in his room wliieh they desire 
you to use or not according to the Trustees' letter of the 2d instant; 
and J\Ir. Holland and Mr. Henry Archer being of opinion that after 
the arresting of J\Ir. Causton, which must be done at all events, but, 
if so, legal process to justify the apprehending and detaining him, after- 
wards it is the most proper the securing his books and papers, allowing 
him the use of his books and papers to make out his accounts from 



90 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Lady Day, 1734, and taking the possession of the Trustees' effects. You 
should be desired only to continue him in custody, or on sufficient secur- 
ity, until his accounts are examined into." 

Oglethorpe's Selp-Sacripice 

Oglethorpe 's reply to the Trustees is recorded in a long letter, written 
at Savannah, October 19, 1738, and from that letter the following extracts 
are taken : " I rec 'd a copy of Mr. Verelst 's letter dated the 4th August, 
and in answer to it am very glad that the prudent measures you took 
to stop all credit here has had an effect (as you mentioned) suitable to 
your intentions. * * * Upon my arrival I sent Mr. Jones from Fred- 
erica and have taken possession of the books and effects in ye store. Mr. 
Jones will receive them as soon as they can be delivered him regularly. 
I demanded an inventory of the stores which Mr. Causton has delivered 
(but Mr. Jones thinks 'tis imperfect). I send it herewith. * * * 
I am very sorry to send you such trifling papers, but they are the only 
accounts I can yet get. * * * i cannot as yet find that Causton has 
been guilty of getting for himself, tho' he has unaccountably trifled away 
the public money ; one of the follies that has brought this ruine on is 
the trusting people that importuned him with goods and provisions of 
all kinds and let them discharge the debts by day labour in trifling 
works ; whilst money was thus squandered, the real necessary charges of 
the Colony were not defrayed. The scout boatmen, rangers and others 
who defended the Province are not paid, and starving whilst the Trustees 
owe them money, and yet they were not only contented to stay till my 
arrival, but when I told them the Trustees' circumstances their affec- 
tion was so great that they offered to serve on until the Trustees ' affairs 
mended. I thanked them, but reduced the Rangers, since I could not 
feed them with hopes of what I could not make good. The scout boats 
I have for this month paid out of my own money, since they are abso- 
lutely necessary, and I will not charge the Trustees with new debts. 

* * * I can see nothing but destruction to the Colony unless some 
assistance be immediately sent us ; I support things for awhile by some 
money I have in my hands and is the balance of my accoiiut with the 
Trustees, and the rest I supply with my own money, for I will not incur 
debts nor draw bills upon you ; and if the effects here go to pay the cer- 
tified accounts they will not near pay them, for they will not amount 
to half the sum of the debts incurred here that are not certified. If this 
(T know not what name to give it) had not happened, the Colony had 
overcome all its difficulties and had been in a flourishing condition. 

* * * I have already expended a great deal, and as far as the income 
of my estate and employments for this year will go, I shall sooner lay 
it out in supporting the Colony (till I can hear from you) than in aiiy 
other diversion. * * * Another thing may lead you into a mistake in 
believing that there is money due fo the store here, from the account Mr. 
Causton sent you of goods issued from ye store to sundry persons ( a copy 
whereof you sent me) whereas most of those people were creditors who 
were paid what was d\;e tp them from the store by giving them credit 
with the sloop owners. The short state of your aft'airs is, that this 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 91 

unhappy man Causton hath contracted a debt at home and abroad far 
beyond what the Trust is possessed of, therefore nothing can be issued 
from the store except in payment of debt, since all belongs to the cred- 
itors. * * * With respect to Causton 's behaviour here, I have already 
mentioned. I examined him to know what could be the meaning that 
he dare exceed so excessively your orders and thereby plunging the 
Colony into its present difficulties. He answered that he made no ex- 
penses but what necessity forced him to, and that he could prove tint 
necessity. * * * jje did not pretend to justify himself in not send- 
ing over the balance of his accounts. His negligence to bring his ac- 
counts to a balance half yearly, or every year at least, has been the 
occasion of the melancholy situation he has put us in. Some things he 
alleged that had weight. * * * He said further that he had not been 
guilty of any fraud, nor converted any of the Trustees' money to his 
own use. He at first seemed pretty stubborn, but upon a second exam- 
ination he was more submissive. When I was about to commit him, he 
pleaded that it was not usual here to commit freeholders for any but 
capital crimes ; that Watson, who was accused of killing a man, and had 
been found guilty by a jury, was bailed upon his own recognizance. 
That he submitted to the Trustees, and that all he had acquired in his 
six years' service and all that he had in the world was laid out in his 
lot in the Colony, and that he would give all as seciarity to abide and 
justify his accounts. He has accordingly given security. He has de- 
livered the stores, books, etc., unto Mr. Jones, according to your appoint- 
ment. * * * I desire to know in what manner you would have me 
proceed in Causton 's affair. ' ' 

The Fall of Causton 

This matter of Causton 's defalcation, added to other troubles in the 
colony, worried Oglethorpe probably more than he was willing to admit, 
and he tried, in his correspondence at that particular time, to show a 
spirit of unconcern, and even to take a humorous view of his situation, 
as shown in this bit of pleasantry used in a letter to Alderman Heath- 
cote (whom he addressed as "dear George") on the 20th of November; 
"I am here in one of the most delightful situations as any man could 
wish to be : a great number of debts, empty magazines, no money to sup- 
ply them, a number of people to be fed, mutinous soldiers to command, 
a Spanish claim and a large body of their troops not far from us. But, 
as we are of the same kind of spirit, these difficulties have the same 
effect upon me as those you met with in the city had upon you. They 
rather animate than daunt me." He several times more referred to the 
Causton affair, as in a letter to Mr. H. Verelst on the 22d of November ; 
"I cannot yet get Mr. Causton 's balance of accounts, nor can I ])e sure 
on the debts due in Georgia;" to the Trustees, IMarch 9, ITS^) : "The 
store hath received a second advice from you that you have sent back 
an account certified by Mr. Causton of £772.4.7 due to Mr. Symonds 
for goods delivered to the stores here, and that you have ordered it to be 
paid liere;" to the same March 12th: "Mr. Jones hath acted with 
steadiness and courage ; he desired me not to confirm a certificate signed 



92 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

by Mr. Causton in favour of Mr. Williams for the rea.sons in his letter. 
Mr. Williams is very angry. * * * A worse affair hath happened 
upon the civil letter wrote by the Trustees to Mr. Causton to furnish 
Colonel Cochran with what he wanted for the Regiment and paying for 
the same, a credit hath been given to his order to ye amount of £935.13.3 
and Mr. Causton hath taken from Colonel Cochran £198 in wines. This 
debt cannot be demanded of the Regiment, for regiments have nothing 
but the pay of each individual officer and man. ' ' There is very little more 
about this matter in the records of that period ; and so fell Thomas Caus- 
ton, the persecutor of John Wesley. 



CHAPTER XI 

EELIGION, COMMERCE AND DEFENCE 

Coming of Whitefield, Wesley's Successor — James Habersham, His 
Successor — Franklin and Oglethorpe on the Orphan Home — 
Harris and Habersham, Merchants — Pioneers, but Not the First 
— In Defense of the Colony — Securing the Friendship op the 
Creeks — The Death op Tomo-chi-chi. 

The Rev. George Whitefield, friend of John and Charles Wesley, 
moved by the spirit in which the elder of those two brothers put the 
matter before him, offered his services to the Trustees and was given the 
position in which he fully expected to act only as a colaborer with his 
friend. In the month of December, 1737, he sailed from England in the 
Whitaker, of which Captain Whiting was the master, and with him also 
sailed James Habei'sham who became associated with him in the noble 
work of establishing and sustaining the orphan house, at Bethesda, 
about nine miles from Savannah, and who was a man of much import- 
ance in the Province of Georgia. 

They had a long passage, and did not land at Savannah until the 7th 
of May in the following year. Whitefield was welcomed by Mr. Dela- 
motte, Wesley's assistant, in the parsonage house, and the next day 
he read prayers and preached in the courthouse, after which he called 
upon the magistrates. His labors did not really begin at once, for he was 
attacked with fever and ague and was compelled to keep within doors 
for a week. Naturally, he made it his business to seek out Tomochichi, 
as he expected to minister to the Indians, and as soon as he was ab,le he 
paid a visit to the chief, whom he found extremely ill. This illness was 
the beginning of the breakdown of the physical being of that good old 
man, who did not survive many months thereafter. 

Coming op Whitefield, Wesley's Successor 

The appointment of Mr. Whitefield was made by the Trustees on the 
21st of December, 1737, when it was "ordered that a license be made 
out for the Rev 'd Mr. George Whitefield to perform ecclesiastical offices in 
Georgia as a Deacon of the Church of England," and following this, on 
the 30th it was "ordered that the seal of the corporation be affix 'd to an 
authority for the Rev'd Mr. George Whitefield to perform ecclesiastical 
offices at Frederica in Georgia as a Deacon of the Church of England." 

93 



94 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

In some way Whitefield learned, before his arrival at Savannah, of 
the end having come to John Wesley's usefulness as a minister of the 
Gospel in Georgia, as shown by the following record in the journal of 
the Trustees, May 10, 1738 : "Read a letter from the Rev. George White- 
field, dated at Gibraltar, February 20th, 1737-8, intimating that since 
his departure from England he hears that Rev'd Mr. John Wesley is 
returned to England, and is therefore desirous if the Trustees think 
proper for him to alter his measures they would send their orders to 
him. Ordered that a letter be sent to the Rev. Mr. George Wliitefield 
permitting him to perform ecclesiastical orders as a Deacon of the 
Church of England in Savannah, as well as Frederiea, until another 
minister is provided for the town of Savannah." 

William Stephens, secretary of the Trustees, thus wrote in his '"-'Pro- 
ceedings" of the arrival of Whitefield at Savannah : 

"Sunday, May 7, 1738. — In the evening I was informed that a 
ship 's boat was come up with divers people on it ; among whom it was 
said there was a clergyman, which I thought good news, if his abode v/as 
to be at Savannah, too well knowing the want of a good and discreet 
pastor among us. 

"Monday, 8. — He (Causton) went with me to make a visit to ]\Ir. 
Whitefield, the minister, whom I congratulated on the occasion of his 
coming, and his safe arrival, promising myself great pleasure in his 
future acquaintance." 

The importance of the advent of Whitefield centers chiefly in his 
founding of the orphan house in Georgia which is still in existence, said 
(though this fact is doubted by some) to be the oldest institutiou of the 
kind in America and with which his name will always be inseparably 
connected. Let us take his own words in explanation of the fcundiiig 
of his home, as given in a letter to a friend : 

"Romans xii, 17. 'Provide things honest in the sight of all men.' 

"Bethesda, in Georgia, March 21, 17'15-6 — Some have thought that 
the erecting such a building was only the produce of my own brain ; but 
they are much mistaken ; for it was first proposed to me by my dear 
friend, the Rev. Mr. Charles Wesley, who, with his excellency, General 
Oglethorpe, had concerted a scheme for carrying on such a design before 
I had any thoughts of going abroad myself. It was natural to think 
that as the Government intended this Province for the refuge and sup- 
port of many of our poor countrymen, that numbers of such adventxirers 
must necessarily be taken off. by being exposed to the hardships which 
unavoidably attend a new settlement. I thought it, therefore, a noble 
design in the General to erect a house for fatherless children; and. be- 
lieving such a provision for orphans would be some inducement with 
many to come over, I fell in with the design, when mentioned to me by 
my friend, and was resolved, in the strength of God, to prosecute it 
with all my niight. This was menlioned to the honourable the Trustees. 
They took it kindly at my hands, and as I then began to be pretty jxipular 
at Bristol and elsewhere, they wrote to the Bishop of Bath and Wells for 
leave for me to preach a charity sermon on this occasion in the Abbey 
Church. This was granted, and f accordingly began immediately to 
compose a suitable discourse. But knowing my first stay at Georgia 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 95 

would necessarily be short, on account of my returning again to take 
Priest's orders, I thought it most prudent to go and see for myself, and 
hefore prosecuting the scheme till I come home. * * * When I 
came to Georgia, 1 found many poor orphans who, though taken notice 
of by the honourable Trustees, yet, through the neglect of persons that 
acted under them, were in miserable circumstances. For want of a 
house to breed them up in, the poor little ones were tabled out here and 
there ; others were at hard service, and likely to have no education at all. 

"Upon seeing this, and finding that his Majesty and Parliament had 
the interest of the Colony at heart, I thought I could not better show my 
regard to God and my country than by getting a house and land for 
these children, where they might learn to labour, read and write, and at 
the same time be brought up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. 
Accordingly, at my return to England, in the year 1738, to take Priest's 
orders, I applied to the honourable Society for a grant of five hundred 
acres of land, and laid myself under an obligation to build a house upon 
it, and to receive from time to time as many orphans as the land and 
stock would maintain. As I had always acted like a clergyman of the 
Church of England, having preached in a good part of the London 
churches, and but a few months before collected near a thousand pounds 
sterling for the children belonging to the Charity Schools in London and 
Westminster, it was natural to think that I might now have the use at 
least of some of these churches to preach in for the orphans hereafter 
more immediately to be committed to my care. But by that time I had 
taken Priest's orders, the spirit of the clergy began to be much embit- 
tered. Churches were gradually denied me — and I must let this good 
design drop, and thousands (and I might add ten thousands) go without 
hearing the word of God, or preach in the fields. Indeed, two churches, 
one in London, viz., Spitalfields, and one in Bristol, viz., St. Philip's 
and Jacob, were lent me upon this occasion, but those were all. I col- 
lected for the Orphan House in Moorfields two and fifty pounds one Sab- 
bath day morning, twenty-two pounds of which were in copper. In the 
afternoon I collected again at Kensington Common, and continued to 
do so at most of the places where I preached. Besides this, two or three 
of the Bishops and several persons of distinction contributed, until at 
length, having gotten about a thousand and ten pounds, I gave over 
collecting, and went with what I had to Georgia. At that time multitudes 
ofEered to accompany me ; but I chose to take over only a surgeon and a 
few more of both sexes that I thought would be useful in carrying on 
my design. My dear fellow traveler, William Seward, Esq., also joined 
with them. Our first voyage was to Philadelphia, where I was willing to 
go for the sake of laying in provision. I laid out in London a good part 
of the thousand pounds for goods, and got as much by them in Philadel- 
phia as nearly defrayed the family's expense of coming over. Here God 
blessed my ministry daily * * *. 

"January following, 1739, I met my family at Georgia, and being 
unwilling to lose any time I hired a large house and took in all the or- 
phans I could find in the colony. A great many, also, of the town's 
children came to school gratis, and many poor people that could not 
maintain their children upon application had leave given them to send 



96 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

their little ones, for a month or two, or more as they could spare them, 
till at length my family consisted of between sixty and seventy. Most 
of the orphans were in poor case ; and three or four almost eat up with 
lice. I likewise erected an infirmary, in which many sick people were 
cured and taken care of gratis. I have now with me a list of upwards of 
a hundred and thirty patients which were under the surgeon's hands, 
exclusive of my own private family. About March I began the great 
house, having only about one hundred and fifty pounds in cash. I 
called it Bethesda, because I hoped it would be a home of mercy to many 
souls. ]\Iany boys have been put out to trades, and many girls put out 
to service. I had the pleasure the other day of seeing tlaree boys work 
at the house in which they were bred, one of them out of his time, a 
journeyman, and the others serving under their masters. One that I 
brought from New England is handsomely settled in Carolina ; and 
another from Philadelphia is married, and lives very comfortably in 
Savannah. We have lately begun to use the plough ; and next year I 
hope to have many acres of good oats and barley. "We have near twenty 
sheep and lambs, fifty head of cattle, and seven horses. We hope to kill 
a thousand weight of pork this season. Our garden is very beautiful, 
■and furnishes us with all sorts of greens, etc., etc. We have plenty of 
milk, eggs, poultry, and make a good deal of butter weekly. A good 
quantity of wool and cotton have been given me, and we hope to have 
sufficient spun and wove for the next winter's clothing. If the vines 
live, we may expect two or three hogshead of wine out of the vineyard. 
The family now consists of twenty-six persons. Two of the orphan 
boys are blind, one is little better than an idiot. I have two women to 
take care of the household work, and three men and two boys employed 
about the plantation and cattle. A set of Dutch servants has been lately 
sent over. The magistrates were pleased to give me two ; and I took 
in a poor widow, aged near seventy, whom nobody else cared to have. 
A valuable young man from New England is my schoolmaster, and in 
ray absence performs duty in the family. On Sabbaths the grown people 
attend in public worship at Savannah, or at White Bluff, a village near 
Bethesda, where a Dutch minister officiates. The house is a noble, com- 
modious building, and everything sweetly adapted for bringing up 
youth. Georgia is very healthy; not above one, and that a little child, 
has died out of our family since it removed to Bethesda." 

James Habersham, His Associate 

AVhitefield had the most hearty cooperation of the Hon. James 
Habersham in that good work. This gentleman was born at Beverly, in 
Yorkshire, England, in the year 1712, and of his early life we know 
scarcely anything. In some way he found Mr. Whitefield and greatly 
liked him. We are informed that when Mr. Habersham proposed to 
accompany his friend to Georgia his family demurred ; but young 
Habersham had a will of his own and he followed his own judgment — 
that the step he proposed to take was the right one. His interest in the 
Bethesda scheme was intense, and he was at the head of that institution 
whenever Whitefield was absent. He attended to the removal of the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 97 

orphans to the new building erected at Bethesda in 1741, and was made 
the president of the home. The position he held until 1744, when he 
resigned and entered into business with Mr. Francis Harris, and that 
is supposed to have been the first commercial house established in 
Georgia. It built up a great business, and was of great assistance to the 
colony. Mr. Habersham was the founder of the illustrious family which 
has always stood for what is honorable, just and patriotic in the public 
affairs of Georgia and of Savannah in particular. He carried on an 
extensive correspondence, and a large portion of his lettei'S on public 
matters have been recently published by the Georgia Historical Society. 
He was appointed one of the assistants to the President of the province 
of Georgia when a change in the form of government was made. Dur- 
ing the administration of Governor John Reynolds, in 1754, he was ap- 
pointed Secretary of the province and one of the Councillors, and in 
1767, he was President of the upper house of assembly. While Sir James 
Wright was Governor he recpiested leave of absence and begged that Mr. 
Habersham be appointed to fill his place. The request was granted and 
that gentleman was really the Governor all the time that Wright was 
in England. He went to New Brunswick, New Jersey, in the summer 
of 1775, hoping that the trip would benefit his health, which was not 
good, but he died there on the 28th of August. The Georgia Gazette, 
printed in Savannah, in noticing his death said of him : 
' "In the first stations of the Province he conducted himself with 
ability, honor and integrity, which gained him the love and esteem of 
his fellow citizens ; nor was he less distinguished in private life by a 
conscientious discharge of the social duties as a tender and afl:'eetionate 
parent, a sincere and warm friend, and a kind and indulgent master. 
Mr. Habersham was married by the Rev. i\Ir. Whitefield to Mary Bolton, 
at Bethesda, on the 26th of December, 1740, by whom he had ten chil- 
iren, three of whom, sons, survived him, and were zealous in the cause 
of American liberty." 

This story of him is well authenticated : That he was requested by 
the Rev. Mr. Bolzius, as the best person for that purpose, to prepare a 
paper on the condition of the province, and that Mr. Habersham, in 
reply, wrote a letter which so completely covered the subject on which 
the incjuirer wished to be informed, that the letter, which the writer 
specially desired should be kept from the public, was made known to 
the Trustees who, contrary to Mr. Habersham's belief that witli them it 
would bring harm to himself, were so pleased with it that it was really 
the cause of his appointment to the place of assistant in the place of 
Mr. Samuel Mareer, who had not used the office to the advantage of the 
triist. 

Franklin and Oglethorpe on the Orphan Home 

Had Whitefield listened to Benjamin Franklin the home at Bethesda 
would not have been founded, but Philadelphia would have received 
that honor. In his autobiography Franklin wrote on this point: "I 
did not disapprove of the design, but as Georgia was then destitute of 
materials and workmen, and it was proposed to send them from Phila- 

Vol. 1—7 



98 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

delphia at a great expense, I thought it would have been better to have 
built the home at Philadelphia and brought the children to it. This 
I advised, but he was resolute in his first project, rejected my counsel, 
and I therefore refused to contribute. I happened soon after to attend 
one of his sermons, in the course of which I perceived that he intended 
to finish with a collection, and I silently resolved that he should get 
nothing out of me. I had in my pocket a handful of copper money, 
three or four silver dollars, and five pistoles in gold. As he proceeded 
I began to soften and concluded to give the coppers. Another stroke of 
his oratory made me ashamed of that, and determined me to give the 
silver; and he finished so admirably that I emptied my pocket into the 
collector's dish, gold and all." 

The correspondence of Oglethorpe shows the first mention by him of 
Whitefield in a letter written from Charleston, April 2, 1740, to the 
Trustees, enclosing an "answer," as he calls it, "to Mr. Jones' representa- 
tion relating to the orphans." Mr. Thomas Jones had been appointed to 
succeed Causton, and he must have made some complaint about the 
orphan house. As the letter is interesting, it is here given in full : 
"As for Milledge's brother and sister I think your representation is very 
just, that the taking them away to the Orphan House will break up a 
family which is in a likely way of living comfortably. ]\Ir. Whitefield 's 
design is for the good of ye people and the Glory of God and I dare 
say when he considers this, he will be very well satisfied with the Boy* 
and Girls returning to their brother John ]\Iilledge, since they can 
assist him, and you may allow them upon my account the provisions they 
used to have upon the Orphan account. Upon this head I am to acquaint 
you that I have inspected the Grant relating to the Orphan House. 
Mr. Seward said that the Trustees had granted the Orphans to Mr. 
Whitefield, but I shoAved him that it could not be in the sense he at 
first seemed to understand it. It is most certain that Orphans are human 
creatures & neither Cattel nor any other kind of Chattels, therefore 
cannot be granted, but the Trust have granted the care of the help- 
less Orphans to Mr. Whitefield & have given him 500'' Acres of 
Land and a power of collecting Charities as a consideration for main- 
taining all the Orphans who are in necessity in this Province, and 
thereby the Trustees think themselves discharged from maintaining of 
any, but at the same time the Trustees have not given as I see any 
power to ]\Ir. Whitefield to receive the effects of the Orphans much less 
to take by force any Orphans who can maintain themselves, or whom any 
other substantial person will maintain. The Trustees in this act accoi'd- 
ing to' the Law of England in case Orphans are left destitute they be- 
come the charge upon the Parish and the Parish may put them out to 
be taken care of, but if any person will maintain them so that they 
are not chargeable to the Parish, then the Parish doth not meddle with 
them, and since the taking away of the Court of AVards and Liveries the 
Guardianship of Orplians is in their next Relation, or themselves at a 
certain age can chuse their Guardians and the Judges, Cliancellor, Magis- 
trates &ca.. have the same inspection over the effects and persons of the 
Orphans as they liave over those of his Majesty's other subjects, and 
the effects and persons of Orphans are as much under the protection 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 99 

of the Laws as those of any other of His Majesty's Subjects. I send 
a copy of this Paragraph to Colonel Stephens and think it would be 
right in you and him to give an account to the Trustees of this matter 
and of all other things relating to the Orphan House." 

[Indorsed] 
"Copy of General Oglethorpe's Answer to Mr. Jones's Representa- 
tion relating to the Orphans inclosed in the General's letter to the 
Trustees dated 2 April, 1740." 

The letter above is inserted in the journal of Mr. Wm. Stephens, 
imder date March 5, 1740, with this comment: "In pursuance of his 
Excellency's opinion this signified Mr. Milledge was advised to wait 
on Mr. Whitefleld and desire that he should permit his younger brother 
and sister to go home to him, that they might be helpful to one another. 
But upon his so doing this day, he told me that Mr. Whitefield gave 
him for answer his brother and sister were at their proper home al- 
ready, and he knew no other home they had to go to, desiring him to 
give his service to the General, and tell him so." 

Harris & Habersham, Merchants 

Mr. James Habersham began life in the colony as the schoolmaster 
at Bethesda, Whitefield 's orphan home, and when he formed the part- 
nership with ]\Ir. Harris that was not the first mercantile establishment 
in Georgia, though the statement that such was the case has been re- 
peatedly made. One writer * states that ' ' By them was the first ship 
chartered for a Georgia cargo. This was in 1749, and the articles ex- 
ported consisted chiefly of pitch, tar, staves, rice and deer skins," which 
statement follows one that "To the house of Harris & Habersham is 
Georgia indebted for the establishment of her earliest commercial rela- 
tions not only with Philadelphia, New York and Boston, but also with 
London. They were the first merchants here engaged in exporting and 
importing." For some years the trustees used what were called "sola 
bills" which were really the currency of the colony. When issued they 
were turned over to the agents of the province who paid them out in 
commercial transactions. They were to be redeemed in England, and 
were considered as secure as the notes of the Bank of England, and 
when redeemed they were canceled by two of the trustees and one mem- 
ber of the common council. This is the form used : 

' ' Georgia Bill of Exchange, payable in England — A. No. Westminster, 

17 — . Thirty days after sight hereof, we the Trustees for Establish- 



ing the Colony of Georgia in America, promise to pay this our sola bill of exchange 

to , or the order of any two of them, the sum of pounds 

sterling, at our office in Westminster, to answer the like value received in Georgia 
on the issue hereof, as verified by indorsement hereon, sign'd by the said two who 

shall issue this bill. £ . 

"Sealed by order of the Common Council of the said Trustees for Establishing 
the Colony of Georgia in America. 

"Harmon Veeelst, Accountant." 

* C. C. Jones, History of Georgia, Vol. I, p. 430. 



100 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

' ' [Indorsed.] 

"Georgia, , 17 — . This bill was then issued to 

for value received. Therefore please to pay the contents to him or order. 

[one of the parties named in the bill] . 

" , 17—. 

"[Two of the parties named in the bill.]'' 

Pioneers, but Not the First 

Recognizing the real services of a most valuable character done by the 
influential firm of Harris & Habersham from the time it was established 
in the year 1749 and continued through descendants of the junior mem- 
ber of that house until a very recent date, and not with any intention of 
calling into question the firm belief of the writer just quoted, and others, 
in the truth of their averment this writer feels compelled not only tc 
question their statement that the house named was the first mercantile 
establishment in Georgia, but to produce evidence to show that such 
statement is wrong. As early as 1737 business transactions of a most 
important character and involving large amounts of money were carried 
on in the town of Savannah by which sola bills for sums which were far 
from being insignificant were paid to the house of Minis and Salomons, 
and these transactions show that firm to have been, commercially speak- 
ing, of a high standard of honor, integrity and importance to the prov- 
ince. Thus, in the common council meeting of April 27, 1737, it was 
resolved ' ' That until the two thousand pounds granted by Parliament in 
this session shall be received, four hundred and thirty-three pounds out 
of the unappropriated money be paid into the hands of ]\Ir. Oglethorpe 
to pay the following of the above mentioned Sola Bills which ]\Ir. Caus- 
ton, as per advice, has paid away as received by Mr. Oglethorpe: To 
Messrs. Minis and Salomons from A No. 50 to 715 at one pound each 
dated January 27, 1736 .... £215.0.0." May 11, 1737: "Read a cer- 
tified account from Mr. Causton to Messrs. I\Iinis and Salajnons 
dated December 29, 1736, before their Sola Bills wei-e received, 
amounting to two hundred and eighteen pounds, seven shillings 
and five pence stei'ling. " It is useless to multiply examples of such trans- 
actions here, but a number of them appear in the minutes of the council, 
in one of which it is stated that the bill of that firm was for "provisions 
from New York," and in another that the sum due was "for provisions 
and necessaries." In 17-±0, the firm name was changed to Abraham Minis 
& Company. On the 6th of March, 1738, William Stephens, secretary 
to the trust, entered in his journal the fact that "A sloop arrived with 
provisions from New Yoi-k consigned to Mr. Minis;" and on the 23d of 
December, the same year, "Two sloops which lately came from New 

York with provisions • — Tingley and Tucker, mastei-s, for the 

behoof of Messrs. Minis and Provost, both freeholders, finding no pros- 
pect upon their stopping at Tybee to dispose of their cargoes, sailed 
thence for St. Simons." 

Again, on the 3rd of March, 1740, Stephens says: "]Mr. Minis going 
south this morning to dispose of the provisions which arrived lately in 
a sloop there, Capt. Tingley, from New York, which goods were consigned 
to Minis, I wrote letters by him to the General, in answer to those I re- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 101 

ceived by Capt. Mcintosh and Mr. Wliitefield;" and, on the 18th of July, 
' ' Capt. Tingley arrived this morning from the South, where he had been 
to dispose of the cargo * * * and with him came Mr. Abraham JMinis 
* * * w'hora the cargo was consigned to." 

These records seem to have been neglected in any search which may 
have been made heretofore for facts showing the commercial interests of 
the province before 1749. It is certain that Mr. James Habersham 
never stated that his firm was the first of the kind in Georgia, but he 
did make a statement, some time after its founding, in reference to the 
bulk of business it transacted which is of sufficient interest to deserve a 
place here : 

"My present thoughts (he wrote) are that the Colony never had a 
better appearance of thriving than now. Th?re have been more vessels 
loaded here within these ten months than have been since the Colony was 
settled. Oi;r exportations for a year past are an evident proof that if 
proper labouring liands * could have been had years before, this Colony 
before now would have demonstrated its utility to the ^lother Country 
and the West India Islands. Two days ago a large ship arrived here, 
addressed to my partner and myself, which is the fifth sea vessel which 
has been here to load within a year; more, I may affirm, than has ever 
been loaded in this Colony before since its first settlement, with real 
produce. ' ' 

In Defense of the Colony 

With his appointment as general and commander-in-chief Oglethorpe 
began to place the colony in the best condition possible for its defence, 
went to Charleston in March, 1738, to notify the governor of South Caro- 
lina of his appointment and to make sure of the co-operation of the people 
there, when his commission was read to the assembly on the 3d of April 
and regulations in reference to his military authority were agreed on. 
He returned to Savannah on the 11th of April, remained there until the 
18th, when he proceeded to Frederica, where he could observe every 
movement on the part of the Spaniards to the southward and learn 
what were their plans for the future. There he remained until July, 
when, learning of the activity of the enemy in certain respects, he deter- 
mined to attend an assembly of Indian chiefs at Coweta Town, to counter- 
act any proposed action of those people in accepting service as allies of 
Spain. This conference with the Indians was well-timed, as immediately 
after its conclusion war was declared between England and Spain. 

Securing the Friendship of the Creeks 

The purpose of the meeting with those chiefs was unfolded to the 
trustees in a letter written by Oglethorpe to Mr. Verelst, then accountant, 
which was read at a meeting of the board held on the 23d of August, 
containing "an account that he had received frequent and confirmed ad- 
vices that the Spaniards were striving to win the Indians, and particu- 

* Meaning negro slaves. 



102 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

larly the Creek Nation, to differ with the English which made it necessary 
for him to go to the General Assembly of the Indian Nation at the Coweta 
Town, in order to hinder the Spaniards from corrupting and raising 
sedition among them ; and setting forth that he was obliged to buy horses 
and presents to carry up to this meeting of the Indians where the Choc- 
taws and Chickasaws are to send their deputies." All that Oglethorpe 
had to say in a direct way to the trustees on this point was contained in 
a letter to them, from Savannah, dated July 16th, closing with the state- 
ment: "The French and Spaniards have used their utmost endeavors 
to raise disturbances amongst our Indians, and the not deciding clearly 
in the Act relating to them has given such insolence to the Carolina 
traders that the Indians have declared if I do not come up to them they 
will take arms and do themselves justice ; and have ordered a General As- 
sembly of all the Nations to meet me. I set out this night. ' ' His efforts 
in this assembly were eminently successful, and, from Augusta, on the 
5th of September, he wrote to Mr. Verelst a letter in which he said ' ' I 
hope the Trustees will accept of this as a letter to them," and made 
this report: "I am just arrived at this place from the assembled estates 
of the Creek Nation. They have very fully declared their rights to and 
possession of all the land as far as the river Saint John's and their con- 
cession of the Sea Coast, Islands, and other lands to the Trustees, of 
which they have made a regular Act. If I had not gone up, the troubles 
between them and the Carolina traders, fomented by our two neighboring 
Nations, would probably have occasioned their beginning a war which. 
I believe, might have been the result of this general meeting; but, as 
their complaints were reasonable, I gave them satisfaction in all of them, 
and everything is entirely settled in peace. It is impossible to describe 
the joy they expressed at my arrival." A further statement is briefly 
made to the trustees in a letter from Savannah, on the 5th of October, in 
these words: "I've been obliged to make large presents to the Indians 
who are now thoroughly engaged to us." 

The Death of Tomo-chi-chi 

It is evident from records written at the time that the health of the 
good old man, Tomo-chi-chi, had been failing for a long time before 
death came to his lowly home at Yamacraw and bore his spirit away. We 
have two very interesting accounts of his demise, both of which ar^here 
recorded. The first is from the journal of ]\Ir. William Stephens, the 
secretary at Savannah, dated October 4, 5 and 6, 1739: "So little inter- 
mission was found these few days from attending the General's com- 
mands which rather multiplied than abated through the incessant appli- 
cation that the most undesired thing which happened abroad and I 
thought worth noting was the death of old Mieo Thomo Chichi, said to be 
upwards of ninety years of age ; and, as the General always esteemed him 
a friend of the Colony, and therefore showed him particular marks of his 
esteem when living, so he distinguished him at his death, ordering his 
corpse to be brought down, and it was buried in the center of one of the 
principal scjuare, the General being pleased to make himself one of his 
l)all-bearers, with five others, among whom he laid command on me to be 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 103 

one, and the other four were military officers. At the depositing of the 
corpse seven minute guns were tired, and above forty men in arms (as 
many as could instantly be found) gave three vollies over the grave 
which the General says he intends to dignify with some obelisk, or the 
like, over it, as an ornament to the town, and a memorial to the Indians 
how great regard the English would pay to all their nations who main- 
tain true friendship with us." 

In passing, let it be observed here that a most remarkable fact con- 
nected with the death of one who had done so much for the welfare of the 
Colonists and who undoubtedly had the esteem and friendship of the 
General is that the General, honoring the illustrious dead, as stated in 
the account just given and in the one to follow, did not, so far as is 
known, even mention the death of Tomo-chi-chi izi any communication 
which he sent to the Trustees, or to any person of his acquaintance in 
England, or elsewhere. The other account of the Indian chief's death 
and burial, is from the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. X, p. 129, as follows: 

"Savannah in Georgia, Oct. 10, 1739. 

"King Toma-chi-chi died on the 5th, at his own town, 4 miles from 
hence, of a lingering illness, being aged about 97. He was sensible to the 
last minutes, and when he was persuaded his death was near he showed 
the greatest magnanimity and sedateness, and exhorted his People never 
to forget the favours he had received from the King when in England, 
but to persevere in their Friendship with the English. He expressed 
the greatest Tenderness for Gen. Oglethorpe, and seemed to have no Con- 
cern at dying but its being at a Time when his life might be useful against 
the Spaniards. He desired his Body might be buried amongst the Eng- 
lish in the Town of Savannah, since it was he that had prevailed with the 
Creek Indians to give the Land, and had assisted in the founding of the 
Town. The Corpse was brought down by Water. The General, attended 
by the Magistrates and People of the Town, met it upon the Water's 
Edge. The Corpse was carried into Percival Sciuare. The pall was 
supported by the General, Col. Stephens, Col. Montaigut, Mr. Carteret, 
Mr. Lemon, and Mr. Maxwell. It was followed by the Indians and Mag- 
istrates and People of the Town. There was the Respect paid of firing 
Minute Guns from the Battery all the time during the Burial, and 
Funeral — firing with sinall Arms by the Militia, who were under arms. 
The General has ordered a Pyramid of Stone, which is dug in this Neigh- 
bourhood, to be erected over the Grave, which being in the Centre of 
the Town, will be a great Ornament to it, as well as testimony of Grati- 
tude. 

"Tomo-chi-chi was a Creek Indian, and in his youth a great War- 
riour. He had an excellent Judgment and a very ready Wit, which 
showed itself in his Answers on all Occasions. He was very generous, 
giving away all the rich presents he received, remaining himself in a 
wilful Poverty, being more pleased in giving to others, than possessing 
himself; and he was very mild and good natured. " 

A monument has been reared to the memory of Tomo-chi-chi in 
Wright Scjuare (originally Percival Square) and it is supposed to be 
on the spot where he was Imried ; but from the foregoing it is clearly 



104 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

seen that the grave was dug in the center of the square, and this state- 
ment is corroborated by the drawing of the town by De Brahm, attached 
to his "History of the Province of Georgia," called by him "Plan of 
the City of Savannah and Fortifications." This plan was drawn about 
the year 1752, and it is very probable that the grave was at that time 
marked and known as such. 



CHAPTER XII ' 

LAST OF OGLETHOBPE ADMINISTRATION 

Final Repulse of the Spanlvrds — Georglv Divided Into Two Coun- 
ties — First jMeeting op Savannah County Board — Oglethorpe's 
Last Official Appearance — Changes in Land Tenures — William 
Stephens, Colonial President — Beaulieu (Bewile) Founded by 
Stephens — The Creek-Bosomworth Imbroglio — Renewed Friend- 
ship Almost Severed — Financial Settlement of Trouble — Ogle- 
thorpe's Last Days in Georgia. 

An account of the engagements between Oglethorpe's forces and the 
Spaniards and Iiis final defeat of those people does not come within the 
scope of this work, and so we will say little more of that matter here. 
Finding the trouble from that source at an end, and feeling that the 
colony was safe from attack by outsiders, and that everything was se- 
cure, he departed for England. 

Final Repulse of the Spaniards 

Concerning this ending of the constant watch which had to be kept 
against the enemy until his last repulse, we will only quote from one of 
Whitefield 's letters : ' ' The deliverance of Georgia from the Spaniards, 
one of my friends writes me, is such as cannot be parallelled but by 
some instances out of the Old Testament. I find that the Spaniards 
had cast lots and determined to give no <iuarter. They intended to 
have attacked Carolina, but, wanting water, they put into Georgia, and 
so would take that colony on their way. But the race is not to the 
swift, nor the battle to the strong. Providence ruleth all things. They 
were wonderfully repelled and sent away before our ships were seen. ' ' 

Peace reigning within the borders of Georgia, and her affairs all in a 
prosperous condition, Oglethorpe left for England in the fall of 1743, 
the exact date of his departure being nowhere recorded ; but we know 
that he appeared at a meeting of the trustees in London on the 5th day 
of December. 

Georgia Divided Into Two Counties 

More than two years before that time, namely, in the early part of 
1741, an important change was made in the government of the colony. 

105 



106 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

In the common council, on March 15th, it was resolved "that the Prov- 
ince of Georgia be divided into two counties called the County of Sa- 
vannah and the County of Frederiea, and that the district of the County 
of Savannah do include all settlements upon the Savannah River and both 
banks of the Ogeechee River, and so much further southward of the 
Ogeechee as shall be appointed when a proper map of the county shall be 
sent to the Trustees, ' ' and ' ' that the jurisdiction of each county be under 
a President and four Assistants ; that William Stephens be appointed 
President of the County of Savannah ; that Henry Parker, Thomas Jones, 
-John Fallowfield, and Samuel Mercer be the four Assistants for the 
County of Savannah ; and that General Oglethorpe be desired to recom- 
mend to the Trustees as soon as possible a proper person to be President 
for the County of Frederiea & that the three magistrates of the town 
of Frederiea be three of the Assistants for the County of Frederiea and 
that General Oglethorpe be desired to recommend a proper person for the 
fourth Assistant." 

This action was followed, at the meeting of the same body, on the 
20th of April following, with a resolution that "a deed be prepared con- 
stitviting William Stephens, Esq., President, and Henry Parker. Thomas 
Jones, John Fallowfield and Samuel Mercer the four Assistants for the 
County of Savannah, and that the seal of the corporation be affixed to 
the deed in presence of the Trustees, and that the Secretary do counter- 
sign the same. Read instructions to the said President and four As- 
sistants. Read further instructions to the President." 



First Meeting op Sav.vnnah County Board 

The first meeting of the president and assistants of the County of 
Savannah was held October 12th, 17-41, when all were present, and "the 
general instructions for the President and Assistants of the County of 
Savannah were read, and also publiek instructions for the President of 
the said county." John Pye was appointed secretary. 

Oglethorpe's Last Official Appearance 

Oglethorpe apparently had no idea when he left Georgia at that 
time that he was never again to set his feet upon her soil, and it is a 
fact worthy to be considered whether the change in the plan of gov- 
ernment had anything to do with his failure ever again to visit the 
colony. His last appearance in the meetings of the trustees was on 
the 19th of May, 1746, though tliat body continued to meet until May 
1, 1752. when "the seal was affixed to a counterpart of an indenture 
expressing and declaring the surrender and grant of the Trust." and 
ordering that the seal be defaced, which was done in the presence of the 
gentlemen present. The last meeting of the common council he attended 
was on Monday, January 19, 1749, but that body held meetings until 
Wednesday, April 29, 1752. when all the business they had on hand 
was closed up as far as it could be done then, and a committee appointed, 
of which the Earl of Shaftesbuiv was chainnan, or anv three of them. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 107 

"to do all and every necessary act previous to or concerning the sur- 
render of the trust." 

Changes in Land Tenures 

At the time of the defalcation of Thomas Causton, complaints 
concerning various matters were made by the people, and one in par- 
ticular related to the tenure of the lands granted to settlers. The first 
grievance mentioned by the writer of the pamphlet called "A true 
and Historical Narrative of the Colony of Georgia in America" was 
"The want of a free title or fee-simple to our lands; which, if granted, 
would both induce great numbers of new settlers to come amongst us, 
and likewise encourage those who remain here cheerfully to proceed 
in making further improvements, as well as relieve their sunk fortunes 
as to make provisions for their posterity." To this demand for titles 
in fee-simple, the trustees, on the 20th of June, 1739, gave an 
unfavorable reply, but later on, that is to say on August 28th of the 
same year, they reconsidered their action and made through their com- 
mon council the following revision of the titles : that lauds already 
granted, as well as to be afterwards granted, should, in case of failure 
of male issue, descend to daughters of the grantees, and when there 
should be no issue, the grantees might devise the lands granted to 
them ; but, should the grantees fail to devise, the lands should become 
the property of the legal heirs of the grantees. No one should hold 
more than five hundred acres ; and widows of original grantees were 
permitted to hold and enjoy the dwelling-house, garden, and one 
moiety of the lands held by their husbands at time of death, for and 
during the term of the natural lives of said widows. This act did not 
meet the demand made by the petitioners. The resolutions were pub- 
lished in sections in the Charleston Gazette, as there was then no news- 
paper published in Georgia. The people found it hard to understand 
the meaning of those resolutions, and Col. William Stephens under-i 
took to read and explain them in an assembly at the court-house on a 
day appointed for the purpose. Cajjt. Hugh McCall, in his hi.story 
of Georgia * gives an amusing account of that incident from which 
we quote this passage: "After he had fini.shed his task, and exerted 
his utmost abilities in giving an explanation, one of the settlers 
ludicrously remarked that the whole paper consisted of males and tails; 
that all the lawyers in London would not be able to bring the meaning 
down to his comprehension ; and that he understood as little of its 
meaning then as he had when Stephens began. Others wished to know 
how often those two words had occurred in the resolutions, that the 
number ought to l)e preserved as a curiosity, and that the author 
ought to be lodged in Bedlam for lunacy." Further changes were 
made in this matter of land tenure at a later time which gave the 
holders title in fee-simple absolute. It is probable that the grant to 
Mordecai Sheftall of September, 1762. of a garden lot from which a 
portion was set apart as a Jewish cemetery 'was then given to secure 

* Vol. I, p. 140. Savannah, 1811 (1st edition). 



108 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

him in possession of that land which he previously held on more uncer- 
tain conditions, and thus the burial place used as such for a number of 
years before, was formally passed over to trustees for a sacred purpose. 

William Stephens, Colonial President 

After the division of the province into two counties it was deemed 
unnecessary to appoint a president for the southern county of Fred- 
erica as Oglethorpe himself was on the spot and could take care of that 
office, and the magistrates then acted as the assistants, as contemplated 
in the act making the change in the form of government. Pres. Wil- 
liam Stephens acted as president of the County of Savannah from 1741 
until 1743, when he was made president of all the colony. He was 
born on the 28th of January, 1671, old style, and was the son of Sir 
Wm. Stephens, Bart., lieutenant-governor of the Isle-of- Wight where 
his son was born. When he was twenty-five years old the young man 
married a daughter of Sir Richard Newdigate, and a little later in 
life he entered parliament, representing the town of Newport. He 
held several offices in England before coming to America, and, accept- 
ing an offer from Colonel Hersey of South Carolina to make a survey 
of a barony of land there, he formed the acquaintance of General Ogle- 
thorpe upon whose recommendation he received the appointment of 
secretary to the trustees, which required him "to take a genei'al over- 
sight of affairs." When he became president of the colony he was 
well advanced in years, being over seventy, and his age, combined 
with misfortunes and family troubles rendered him in a few years 
incapable of performing properly the duties of his office. In 1750 
his assistants made known to him the fact that liis condition made it 
necessary for him to take a rest, and he told them to manage the affairs 
of the province without his aid, and that he would "soon retire into the 
country, where he would be at liberty to mind the more weighty things 
of a future state ; not doubting but the Trustees would enable him to 
end his few remaining days without care and anxieties." He did not 
live long after his retirement from office, and died in 1753. It was 
said of him in an obituary notice. "For many years he had made a 
considerable figure in the polite world ; had sat twenty-six years in the 
British House of Commons, and to his great honor, in every change, 
behaved with great address and truth to his constituents." 

The country place to which William Stephens retired, and where it 
is presumed that he died, was Beaulieu, on the Vernon river, now 
one of the most attractive resorts adjacent to the city of Savannah, 
and on that account, as well as on others to be mentioned, deserving 
some notice here. Shortly after his arrival in the colony he secured a 
grant to that tract of land of five hundred acres. The grant to it was 
confirmed by Oglethorpe, April 19, 1738. In the interesting and rare 
"Journal of the Proceedings in Georgia," by the owner of the place, 
the author, on the 21st of March, 1739, wrote "I was now called upon 
to give the Place a Name ; and therefore naturally revolving in my 
Thoughts divers Places in my native Country, to try if I could find 
any that had a resemblance to this; I fancied that Bewlie, a Manor of 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 109 

his Grace the Duke of Montague in the New Forest, was not unlike it 
much as to its situation, and being on the skirts of that Forest, had 
Plenty of large Timber growing everywhere near; moreover a fine Arm 
of the Sea running close by, which parts the Isle of Wight from the 
main Land, and make a beautiful Prospect; from all which Tradition 
tells us it took its Name and was antiently called Beaulieu, though 
now vulgarly Bewlie ; only by leaving out the a in the first Syllable, 
and the u in the end of the last. ' ' * 

Beaulieu (Bevv^lie) Founded by Stephens 

It was at this place that the French allies landed in the War of the 
Revolution, on the llth of September, 1779, pressing on from that 
point to take part in the siege of the city in the month of October. 
When that point is reached in the history, the place will then be 
further considered. In connection with the description of the place 
from which Stephens bestowed the name, as given in his own words, 
the following more recent account fits in with what has just been 
quoted: "Beaulieu, a liberty in the union of New Forest, Southamp- 
ton and S. division of the County of Southampton, on the road to 
Hythe, containing, with an extra-parochial district within its limits, 
1,339 inhabitants. This place is situated on a river of the same name, 
which rises in the New Forest, at the foot of a hill about a mile and 
a half to the north-east of Lyndhurst, and is navigable for vessels of 
fifty tons' burthen to the Isle of Wight channel which bounds the parish 
on the south. On reaching the village, the river spreads into a wide 
surface covering several acres, on the eastern side of which stood 
Beaulieu Abbey, founded in 1204, by King John, for thrifty monks of 
the Benedictine order, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary ; its 
revenue at the dissolution in 1540 was £428.6.6. It had the privilege 
of sanctuary, and afi^orded an asylum to IMargaret of Anjou, wife of 
Henry VI, after the battle of Barnet, and to Perkin Warbeck, in the 
reign of Henry VII. Beaulieu has long been noted for the manufac- 
ture of coarse sacking : near the village of Sowley, within the liberty, 
were formerly two large mills belonging to some iron- works ; and at 
Buckler's Hard, another populous village in the liberty, situated on 
the Beaulieu river, and inhabited principally by workmen employed 
in ship-building, many vessels of war have been built. At Sowley is 
a fine sheet of water, abounding with pike, some of which are of very 
large size, weighing nearly 28 lbs. Fairs for horses and horned cattle 
are held on April 15th and September 4th." t 

The title to this property passed from one owner to another until 
April, 1854, when Mr. John Schley purchased the entire tract. He 
divided it into lots of convenient size and sold many of them mainly to 
citizens of Savannah from about 1868 until his death ; and the place is 
now a settlement of some importance. 

* Vol. II, pp. 166, 318, 319. London, 1742. 

+ A Topographical Dictionary of England, by Samuel Lewis. London, 1848. 4° 
Vol. I. 



110 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

The Creek-Bosomworth Imbroglio 

It was during the administration of Governor Stephens that an 
affair of considerable importance occurred in the city of Savannah, 
attended with existing scenes and incidents the like of which had never 
before been known there, and, it is reasonable to believe, never since. 
It was the trouble known as the Bosomworth affair. During all the 
time Oglethorpe had the reins of government in his hands, he easily 
and quietly held in cheek everything that seemed like opposition to 
his plans, and he was certainly understood and held in the highest 
esteem by the Indians who not only granted him all his desires but 
were even willing to bestow upon him and those under him more than 
they felt they should accept. With his continued absence came the 
first real trouble with them, and this exciting incident probably would 
have been averted if he had remained on the spot. When he first 
landed at Yamacraw bluff he engaged the services of a half breed 
woman named Alary, as an interpreter, as she spoke both the Creek and 
the English languages. Her Indian name was Consaponakeeso. Born 
at the Coweta town, on the Ocmulgee, she was carried, when seven 
years old, to Ponpon, South Carolina, where she was baptized and edu- 
cated in a Christian way. The government of South Carolina, in 1716, 
tried to make a treaty with the Creeks, sending to them for that pur- 
pose Col. John Musgrove, and then that gentleman's son, John Mus- 
grove, Jr., fell in love with this Indian girl, who, through the ma- 
ternal line, was a descendant of a Creek emperor, and married her. 
In 1723, the couple returned to South Carolina, and shortly before the 
landing of the English at Yamacraw established a trading 
house there. Finding that she would be useful in his transactions 
with the Indians, Oglethorpe secured her friendship which remained 
firm as long as he remained in this country, and upon the death of 
Musgrove, about three years after his landing, by his advice she opened 
a trading station somewhere south of the Alatamaha wheVe she married 
Capt. Jacob ]\Iatthews. Matthews died in 1742, and she afterwards was 
united in marriage with the Rev. Thomas Bosomworth, employed by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Until 
her last marriage her conduct toward the English people was all that 
coiild have been desired, and it is a fair presumption that in marrying 
her Rev. Mr. Bosomworth contemplated the scheme for the betterment of 
his financial affairs which before long he developed. At the end of the 
first year of his married life he went to England, informing the trustees 
that lie did not expect to return to Georgia. Changing his mind two years 
thereafter he re-appeared in the colony and began to put in action 
the deep-laid plot for making liiniself ricli and which kept Georgia 
stirred up with disturbance and strife for some years. He claimed 
that a large amount was due his wife for her valuable services, and 
aimed to get cojitrol and title to the lands which in the treaties with 
the Indians had been reserved to them, namely. Ossabaw. St. Catherine's 
and Sapelo islands, together with a tract above Pipemaker's creek, on 
tlie Savannali river. He induced Colonel Heron, of Oglethorpe's regi- 
ment, and others, to enter into tlie plot witli liim, and with their assist- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 111 

anee a meeting was arranged with a body of Indians, led by Malatchee, 
at Frederica, where that chief made a speech relating the services of 
Mr. Bosom worth, advising that Bosomworth's brother Adam be 
sent to England to inform the king that he, Malatchee, was emperor 
of the Creeks, and that his sister Mary had the confidence of the Creek 
Nation, all the people of which had determined to stand by her in her 
intention. Thomas Bosomworth proposed that Malatchee should have 
himself crowned, and a docuiuent was written in which he was clothed 
with all the authority claimed for him by Bosomworth. This being 
done, a deed was made by the newly created emperor to the husband 
and wife of St. Catherine's, Ossabaw and Sapelo islands, the con- 
sideration being ten pieces of stroud, twelve pieces of duffles, two hun- 
dred weight of powder, two hundred pounds of lead, twenty guns, 
twelve pairs of pistols and one hundred pounds of vermilion. Thomas 
Bosomworth bought on credit from some South Carolina planters a 
number of heads of cattle with which to stock the islands so acquired, 
but the increase did not meet his expectation, and he was so involved 
in debt that he induced his wife to declare herself an independent 
empress, which she did at a council of the Creeks called for the pur- 
pose, when they excitedly pledged their allegiance to her, declaring 
they would protect her rights at all hazards. Under the protection 
of those people she went to Savannah to demand of the president of 
the province a complete surrender of the lands granted to her. Her 
arrival there followed the announcement of her coming through a 
special messenger who gave information of all that had been done at 
the meeting. This so alarmed the president and council that they 
resolved to make a pretense of trying to be friendly towards her plans 
until they could find an opportunity of seizing her and sending her 
to England, at the same time informing the commanding officers of 
ihe provincial militia to be ready to march to Savannah at a moment's 
notice. 

The town was at once placed in the best position of defense consider- 
ing the small number of men within its limits capable of bearing arms, 
not amounting, all told, to two hundi'ed. When within a few miles of 
the town Mary was met by a messenger of the council desiring to be in- 
formed whether she Avas really in earnest as to her claim and advising 
her to be more reasonable in her demands, urging her, in fact, to drop 
them entirely. She could not be moved, however, and it was decided to 
show her, on her arrival, that she must give up her wild ideas. Captain 
Jones, at the head of the militia, met the advancing party as they entered 
Savannah, and demanded an explanation of their intention. An evasive 
reply was made, whereupon they were ordered to lay down their arms, 
which command they reluctantly obeyed. Then Thomas Bosomworth, 
with his wife and the chiefs, entered the town in state, he being clothed 
in his priestly robes, their appearance frightening the inhabitants, not- 
withstanding the militia were formed in ranks with their guns tightly 
grasped. They were saluted with fifteen cannon, and were escorted 
to the president's house where Bosomworth and his brother Adam were 
denied admittance, and the chiefs were permitted to make known the 
reason of their appearance in force without having been invited. These 



.112 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Indians declared that Mrs. Bosomworth had been chosen to speak to the 
authorities, and that they were at her command ; that learning the fact 
that their queen was to be sent as a captive across the ocean, they wanted 
to know why it was so desired. Protesting that they came with no 
hostile intention, they asked that their arms be given back to them, and, 
after an interview with Mary and Thomas Bosomworth, they would 
again report and come to an agreement as to the matter complained of. 
Foolishly, their arms were restored to them, but, wisely, no ammunition 
was given them, delay in that matter being considered proper until the 
real purpose of their visit could be ascertained. 

The next day, after talking with Mrs. Bosomworih, they showed 
plainly that their intention was not as peaceable as they had declared, 
and their actions showed a turbulent spirit. The town was indeed in a 
most excited state. The men were all under military orders, and the 
women were afraid to stay in their homes without protection. In the 
midst of the turmoil it was stated that the Indians had beheaded the 
president, and the officers could hardly be persuaded not to open fire 
on the enemy. It was considered wise to secure the person of Bosom- 
worth who was accordingly arrested and placed in confinement, and 
that so exasperated his wife that she became like an insane person, 
threatening everyone who opposed her, and ordering the magistrates 
to leave her dominion, at the same time cursing General Oglethorpe and 
the treaties which she said he had fraudulently obtained, and asserted 
that the ground on which she stood was hers. Fearing that her leaders 
w^ould yield to offers of bribery, she kept them near her at all times, 
forbidding them to talk to others except within her hearing. 

No other plan sufficing to quell the tumult, I\Iary was herself taken 
into custody, when the president, through interpreters, informed the 
warriors, at an entertainment provided for them, of the real purpose 
of the two Bosomworths, and asserted their own desire to treat 
fairly the Indians who had theretofore been their friends. Setting the 
matter squarely before them, this speech of the president was convincing 
in its effect, and tlie warriors began to see through the design of ]\Iary 
and her husband. Malatchee himself then appeared to be satisfied, and 
in answer to the question why he, who was really the chief of the nation, 
to whom the president and council were about to give gifts for himself 
and his companions for their services to the colony, acknowledged the 
w'oman Mary as their empress, said that the whole nation recognized her 
as such, and that the presents could be distributed by none but one of 
her family. This answer showed how far the Bosomworths had influ- 
enced the Indians, and. in order to lessen the expenses and the hardship 
to the people in keeping guard during the period of this trouble, desired 
to distribute the gifts himself and to dismiss these men; biit Malatchee, 
gaining consent to visit the Bosomworths, again promised allegiance to 
them, and the trouble was renewed. He went among his people while 
they were awaiting the distribution of the gifts and spoke in a way 
calculated to put them at once in an attitude of strife. He claimed that 
]\Iary was the possessor of the laud before Oglethorpe arrived, and that 
she possessed it as tlieir ([ueen, and declared to tlu> inhaliitants that the 
three thousand wai'riors under her eoniinand would rush to her in 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 113 

defense of her rights, ending with the production of a paper which he 
handed to the president containing in effect what he had just spoken. 
Internal evidence showed that the paper was the work of Bosomworth. 
In the preamble the names of all the Indians known as kings of the two 
divisions of Creeks appeared, but of all mentioned'only two were present. 
Had the whole paper was substantially what was said by Malatehee. In 
it the woman was recognized as the real chief of the tribe, and called 
their princess, with all authority to dispose of their affairs, as she might 
see fit, with the king of England and his appointees at home and in the 
province. Malatehee perceiving that the council did not attach to the 
claims the importance he expected them to show, asked that it be re- 
turned to him, pretending he did not know it was as severe in its lan- 
guage as he had found it to be, and declared he would return it to the 
sender. Then the president spoke to the Indians, assembled at his re- 
quest, telling of the condition in which ]\Iary was living when Oglethorpe 
came ; of the fact that because of her knowledge of both languages he had 
employed her as an interpreter, paying her well for her services and mak- 
ing her condition so much better than it would ever have become under 
other circumstances; of her good character and the respect in which she 
had been held until her marriage to Bosomworth ; of the fact that she 
was not a kinswoman of Malatehee, but only the daughter of an Indian 
woman of no virtuoi;s repute by a white man ; and of her not owning the 
lands she claimed as her own; that the lands of the Indians formerly 
were lying waste and that they were glad when the white men came 
among them and gave them articles to help them live more comfortably ; 
that all the present bad feeling had come about through the desire of 
Thomas Bosomworth to get money, as he owed a large sum in South 
Carolina; that it was his real purpose to take from the Indians their 
rights ; and that all this was, if continued, bound to cause them to lose 
their best friends who really were willing and able to assist them in their 
living and to help them in their troubles with their enemies. 

Eenewed Friendship Almost Severed 

He was allowed to proceed no farther, and the Indians, convinced 
of the truth, confessed that they now could see the matter in its true 
light, and were determined to stand by their real friends. Desiring to 
smoke the pipe of peace, their wish was granted and, in addition to 
pipes and tobacco, they were supplied with rum, when professions of 
friendship were made and received, and presents were distributed to 
the Indians who freely accepted them, Malatehee himself showing that 
he was satisfied with his portion. Just then Mary appeared on the 
scene, very much under the influence of fire-water, denouncing the pres- 
ident, and telling him that he would shortly see that he had no control 
over the people she claimed as her own. Good advice was given her by 
the president, but it w^as unheeded, and she informed Malatehee in her 
own way of what had been said to her. That man, unmindful of his 
promise just made, held the arms of the president, and appealed to his 
men to follow him, daring anyone to touch their queen. Uproar and 
confusion follow^ed, and the Indians swung their tomaliawks, threatening 

Vol. I— s 



114 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

the president and his council who were in great danger. To the courage 
of Captain Jones, then commander of the guard, the Indians, ordered by 
him to surrender their arms, had to submit, and that courage was shown 
just in the moment when all hope seemed to be abandoned. Disarmed, 
the companions of Mary were helpless, and slie was imprisoned and 
guarded, so that she could hold no intercourse with any of her people. 
Then her husband was summoned and was reasoned with, but he only 
abused the authorities, and would not yield to the good advice given by 
them, so that his person also was secured, and the Indians were persuaded 
to leave the town, when the place became quiet. Adam Bosomworth, a 
brother of Thomas, Avho was agent of Indian affairs in South Carolina, 
became acquainted with the circumstances up to this point, and made his 
way to Savannah, and, ashamed of his brother's action, interposed, and 
brought to an end all the disturbance and uneasiness. Thomas was made 
to see his folly, and became penitent, and apologized to the authorities, 
who freely forgave him. Thus was peace restored, and no further 
trouble came from that source just then.* 

Financial Settlement of Trouble 

This settlement of the difficulty was not final, as the claim of the 
Bosomworths to the islands of St. Catherine, Ossabaw and Sapelo was 
not abandoned, and in one way and another was the subject of discussion 
ior some years; but it was at last brought to an end, in 1759, by the 
payment to Mary Bosomworth of £450 as compensation for goods fur- 
nished in behalf of the government by her in 1747 and 1748, in addition 
to a sum allowed her as back salary for sixteen and a half yeai-s, rating 
the annual allowance at £100 for her services as interpreter and agent 
of the trustees, as well as settling upon her and her husband the absolute 
title to St. Catherine's island. On this island they had already made 
their home and were engaged in raising crops. 

Oglethorpe's Last Days in Georgia 

In closing this chapter a few words with reference to the last days 
of Oglethorpe's stay in the colony may here be inserted without any 
impropinety. He took passage for England in the guard-ship under 
command of Captain Tliompson, July 23, 1743, and with him went 
Colonel Heron, Mr. Eyre, sub-engineer, and others of the regiment. He 
arrived in London on the 25th of September following, and was annoyed 
by an impeachment filed against him by Lieut. -Col. William Cook, but 
he maintained that the trial should be made before a board of general 
officers. This trial was delayed in consequence of the difficulty in secur- 
ing the attendance of witnesses for Cook who lived in South Carolina. 
It began on the 4th of June, 1744, and lasted two days, when, deciding 
upon the nineteen cliarges made the board expressed the opinion that 

* The foregoing: is a cdniiensation of a full account of this matter contained 
in the 2(1. vol. of A. Hewitt's "Account of the Rise and Progress of the Colonies 
of South Carolina and Georgia. ' ' 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 1J5 

"the whole and every article thereof was groundless, false, and mali- 
cious," and when the report was submitted to the king he ordered that 
"the said Lieutenant-Colonel Cook should be dismissed the service." 

The last letter from Oglethorpe written in Georgia is dated at Fred- 
erica, 10th June, 1748, addressed to the trustees, and, as it relates to 
Savannah, and is short, it is here re-produced : 

"Gentlemen — The people of the French Church at Savannah having 
desired of me that the Rev'd Mr. Chiffelle might assist them in Spiritual 
Matters and that his charges of Boat hire, etc., for coming from his 
residence at Purisburg to Savannah might be defrayed, I did allow 
thereof and it appears unto me by the annexed and other evidence that 
the said ]\Ir. Chiffelle has done his duty for live years and upwards and 
that the sum of Twenty-one Pounds sterling may be a reasonable allow- 
ance for his charges, etc., and that the said sum of Twenty-one Pounds 
is due unto him by the Honorable the Trustees for establishing the 
Colony of Georgia in America and therefore recommend the same for 
payment. 

"(Signed) James Oglethorpe. 

"To the Honorable The Trustees for establishing the Colony of 
Georgia in America. 

" [A True Copy, John Dobell.] 

"Not seeing any cause of objection, 1 humbly submit it to the Hon- 
orable the Trust for their direction. 

"Will Stephens." 



CHAPTER XIII 

EARLY CIVIL GOVERNIVIENT 

Henry Parker, Colonial President — The First Colonial Assembly — 
The i\IiLiTLv — Early Measures to Establish the Colony — Patrick 
Graham Succeeds President Parker. 

On the retirement of President William Stephens, on account of ill 
health, he was succeeded by Henry Parker who had held office in Georgia 
as early as 1734, when he was appointed one of the bailiffs in Savannah, 
acting, according to the custom of the time, as a magistrate. The office 
was one of more dignity and importance then than it is in these days, 
and while holding court the presiding justice wore a gown of purple 
edged with fur. 

Henry Parker, Colonial President 

Mr. Parker was the first settler at what is now known as the Isle of 
Hope, and from that fact his place then was for a long time called 
Parkersburg; but there were other settlers in that section, one being 
John Fallowfield and the other Noble Jones, of whom we shall have 
something definite to relate presently. The first time that we find the 
name by which it is now universally called is in the "True and Historical 
Narrative of the Colony of Georgia in America,"* by Tailfer, Anderson 
and Douglas, where it is said "Near the mouth of Vernon river, upon 
a kind of an island (which is called Hope isle) ax'e the settlements of 
Messrs. John Fallowtield, Henry Parker and Noble Jones. They have 
made souie improvements there, but chiefly ]\Ir. Fallowfield, who has a 
pretty, little convenient house and garden, with a considerable lot of hogs, 
and some cattle, Avhere he generally resides with his family. Near ad- 
.joining to this upon a piece of land which commands the Narrows, is a 
tim])er building called Jones's fort." 

Henry Parker, it will be remembered, was then one of the assistants 
to the president, and acted as president from January 15. 1751, until 
the surrender of the charter of tlie colony by the trustees. We have 
the statement that when the colonial assembly, aiithorized by the trus- 
tees, was called by Mr. Parker, "the customary formalities of being ad- 
dressed l)y tlie Executive and replied to by the Assembly were for the 

*('hailestoii, 1741. 

116 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 117 

first time gone through in Georgia." Parker presided as vice-president 
from the date of his calling the assembly until the 8th of the following 
April, when he was appointed president. The address of the assembly 
was dated at the assembly room, 25th Januai'y, 1751, and was in these 
words : 

"Sir — We, the deputies of the several districts, in General Assembly 
met, desire to return you our sincere thanks for your speech to us ; and 
we assure you we shall endeavor, with all concord and unanimity, to go 
through the business appointed for us to do ; and we also beg leave to 
embrace this opportunity of heartily congratulating you on your being 
appointed vice-president of the Province, which we look upon as no 
more than a just reward for your long and faithful services in it ; and 
we have no doubt but the same steadiness, justice, and candour which 
have formerly guided you in the execution of other offices, will direct 
and govern you in this. 

"Francis Harris, Speaker. 

"Henry Parker, Esquire, Vice-President of the Colony of Georgia." 

The reply of the vice-president follows : ' ' Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen 
of the Assembly : I heartily thank you for your kind and flattering 
address, and will always make it my study and endeavor to promote 
anything which may tend to the service and advantage of the Colony. 

"Henry Parker, 
Vice-President of the Colony of Georgia." 

The First Colonial Assembly 

The assembly was a very small body, but it must be remembered 
that Georgia's population was not great, and it was stipulated that the 
delegates were "proportioned to the population of the different par- 
ishes or districts," and the resolution of the trustees, passed in June, 
1750, called for the election of delegates to a provincial assembly to 
meet in Savannah on the 15th of January, 1751, with the following 
regulations : that once a year it was to convene in Savannah, the time 
to be named by the president and assistants, and that it should not re- 
main in session more than a month ; that one deputy should be appointed 
for every town, village or district containing ten families, but that two 
deputies could be sent by any district containing thirty families ; that 
Savannah should be entitled to four, Augusta and Ebenezer two each, 
Frederica two, in case there should be as many as thirty families within 
its limits. No legislation could be enacted by the assembly, but it 
was authorized to suggest measures to the trustees for the advancement 
of the interests of the colony in general or of any district within the 
province. The members were to present within three days after the 
opening of the body a written account showing the number of inhabi- 
tants, showing in all eases the black and white, sex, and age of such 
inhabitants, as well as the number of acres of land each one held under 
cultivation, the nature of the crop, number of negroes either owned or 
employed, the number of mulberry trees on each settlement, and to what 



118 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

extent the culture of silk, cotton, indigo, or other article was carried 
on by each family or man in the several districts; and those accounts 
were to be signed by the presiding officer and submitted to the presi- 
dent and assistants who were required to transmit them to the trustees. 

Delegates were authorized to elect their presiding officer, but such 
selection was subject to the approval of the president of the colony, 
and, in case of his refusal to accept the action of the majority, he was 
required, on the demand of any three delegates, to give his reasons 
for so doing, and to send them to the trustees for their advice. 

No qualifications were required in the selection of delegates to the 
first assembly, but in subsequent elections no one was eligible who did 
not have one hundred mulberry trees planted and fenced upon every 
fifty acres of land owned by him, and after the 24:th of June, 1753, no 
one could be a delegate who had not complied with the regulation in 
prescribing the limit as to the number of slaves in proportion to the 
white servants in his home, who had not at least one female in his 
family who was skilled in the matter of silk reeling, and who did not 
produce every year as much as fifteen pounds of silk to every fifty acres 
of land on his place. 

When this first assembl}^ met in Savannah, the three delegates from 
that district were Francis Harris, John Milledge, William Francis, 
and William Russell, and the first named was elected speaker of the 
body. Of the meeting of the small convention little need be said, as 
its transactions were of no importance. 

The LIilitia 

In addition to the regular troops, such as Oglethorpe's regiment, 
etc., the militia was regularly kept in readiness for any trouble that 
might arise, and the fii'st general muster of that force in the southern 
division was held in Savannah on Tuesday, the 13th of June, 1751, 
under command of Capt. Noble Jones, to the number of about two hun- 
dred and twenty men, including infantry and cavalry, and it was said 
of them that "they behaved well and made a pretty appearance." Capt. 
Jones, as already stated, lived on the Isle of Hope, and was a trusted 
friend of Oglethorpe. He aided the latter greatly in the troubles with 
the Spaniards, and held important offices in Georgia, among them Treas- 
urer of the Province, Register, and member of Council. 

Early IMeasures to Establish the Colony 

The charter of the colony of Georgia was limited to twenty-one years 
as declared in that instrument in this language: "We do hereby, for 
us, our h-^irs and successors, ordain, will and establish that for and 
during the term of twenty-one years, to commence trom the date of 
these our letters patent [June 9, 1732], the said corporation assembled 
for that purpose shall and may form and prepare laws, statutes and 
ordinances fit and necessary for and concerning the government of the 
said colony," etc. 

Before the expiration of that time, however, the connnon council. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 119 

as early as the 15th of April, 1751, convinced that under a different form 
of government the affairs of the province could be more advantageously 
carried on, prepared for the coming change by appointing a committee, 
headed by the Earl of Shaftesbury, "to adjust with the administration 
the proper means for supporting and settling the colony for the future, 
and to take from time to time all such measures as they shall find neces- 
sary for its well being; and to frame, set the seal of the corporation to 
and present such representation or representations, memorial or memo- 
rials, as they should think proper." For this committee, the earl re- 
ported, on the 8th of January, 1752, "That being informed that the 
Lords of the Council had appointed Thursday evening, December the 
19th, to take into consideration the Trustee's memorial to his Majesty, 
and the reports thereon from the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's 
Treasury and the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, 
the said committee had, at a meeting December the 14th desired and em- 
powered the Earl of Shaftesbury, Mr. Hooper, Mr. Vernon, Mr. Lloyd, 
Mr. Tracy and Mr. Fenwick to attend and deliver to the Lords of the 
Council the following paper in the name of the Trustees for Establish- 
ing the Colony of Georgia in case they should be called upon by their 
Lordships, viz. : 

"To the Right Honorable the Lords of his Majesty's anost Honorable 
the Privy Council : — The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of 
Georgia in America, who are ready, for the service oC the Crown, to 
surrender their trust for granting the lands in the said Colony, think 
it their indispensable duty to offer the following considerations to your 
Lordships in behalf of the people settled there. 

"That the Colony of Georgia be confirmed a separate and indepen- 
dent Province as it is expressly declared in his Majesty's charter it shall 
be (in confidence of which the inhabitants both British and foreign 
have gone thither), and as the Assembly of the Province of Georgia 
have petitioned for a representation to the Trustees, dated January the , 
15th, 1750. 

"That the inhabitants of the Colony be confirmed in the titles 

and possessions which have been granted to them under the charter 

« # * 

"They immediately drew up the following paper and severally 
signed the same, vizt. : 

"We whose names are here under written, being a committee ap- 
pointed by the Common Council of the Trustees for Establishing the 
Colony of Georgia in America, and being fully authorized by them, do 
hereby signify that we are ready and willing to make an absolute surren- 
der of all the powers, rights and trusts vested in the said Trustees by 
his ^Majesty's Royal Charter bearing date the 9th of June, 1732, with- 
out any condition or limitation, humbly recommending the rights and 
privileges of the inhabitants of the said Colony to his IMajesty's most 
gracious protection. "Shaftesbury, 

"RoBT. Tracy, 
"John Frederick, 
"Sam'l Lloyd, 
"Edward Hooper. 
"December 19, 1751. 



120 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"That the Committee were then called in again, and they presented 
the said paper to the Lords of the Council, and then withdrew, and 
were coon after acquainted by Mr. Sharpe, Clerk of the Council, that 
he was ordered by their Lordships to inform [hem that they have referred 
Ihe said paper to the Attorney and Solicitor General to consider thereof 
and report to their Lordships in what manner the same might be most 
effectually carried into execution. 

"Resolved, That the Common Council do concur with and approve of 
all the several steps taken by the Committee, and do, in a particular man- 
ner, approve of, ratify and confirm (as the Act of the Common Council) 
the paper respectively signed by the Earl of Shaftesbury and the other 
four members of the Committee December the 19th, and by them deliv- 
ered to the Lords of the Council." 

Further, on the 21st of March, 1752, the following action was taken 
by the common council; "Read a copy of a report from the Attorney 
and Solicitor General in answer to a reference from the Lords of the 
Committee of his Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council for Planta- 
tion Affairs, directing them to consider in what manner the Trustees offer 
to surrender their trust into the hands of his Majesty might best be 
carried into execution, setting forth that it w-as their opinion a deed of 
surrender should be executed by the Common Council under their com- 
mon seal, thereby to surrender their charter, and likewise to grant to 
his Majesty the one-eighth part of the lands in Georgia granted and sold 
to the Trustees by the Right Honorable John Lord Carteret. 

"Resolved, That the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia 
in America, or any three or more of them, do, at such time and in such 
manner as they shall think fit, surrender and yield up to his Majesty the 
charter granted by his Majesty to the said Trustees bearing date the 9th 
of June, 1732, and likewise that they do grant to his Majesty the one- 
eighth part of the lands and territories lying within the limits described 
in the said charter granted and sold to the said Trustees by the Right 
Honorable John Lord Carteret, by an indenture bearing date the 28th of 
February, 1732. 

"Resolved, That the Trustees, or any three or more of them, be, and 
they are, hereby empowered accordingly to affix the seal of the corpo- 
ration to such surrender and grant which shall be prepared by the Attor- 
ney and Solicitor General in pursuance of an order of the Lords of 
Committee of his Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council for Planta- 
tion Affairs, bearing date the 19th day of December, 1751." 

Contemplating the change in the form of government which would 
follow the surrender of the charter, the lords justices, seconded by the 
privy council, issued a proclamation declaring that, until a new sj^stem 
should be adopted, the officers of every sort in Georgia, holding appoint- 
ments from tlie triistees, should hold over, with the same regulations as 
to compensation for services rendered, until their successors should be 
named, and Mr. Benjamin .Martyn was nuide the agent of the colony in 
England. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 121 

Patrick Graham Succeeds President Parker 

Just when Mr. Parker died we have no positive information, but upon 
his death Patrick Graham was made president, with James Habersham, 
Noble Jones, Pickering Robinson, and Francis Harris as assistants. 
We learn from information given by these officers in a communication 
to the Board of Trade, on the 11th of April, 1753, that a census had just 
then been taken by which it was shown that the population of the colony 
amounted to 3,447, of whom 2,381 were white and 1,066 were blacks, 
the population of Savannah being somewhere between seven and eight 
hundred ; but this enumeration did not include the troops in service, or 
the boatmen, or the Midway settlement just from South Carolina, with 
their slaves, or Butler's colony. At that time six vessels were docked 
at Savannah, loading for London and for American ports. The silk 
industry had been in the hands of Mr. Pickering Robinson who was suc- 
ceeded at this time by Joseph Ottolenghe, who had been educated in the 
manner of caring for filatiires in Italy ; and this brings us to the period 
when Georgia became a royal province, with a governor at her head with 
a commission from the king of England. 



CHAPTER XIY 

CIVIL, RELIGIOUS AND ROYAL 

Governor John Reynolds (1754) ^Changes Under New Government 
— Governor Reynolds Arrives — Gubernatorlvl Proclamation- 
Collapse OP Council House — New Council House — Notes from an 
Early "Plan of Savannah" — Reynolds' Administration Disap- 
pointing — Henry Ellis Succeeds Reynolds — James Wright Fol- 
lows Ellis — Province Divided Into Parishes — Second Savannah 
Church (Christ Church Parish) — Independent Presbyterian 
Church — Lutheran Church Organized — George III Succeeds 
George II — Public Ceremonies Proclaiming New Sovereign. 

Anticipating the change which the surrender of the colonial char- 
ter necessitated, the lords commissioners for trade and plantations 
were clothed with authority to prepare a plan for the government of 
Georgia and to lay the same before the privy council. This they did 
on the 5th of March, 1754, and the plan submitted by them was approved. 

Governor John Reynolds (1754) 

A commission was issued to Capt. John Reynolds as governor whicli 
conferred upon him the full title of "Captain-General and Governor-in- 
Chief of his Majesty's Province of Georgia, and Viee-Admiral of the 
same." The commission was dated the 6th of August, 1754, and sail- 
ing from England a few days thereafter he arrived at Savannah on the 
29th of October following. 

Changes Under New Government 

Before taking up the affairs of his administration, let us consider the 
changes required by the adoption of the plan adopted. The new system 
differed materially from tliat whieli existed under the trustees, but was 
in conformity with that of the other colonies older than Georgia. The 
governor could call an assem^bly capable of making laws, create courts 
to enforce the laws, grant lands, and do other things not theretofore 
lawful. He had as his advisoi's twelve men of position and influence, 
called the council, and under him were officers to collect customs and 
duties, to look after ([uit-rents and grants of lands, in addition to the 
very important ones of secretary, provost-marshal, and attorney-general. 

122 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 123 

/ 

The colonial seal was changed in accordance with the following 
action: "Order of Council at the Court of Kensington, 21st of June, 
1754. 

"Present, the King's most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

"Upon reading at the Board a representation from the Lords Com- 
missioners for Trade and Plantations, setting forth that his Majesty, 
having been graciously pleased to approve of a plan for the establish- 
ment of a civil government in his Majesty's Colony of Georgia in Amer- 
ica, and it appearing necessary that a public seal should be prepared for 
sealing all public documents there, according to the method practiced 
in all his Majesty's colonies in America, the said commissionei's have 
therefore prepared the draught of such a seal as to them seems to be 
proper for the said Colony of Georgia, wherein a figure, representing 
the Genius of the Colony, is described, offering a skein of silk to his 
Majesty, with the motto, Hinc laitdem speraff Coloni, and around the 
circumference. Sigilhini Fvovinciar )i//sfrur Oforgiae in America; and 
on the obverse are his Majesty's arras, crown, garter, supporters, and 
motto, with the inscription, Georgius II Dei Gratia Maguae Britanniae 
Fr. et Hih. Rex Fidei Defensor, Brunswici et Litneebergi Dux, Sacri 
Romani Imperii Archi Thesausarius et Princeps Elector. 

"His Majesty, in Council, took the same into consideration, and was 
pleased to approve of the same draught, and to order that his Majesty s 
Chief Engraver of Seals do forthwith engrave one silver seal for the use 
of his Majesty's Colony of Georgia, according to the said draught, and 
of the same size witli those sent to his IMajesty's Provinces of South 
and North Carolina ; and the said Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations are to prepare a warrant for his Majesty's royal signature 
to the said engraver, as usual upon the like occasions, and to direct him 
to lay the said seal before his Majesty at this Board for his royal Appro- 
bation. 

"(Signed) W. Sh.\rpe." 

The following are the names of the first council of Governor John 
Reynolds and the chief officers of his province : Councillors : Patrick 
Graham, Sir Patrick Houstoun, Bart., James Habersham, Alexander Kel- 
lett, William Clifton, Noble Jones, Pickering Robinson, Francis Harris, 
Jonathan Bryan, William Russell. 

Secretary of the Province, James Habersham ; 

Attorney-General, William Clifton ; 

Provost-Marshal, Alexander Kellett ; 

Naval Officer, William Russell ; 

Surveyors, Henry George and John Gerar William DeBrahm. 

Governor Reynolds Arrives 

The coming of Governor Reynolds is thus recorded, together with the 
solemn act of his inauguration, in the minutes of the president and 
assistants at a meeting held on the 30th of October, 1754, at which were 
present Patrick Graham, president. James Habersham, Noble Jones, 
Pickering Robinson and Francis Harris, assistants: "Yesterday in the 



124 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

afternoon John Reynolds, Esq., who came over in His Majesty's Ship the 
Port Mahon, landed at this Town, and this morning the Board waited on 
the said John Reynolds, Esq., in Council, when he produced his most 
sacred Majesty's Commission or Letters patent, bearing date at Kensing- 
ton the sixth day of August, 1754, in the twenty-eighth year of his 
Majesty's reign, commissionating him the said John Reynolds, Esq., his 
said Majesty's Captain General and Governor in Chief of the Colony of 
Georgia in America ; and the said Commission being read, Patrick Gra- 
ham, Esq., delivered up the chair to his Excellency. 

"The Board, on this occasion, cannot omit acknowledging with the 
greatest gratitude his Majesty's paternal care in appointing and send- 
ing over a Governor and settling the Government of this Province which 
was so much wanted. 

"Pat. Graham, 
"James Habersham." 

The next day (October 31) all of the council were present, except 
William Clifton, who had not arrived in the province, and all took the 
oath of office except William Russell who "very respectfully declined 
the Honor intended him. ' ' After giving attention to certain preliminary 
acts, the commission of Governor Reynolds was read, then ordered to be 
recorded in the office of the secretary of the province and that it "be read 
and published at the head of the militia now under arms before the 
Council Chamber." 

Gubernatorial Proclamation 
Then the following proclamation was read : 

"Georgia — By his Excellency, John Reynolds, Esq. 

"Captain General, Governor and Commander in Chief in and over 
his Majesty's said Province, and Vice Admiral of the same. 

"Whereas his Majesty by his Royal Proclamation given at Whitehall 
the twenty-fifth day of June, 1752, did continue all officers then duly 
and lawfully possessed of, or invested in any office or trust Ecclesias- 
tical, Civil or ]\Iilitary, in his Majesty's said Province in their respective 
offices and employments until his Majesty's pleasure should be further 
known. 

"And whereas, liis ^lajesty's said proclamation does now of course 
determine, therefore, that the execution of Justice may not be obstructed, 
and that good order and tranquillity may be preserved within his 
Majesty's said Province, till other measures for that purpose can be 
taken, I have, by and with the advice and consent of his Majesty's 
Honourable Council, thought fit to issue this my proclamation, requiring 
and conuuanding, and I do hereby require and command all otficers duly 
and legally invested in any office. Ecclesiastical. Civil or Military, in his 
IMajesty's said Province, to continue to exercise their respective trusts 
and offices, until further orders. And I do hereby command and require 
all his Majesty's subjects in the said Province to be obedient to and aid- 
ing and assisting the said officers in the performance and execution of 
their respective offices, as they will answer the contrary at their peril. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEOKGIA 125 

"Given under my hand and the Great Seal of this his Majesty's Pi-ov- 
ince in the Council Chamber at Savannah, this thirty-first day of Octo- 
ber, 1754, in the twenty-eighth year of his Majesty's reign. 

"By his Excellency's command. 

"John Reynolds. 

"James Habersham, Secretary. (Seal of the Province.) 

"Ordered, That his Excellency's proclamation be forthwith published 
by beat of drum as usual in this Town." 

The reception of John Reynolds as their governor by the people was 
all that he could wish in the way of showing their belief that his inaug- 
uration would be for their welfare and happiness. It is recorded that 
everyone showed the greatest respect for him and that all rejoiced at 
his coming, as marked by the lighting of bonfires throughout the town 
at night, and the giving of a public dinner in his honor by the council 
who were joined in this act of esteem by the prominent citizens. This 
is the second instance recorded of a social function prepared on a large 
scale in Savannah. Bishop William Bacon Stevens has stated that the 
first ball given here was on the 27th of June, 1736, but does not give 
the authority for that statement. He quoted from a ' ' record of the day ' ' 
that "several gentlemen from South Carolina, arrived at Georgia, were 
entertained by Oglethorpe, and the night before leaving, a ball was given 
them by the ladies. ' ' * 

Collapse of Council House 

Scarcely had the new administration settled down to business when 
the building in which they met collapsed, and by the slightest chance 
the members of the council escaped with their lives. In the minutes of 
November 4th the secretary, after noting that the minutes of the last 
board were read and approved, added: "The house hitherto used for 
transacting public business, and in which the council and assembly met, 
being in a ruinous condition, and in appearance in great danger of 
falling, the Board took into consideration to provide a proper place for 
theirs and the Assembly's meeting, which they had hardly entered into, 
when they were alarmed with the falling of a stack of chimney and 
one end of the said house, and very providentially escaped being buried 
in the ruins, which obliged them immediately to quit it, and move to 
the Court House until some proper house could be provided, which neces- 
sity now obliged them to take under their immediate consideration. 

"It appeared to the Board that a large and commodious house 
erected at the public expense, and intended for lodging and sorting 
cocoons would be very proper, if fitted up, for public offices ; and they 
likewise understood that it was at present of no use ; but as it was 
thought proper not to divert anything proposed to accommodate or en- 
courage the valuable culture of silk, the Board sent for I\Ir. Ottolenghe, 
who has the whole care and management of the said culture, to know 
whether the said house would be wanted for that piarpose. 

* The Magnolia, or Soulhcnt Monthh/, Vol. IV. \>. 343— June, 1842. 



126 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"Mr. Ottolenghe attended, and after being acquainted with the 
:-eason of his being vsent for, informed the Board that he should have 
no further use for the said house. Therefore, his Excellency ordered 
James Habersham, Noble Jones and Jonathan Bryan, Esqs., to examine 
what was necessary to be done to make it fit for public offices, and to re- 
port the same to this Board." 

Those gentlemen, on the 6th, made a statement of the business, and 
had with them workmen skilled in their trades in order that they might 
make estimates of the probable cost of the necessary repairs, and after 
a conference, they desired a day or so in which to consider the matter 
and submit proposals for the work. Time was granted, and when their 
bids were submitted on the 9th, they were accepted, but when the work 
was finished the record does not show. 

New Council House 

A new council house was, at the same time, provided for, and we fina 
that on the 20th of February, 1755, the workmen employed in that busi- 
ness were ordered to appear and submit their bills so that the same 
could be examined with a view to their payment. For some reason, a 
conclusion in the matter was not reached until April 1-lth, when the 
secretary made this record : ' ' The account for the whole expense for fit- 
ting up the new Council House and public Gaol, with proper vouchers 
for payment of the same was laid before the Board, amounting to 
£256.7.81/4j his Excellency the Governor and Alexander Killett, Noble 
Jones and Pickering Robinson, Esqs. (in order to discharge the said 
expense) drew on Ben.jamin ]\Iartyn, Esq., in two sets of bills of Ex- 
change, both dated this day, payable at thirty daj^s sight to Messrs. 
Harris and Habersham, or order, namely one set for £220 and the other 
for £36.7.81/4, both together amounting to the aforesaid sum of £256 
■7.8'^A, which was in part of the sum of £500 allowed for the contingent 
expenses of this Government, and of which they likewise advised said Mr. 
Martyn in their letter of this date." 

At the same meeting the board found it necessary to take action in 
the matter of an act of lawlessness which seems remarkable for that time 
when it would seem that the committing of such an act could hardly 
be done without detection : ' ' The Board being informed that some 
idle and illminded persons had thrown some of the great guns off that 
bluff before this Town into the River, it was ordered that any person 
or persons that will discover who committed the said offense shall, upon 
the conviction of the offender or offenders, be entitled to a reward of 
five pounds sterling." 

Notes from .\n Early "Plan of Savannah" 

About to make use of certain information given in a plan of the 
city of Savannah, made at an early date by John Gerar William De 
Brahm, a word or so in regard to that man may well serve here as a 
preface to what follows. In the dedication of his "History of the 
Three Provinces of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida" to the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEOKGIA 



127 



king, he says: "By your Majesty's Commission, dated the 26th of 
June, 1764, I had the Honour to be appointed Surveyor for the South- 
ern District of North America, and was ordered to make General Sur- 
veys both of the inlands and sea coasts, with the soundings as well on 
the coasts as within the harbors, to obtain their latitudes and longitudes, 
and to make such remarks as might conduce to the security and informa- 
tion of your Majesty's subjects who may navigate those seas." Further 
on, he says "The author begins his remarks in the year 1751," and 
that the history "is concreted from abstracts of journies, astronomical 
observations, actual surveys and voyages performed by the author from 
the year 1751 to 1771." There is no way by which the date of the 
plan of Savannah accompanying the work may be ascertained, but it 
is reasonable to suppose that the buildings indicated thereon were either 




POSTOFPICE, AmERICUS 



in existence at the later date or had been erected previous to that year. 
Thus, he locates an Exchange on the spot where a building so-called was 
located and was demolished to make room for the present city hall in 
recent years, and whicli building we know was erected in 1799 ; but of 
an earlier edifice with the same name we have no other information 
than that of De Brahm in his plan. Some things we learn from his 
sketch will properly be mentioned here in connection with the building 
of the new council house in the time of Governor Reynolds. He locates 
the "Old Council House" on the lot now occupied by the postoffice and 
United States courthouse on Wright square, Avhich is bounded by 
Bull, York, Whitaker and President streets, w^hile he places the "New 
Council" on the lot bounded by Abercorn, Congress, Lincoln and St. 
Julian streets on Reynolds square. The governor's house was on the 
lot bounded by Barnard, State, Jefferson and President streets on what 
is now Telfair Place, which was continued as such until the end of Sir 
James Wright's administration; but he gives the place of residence of 



128 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

John Reynolds as the lot bounded by Abereorn, York, Lincoln and 
President streets, on Oglethorpe square, while his own home was on the 
lot just across President street from that of Reynolds, namely, bounded 
by Abereorn, President, Lincoln and State ; and of his residence he says : 
"The author had built, in the lowest part of the city a house in the year 
1760, a season of remarkable drought, he sunk a well twent.y-four feet 
deep, wherewith he obtained eighteen inches water, and after three hours 
in vain digging for sinking the curb deeper in the quicksand, he at last 
had the well wall set up, and his well water proved not only of the best 
kind of this city but has always water in abundance for himself and 
neighbors in time of scarcity." Tomochichi's tomb was located in the 
very center of Wright square, thus proving that the account of the 
burial of that chief by writers who lived at the time was taken as abso- 
lutely correct at this short time thereafter and the correct location of the 
grave preserved on this plan for the information of all following 
generations. He shows the "Old Prison" just across President street 
from the old council house, on Wright square, bounded by Bull, President, 
State and Whitaker streets, where Armory Hall, the home of the Chat- 
ham Artillery, now stands. There was in his day a "Beef Market" 
where our present city market now holds a place. A dial then marked 
the spot where General Greene's monument is, and there was a well at 
the intersection of Bull street and Oglethorpe avenue. The block now 
occupying the lot bounded by Barnard, Bryan, Whitaker and St. Julian 
streets was then called "Indian Meeting;"* while the lots whereon the 
courthouse and the Southern Church of the Ascension now stand 
were then called respectively "Old Basilua" and "New Basilua." The 
Filature stood there when it was first erected and where it always stood 
from the time of its erection in 1751 until its destruction by fire in 
1839, where Cassel Row is now located, on the lot bounded by Aber- 
eorn, President, Lincoln and Bryan streets, on Reynolds square, and that 
was the building to which Governor Reynolds' council moved when the 
old council chamber collapsed on the 4th of November, 1754. 

Reynolds' Administration Disappointing 

The administration of Governor Reynolds was not a long one, nor 
was it a successful one. He wrote an account of his arrival in the prov- 
ince and his cordial reception, and then described Savannah as "well 
situated and contains about a hundred and fifty houses, all wooden oues, 
very small, and mostly very old. The biggest was used for the meeting 
of the President and Assistants, wherein I sat with the Council for 
a few days, but one end fell down whilst we were all there, and obliged 
us to move to a kind of shed behind the Court House, which, being quite 
unfit I have given orders, with the advice of the Council, to fit up the 
shell of a house which was lately built for laying up the silk, but was 
never made use of," etc. He held a conference with the Indians en- 
deavoring to keep them in a state of friendliness; called for an infantry 
force of one hundred and fifty men, and for cannon, small arms and 

* Evidently the word Indoiioiulont was intended. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 129 

ammunition for the better defense of the territory ; and, during an 
inspection of the southern portion of his dominion, became so much 
impressed with the location of the little place called Hardwicke, on the 
Great Ogeechee river that he suggested it to the lords commissioners for 
trade and plantations as the only place in his opinion "fit for the 
capital and strongly urging the removal of the seat of government from 
Savannah thither. His successor, Gov. Henry Ellis, had the same 
opinion in regard to this matter, but the home government did not heed 
the recommendation, and Hardwicke never became the important place 
so confidently expected by those two royal governors. It may be proper 
to remark here that the name was given to this place by Governor Reyn- 
olds in honor of his kinsman, the lord high chancellor of England, 
and that the place was selected by him as a proper place for a town and 
as "the only fit place for the capital" and the name given on the 4th 
of February, 1755, but it had first received the name of the "Elbow on 
Great Ogeechee River," and changed on ]\Iay 10, 1754, to "George- 
town." In the same letter to the lords commissioners, of the 1st of 
May, he said ' ' There are many objections to this town of Savannah being 
so [the capital] besides its being situated at the extremity of the prov- 
ince, the slowness of the river, and the great height of the land, which 
is very inconvenient in the loading and unloading of ships. ' ' 

The favorable impression made by Governor Reynolds on the people 
of Georgia at his first coming soon gave way to a decided feeling of dis- 
appointment which grew into a positive dislike and repugnance, the out- 
growth of a disagreement between the man and his council. He was 
selfish, and demanded of the home government an increase in his salary, on 
the ground that living was expensive and that it would cost him at least 
all of his present salary "to live as a private gentleman without any 
regard to the dignity of his office, the perquisites whereof he perceives 
will be extremely low. ' ' He charged the general assembly with disrespect 
of himself and his office, and, among other things, plainly showed that 
he considered some of their number as not only incompetent, but even 
unfaithful in the performance of their duties as legislators. Offsetting 
these charges it was held that Governor Reynolds did not give as much 
of his personal attention to his office as he should ; that soon after taking 
the oath he practically committed the affairs of his administration to 
William Little, a surgeon in the navy, brought over by the governor as 
his private secretary who was unfit for the responsibilities of the office 
and "of the most despotic principles." The council, at a meeting held 
Septeml)er 80, 1755, adopted a paper remonstrating against the further 
employment of Little and demanding his dismissal in these words : 
"That the Council cannot sufficiently lament the possibility that it 
should be in the power of a man of a bad head and worse heart (for he 
must have both to fit him for the undertaking) to lessen or invalidate 
your Excellency's wonted confidence in your natural Councillors who 
have collectively and individually given incontestable proofs of their 
loyalty to his most sacred Majesty, of their zeal for your Excellency's 
Government and of their affection for your person ; yet they confess that 
the Council can only attribute to such an influence, an unfortunate influ- 
ence to this infant Colony, should it in the least prevail, that your Ex- 

Vol. 1—9 



130 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

celleney is pleased to issue proclamations without their advice and con- 
sent, even in affairs in which they are to have the honour of co-operating 
with your Excellency ; by means whereof thej^ are precluded from giving 
their opinion as it is there duty to do;" and, charging Little with 
forgery, illegal commitments and arbitrary behavior, they stated that 
the only remedy for the whole unsettled state of affairs was the prompt 
dismissal of the man. The remonstrance was of no avail and Governor 
Reynolds refused to comply with the demand. 

Henry Ellis Succeeds Reynolds 

Representations were made to the lords of trade of such a nature 
that they felt obliged to take notice of the matter, and a letter written 
by them on the 5th of August, 1756, but not received by him until Feb- 
ruary 16, 1757, made the demand on him "that he should return to 
England, to the end that an account of the present situation and circum- 
stances of the province, and of his conduct in the administration of the 
government there, might be laid before his ]\Iajesty for his further 
directions, and to resign the Government of the Colony into the hands of 
Henry Ellis, Esq." That letter was written in response to an order 
from the king, at AVhitehall, directing that the loi-ds commissioners 
for trade and plantations "should immediately direct Governor Reyn- 
olds to come to England to answer for his conduct in his Government," 
and in that order was the "recommendation of Henry Ellis, Esq., to be 
appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Georgia during the absence of Mv. 
Reynolds." Promptly on the receipt of the letter Reynolds sailed for 
England in a merchant ship, the Charming ]\Iartha ; but before his 
departure the following transaction took place by Avhich the government 
passed out of his hands never to be resumed : 

"Council met 16th February, 1767. 

"Present: His Excellency John Reynolds, Esq., and Henry Ellis, 
Esq., and Sir Patrick Houstoun, Bart. ; James Habersham. Francis Har- 
ris, Jonathan Bryan, James Mackay, James Edward Powell, James Read 
and Patrick Mackay, Esqs. 

"Mr. Ellis then produced a letter which he told his Excellency he 
was ordered to deliver to him, and after his Excellency had perused the 
same he acquainted Mr. Ellis he was informed that his j\Iajesty had been 
pleased to appoint him Lieutenant-Governor of this Province, that he 
was ordered to go to England, and he should accordingly obey his 
Majesty's commands. 

"Mr. Ellis then produced his most sacred Majesty's Commission, 
bearing date at Kensington the fourth day of August, 1756, in the thir- 
tieth year of his IMajesty's reign, appointing him Lieutenant-Goveruor 
of the Province of Georgia, and in ease of the death or during the ab- 
sence of his Majesty's Captain-General and Goveruor-in-Chief of the said 
Province now and for the time being authorizing him to exercise and 
perform all and singular the powers and directions contained in his 
Majesty's Commission to the said Captain-General and Governor-in- 
Chief according to such instructions as have been or may hereafter be 
received from his IMajesty, which said commission was read and duly 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 131 

published in the presence of the said John Reynolds, Esq., and the 
gentlemen of the Council above named. 

"Then Mr. Ellis took all the state oaths appointed by law, declared 
and subscribed the test, and also took the oaths for administering the 
government and for securing the Acts of Trade and Navigation. * * • 
Then John Reynolds, Esq., delivered to his Honor the Great Seal of the 
Province, and also acquainted his Honor he should deliver to him the 
papers he was possessed of agreeably to his Majesty's orders, and there- 
upon left the Council Chamber." 

The reception of Governor Ellis was as hearty and as demonstrative 
as that accorded to his predecessor, and the expectation of the people 
that he would prove to be more friendly to them and more inclined to 
respect their wishes and to look after their welfare was fully realized. 
A pleasing incident connected with his reception was the cordial wel- 
come extended him by an association of school-boys banded together as 
a military company who, through their commander, after parading and 
passing in review before the governor, presented to him an address in 
these words : ' ' Sir : — The youngest militia of this Province presume by 
their Captain, to salute your Honour on your arrival. Although 
we are of too tender years to comprehend the blessing a good governor 
is to a province, our parents will doubtless experience it in its utmost 
extent, and their grateful tale shall fix your name dear in our memories." 

It is said that Governor Ellis always looked back through the forty- 
eight years of his after life to this as one of the most gratifying acts 
connected with his life in the province. 

At the first meeting of the assembly following his inauguration, held 
June 16, 1757, he opened the session with this address: "I can with 
unfeigned sincerity declare that I enter upon this station with the most 
disinterested views, without prejudice to any man or body of men, or 
retrospect to past transactions or disputes, but animated with the 
warmest zeal for whatever concerns your happiness or the public utility, 
sincerely inclined to concur with you in every just and necessary meas- 
ure, and fiiUy resolved that, if unfortunately my wishes and endeavors 
prove fruitless, to be the first to solicit my recall." Replying to those 
words, council assured him "that they congratulated him upon his 
arrival into the Province, and that they promised themselves, from his 
distinguished abilities, acknowledged probity, and unwearied applica- 
tion, that the day of his arrival will prove the era of the prosperity 
of this colony." 

His stewardship proved all that his constituents desired, and the 
termination of his incumbency, brought about by ill-health which neces- 
sitated his request for a recall, was a matter of regret on all sides. Of 
his administration Bishop Stevens has written these choice words: 
"The period of his connection with Georgia will ever be in her 
history like the calm hour of sunshine after a tempest has blackened 
the sky." It was during his term of service that the troublesome Bosom- 
worth litigation was finally settled, and that alone is sufficient to cause 
his name to be held in remembrance by all Georgians who take 
an interest in the history of the illustrious commonwealth. That 
his administration of the affairs of the province was entirely 



132 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

satisfactory to the people proof exists in the reference made to him 
by the council in the speech of that body addressed to his successor, 
Sir James Wright. 

James Wright Follows Ellis 

Awaiting the time when he could hand over to the newly appointed 
governor the great seal of the colony, Ellis, suffering under the in- 
jurious effect of the climate upon his health, had to remain at his post 
until the arrival of Gov. James Wright whose commission had been 
signed in time for him to leave England in the fall of 1760, and insured 
his arrival at Savannah in the month of October. Wright first appeared 
in the assembly on the 5th of November (the departure of Ellis having 
occurred on the 2d), when his assumption of the duties devolving upon 
him is thus recorded in the journal of the upper house of that day : 
"His Honour James Wright, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief of this Province, came to this House and sent a message to the 
Commons House of Assembly by the master in chancery requiring their 
attendence in this House immediately." The two houses having assem- 
bled in joint session, the governor's address was then delivered. It 
began with these words: "His Majesty having been pleased to permit 
his Excellency Governor Ellis to return to Great Britain and to honour 
me with the appointment of Lieutenant-Governor of this Province, the 
administration is now, on his Excellency's departure, devolved upon 
me," etc. In reply, the council made an address beginning "We, his 
Majesty's most dutiful and loving subjects, the Council of Geoi'gia in 
General Assembly met, beg leave to return your Honour our unfeigned 
thanks for your speech to both Houses of Assembl.y and to present our 
hearty congratulations to your Honour on your safe arrival in this 
Province. 

"However sensibly we regret the departure of his Excellency Gov- 
ernor Ellis, we do with great sincerity assure your Honour that it is with 
the highest satisfaction we see your Honour appointed to preside over 
us," etc. 

The departure of Henry Ellis was a source of the deepest regret to 
every citizen of Georgia, and numerous complimentary addresses were 
presented to him by such bodies as the merchants and citizens of Sa- 
vannah and Augusta and the Georgia Society. The Union Society, 
under whose care the Bethesda Orphan House h«d passed, presented him 
with a handsome piece of plate. 

Province Divided into Parishes 

Probably the most important event in the Ellis administration was 
the division of the province into parishes as provided for in an act of 
the assembly duly passed and approved ]\Iareh 17, 1758. By this 
legislation "the Town and District of Savannah extending up the 
Savaniuili I'iver and inchuling the islands therein, as far as the south- 
east boundary of Goshen, from thence in a southwest line to the river 
Great Ogeechee, and from the Town of Savannah eastward as far as the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 133 

mouth of the river Savannah, including the sea islands to the mouth 
of the river Great Ogeechee, and all the settlements on the north side 
of the said river to the western boundaries thereof" became Christ 
Church parish. The other parishes were laid out in such manner as that 
Abercorn, Goshen and Ebenezer were in Saint Matthew's parish; the 
district, covering the country between the southern boundary of St. 
adjoining territory were in St. Paul; Hardwicke and other settlements 
south of the Great Ogeechee and extending to the Midway were placed 
in Saint Philip's parish; the lands lying south of the Midway and ex- 
tending to Newport were in the parish of Saint John ; Darien and its 
district, covering the county between the southern boundary of St. 
John's and the Altamaha river formed the parish of Saint Andrew; 
and "the Town and district of Frederica, including the islands of 
Great and Little Saint Simon, and the adjacent islands" received the 
name of the parish of Saint James. The church in Savannah and the 
burial-place used in connection with it were, by the same act, named 
the Parish Church and Cemetery of Christ Church ; and it was enacted 
that "Bartholomew Zouberbuhler, clerk, the present Minister of Savan- 
nah, shall be the rector and incumbent of the said Church of Christ 
Church and he is hereby incorporated and made one body politic and 
corporate by the name of the rector of Christ Church in the town of 
Savannah ; and shall be and he is hereby enabled to sue and be sued by 
such name in all courts within this province, and shall have the care 
of souls within tlie said parish, and shall be in the actual possession of 
the said church with its cemetery and appurtenances, and shall hold and 
enjoy the same to his and his successors, together with the glebe land 
already granted to him, and the messuage or tenement near to the said 
church, with all and singular the buildings and appurtenances there- 
unto belonging, and also all other lands, tenements and hereditaments 
as shall or may hereafter be given and granted to the said church or the 
incumbent thereof." 

Mr. Zoul)erbuhler was appointed rector of that church in 1745 and he 
served until 1765. The ministers down to the time of his appointment 
were Dr. George Herbert, in 1733 ; Samuel Quincy, 1733-1736 ; John 
Wesley, 1736-1737 ; George Whitefield, at times from 1738 to 1770, dur- 
ing which time the church was also served by the Rev. Mr. Dyson, chap- 
lain of Oglethorpe's regiment, Mr. James Habersham as reader, and 
by the Rev. William Norris, D. D., in 1739 ; Rev. Christopher Orton, 
1741-1742, and Rev. Thomas Bosomworth, 1743-1745. 

Second Savannah Church (Christ Church Parish) 

We are here brought to the consideration of the date of the founding 
of the second church established in Savannah and the circumstances 
under which it was founded ; and happily the records of the time can 
be brought forward to prove more on this subject than previous writers 
■ have been able to discover. As early as during the presidency of Will- 
iam Stephens some of the citizens of the province, seemingly dissatistied 
with the preaching of clergymen of the Church of England, expressed a 
desire to have one of a different denomination employed for their edifi- 



134 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

cation. The Earl of Egmont thus refers to the subject iu his journal, 
under date January 16, 1744: "Mr. John Joachim Zublie with a paper 
sign'd by several Inhabitants of Vernonburg and the Villages adjacent 
address to the Trustees dated Savannah 6 Feb., 1742-3, desiring a Minis- 
ter of Calvinistical principles, and recommending the said Zublie of 
St. Gall in Swizzerland, son of David Zublie of Purysburg in Carolina 
for the said purpose, attended," and on the 23d of that month he wrote 
"Mr. Zublie attended, and being ask'd what he demanded for going 
Minister to Vernonburg and Acton, he proposed 50£ per annum and his 
expenses of going thither as well as his coming from Swizzerland. The 
Trustees acquainted him they could not agree to his proposals." Those 
two statements are also found, nearly in the identical words, in the official 
journal of the trustees of those two dates, except that after demanding 
of Mr. Zubly what he required and receiving his reply, it is recorded 
that "then he withdrew. Resolved, That Mr. Zoubli be acquainted that 
the Trustees cannot Agree to his Proposals." 

Again, the journal of the trustees shows that on the 1st of Novem- 
ber, 1745, a petition was read from Mr. Zouberbuhler, dated October 31, 
1745, setting forth that he had gone from his home in St. Gall, Swit- 
zerland, with his father and other Swiss families to Purysburg, South 
Carolina, where his father died and the petitioner went to Charleston; 
that while there, finding several of his countrymen residing near 
the city being destitute of a minister, the Rev. ]\Ir. Garden, commissary 
of the bishop of London, recommended to his lordship that the petitioner 
be qualified for that service by receiving deacon's and priest's orders; 
that in journeying to England the petitioner was so long delayed before 
he could receive holy orders that his countrymen in Carolina had 
decided not to wait longer, but had actually engaged a Mr. Giezen 
Tanner to officiate among them ; that hearing Mr. Bosoraworth would 
not return to Savannah, the petitioner offered himself for the position 
made vacant by the departure from Georgia of Mr. Bosomworth ; and 
he then "laid before the Trustees the Deeds of his Ordination as Deacon 
and Priest by the Bishop of London," whereupon it was resolved "That 
the Rev. Mr. Barth. Zouberbuhler be appointed the Missionary at Savan- 
nah in the Province of Georgia in the room of the Rev. ]\Ir. Thomas Bosom- 
■w;orth who has quitted the Colony." Accordingly it was recorded in 
the minutes of November 11, 1745. that the trustees "desire the Society 
[for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts] will transfer the allow- 
ance of fifty Pounds a year from the Rev. Mr. Thomas Bosomwortli to 
the Rev. Mr. Bartholomew Zoulierbuhler. who is embarked on board the 
Ship Judith for the Province of Georgia." 

Again, the German and Swiss settlers at Vernonburg and Acton, in 
1745, brought a petition to tlie trustees renewinsj their request for a 
minister, stating "that they were more than two hundred and forty in 
Number, IMen, Women, and Children," and "all agreeing in the same 
Protestant Confession according to the Institution of Calvin, and desir- 
ing that the Rev. Mr. Joachim Zulili might be appointed their Minister." 
Then we have the record that "The Trustees took the same into consider- 
ation, and, after reading the ]\Iinu1es November 1st. 1745. by which the 
Rev. Mr. Bartholomew ZoulierlmhUM' was appointed ^Minister at Savan- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 135 

nah, who undertook to officiate not only in the English Language to the 
Inhabitants of Savannah, but in the German and French likewise to the 
aforesaid Inhabitants of Vernonburg and Aeton. 

"Resolved, That it be recommended to the said Mr. Zouberbuhler to 
make an Allowance of ten pounds per Ann. to the Rev. ]\Ir. Joachim Zubli, 
on condition that the said Mr. Zubli officiate for him as an Assistant at 
the aforesaid places of Vernonburg and Acton, etc., which are at too 
great a Distance for the Women and Children especially, to go to Divine 
Worship ; and that tlie said Allowance to commence from the time that 
the said Mr. Zouberbuhler shall receive a third Servant to be main- 
tained for him by the Trust, during his making the said Allowance. 

"Resolved, That it be recommended to the Common Council to 
maintain a third Servant for Mr. Zouberbuhler, during his making an 
Allowance of ten pounds per Ann. to the aforesaid Mr. Zubli." Pro- 
vision was at the same time made for the erection of "a tabernacle for 
Divine Worship (which might serve likewise for a school)." 

After the embarkation of Mr. Zouberbuhler on lioard the ship Judith, 
the common council resolved "that the passage of Mr. Barth. Zouber- 
buhler in the cabin of the ship Judith be defray 'd, and that his Clergy- 
man's Habit, his charges of his Journey to Gosport, and the bedding 
purchas 'd there for him be paid for. ' ' 

That Mr. Zubly preceded I\Ir. Zouberbuhler in taking passage for 
Georgia there seems to be no doubt, although the date of the sailing of 
the former cannot be definitely ascertained. He nmst have departed 
from England before the summer of 1745, as we find that on the 3d of 
August of that year the president and assistants (Pres. Wm. Stephens, 
and assistants Henry Parker, Wm. Spencer and Samuel Marcer being 
present) acted favorably upon a petition of certain inhabitants of 
Vernonburg, Acton and Hampstead for material for the building of a 
tabernacle which should serve also for a school, in which it was stated 
that the distance was too great for them to attend divine worship in 
Savannah "where sometimes they have had opportunity of hearing the 
word of God preached to them by the Reverend jMr. Zubli." 

The villages of Acton and Vernonbui'g were mentioned by De Brahm 
as "upon Vernon River." Vernonburg is now White Bluff, although 
the place has been incorporated by the Georgia legislature by its original 
name, but the name of White Bluff is the one by which it is, and probably 
always will be, called. Like Thunderliolt, which is by legal enactment 
the town of Warsaw, the old name clings to it, and the people seem de- 
termined not to let it pass out of remembrance. And we are here 
reminded to make the statement that Warsaw is indeed a misnomer, as 
it is without doubt the name given by the Indians to the neighboring 
island which they called Wassaw. De Brahm further mentions Hamp- 
stead and Highgate as "upon the Head of Vernon River." The 
Vernon, like the Midway, is a very short stream, and its head is but a 
short distance above the village of White Bluff. 

On the 16th of January, 1756, a grant, signed liy J. Reynolds, in the 
name of George the Second, conveyed to Jonathan Bryan, James Edward 
Powell, Robert Bolton, James Miller, Joseph Gibbons, William Gibbons, 
Benjamin Farley, William Wright, David Fox the younger, and John 



136 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Fox, as trustees, the lot in Savannah, known by the letter K, in Decker 
ward, "to the intent and purpose that a Meeting House or place of wor- 
ship for the service of Almighty God, be thereupon erected and built for 
the use and benefit of such of our loving subjects now residing, or that 
may at any time hereafter reside within the District of Savannah, in our 
said Province of Georgia, as are or shall be professors of the Doctrines 
of the Church of Scotland, agreeable to the Westminster Confession of 
Faith" with the proviso that if the meeting house should not be built 
within three years from the date of the grant, the lot should revert to 
the crown. At a meeting of the council held the same day, John Reyn- 
olds, governor, and Councillors James Habersham, Ales. Kellett, Fran- 
cis Harris, Jonathan Bryan and James Mackay being present, the 
governor signed certain grants, among which was the one to the above 
named, "in trust, a lot in Savannah for a Presbyterian Meeting House, 
known by letter K in Decker Ward. ' ' It will be well to remember while 
reading what follows that the word independent nowhere occurs in the 
records quoted, but that the church named was to be for those who were 
"professors of the doctrines of the Church of Scotland agreeable to the 
Westminster Confession of Faith," and that the grant itself was a "lot 
in Savannah for a Presbyterian Meeting House." 

Independent Presbyterian Church 

With the advent of Mr. Zubly we turn naturally to the history of the 
church known as the Independent Presbyterian, as he appears to have 
been its first pastor. All writers who have taken up the subject state 
that its organization v/as effected previous to the year 1756, because 
that was the date of the gi-ant from the Crown to James Powell, Robert 
Bolton, James Miller, Joseph Gibbons, William Gibbons, Benjamin 
Farley, William Wright, David Fox and James Fox of the lot known as 
a trust lot, bounded by St. Julian, Whitaker, Bryan and Barnard 
streets, on which to build a church. It is said by those claiming it was 
always independent, that the church was never in ecclesiastical connec- 
tion with the Presbyterian church, but that its present name is really 
descriptive of its actual status from its very beginning, that is, that it is 
an indepenelent church, free from the control of auy higher court than 
that of its own session, but that its confession of faith is really "the 
doctrine of the Church of Scotland agreeably to the Westminster Con- 
fession of Faith." It is admitted that Mr. Zubly was its first pastor, 
though it is not known when he became such nor when he began to per- 
form his duties, nor where the services were first held. It is not even 
known when the church was built on the lot granted in 1756. Un- 
fortunately there was no newspaper printed in the province until April 
7, 1763, when the Georgia Gazette was started by James Johnson. The 
earliest notice we find in that paper of tlie intention to build a Presby- 
terian house of worship is one dated April 29, 1769, but appearing in the 
newspaper of Wednesday, May 3, signed by Lachlan IMcGillivray, James 
Cuthbert, John Jamieson, and William Graeme, and is in these words: 
"The subseribei-s to the Presbyterian Meeting-House intended to be 
built in Savannah are desired to meet on Friday the 5th day of j\Iay 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 137 

next, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, at the house of Mr. Jonathan Peat, 
to ehuse Trustees, and take under consideration other matters relative 
to the said building." Another notice, signed by John Graham, Lach- 
lan McGillivray, George Bailie, Lewis Johnson, John Roe, James Cuth- 
bert, and William Graeme, appeared in the Gazette of Wednesday, 
July 19, following, addressed and giving information ''to subscribers to 
the Presbyterian Meeting-House that one-fifth of subscription money 
is immediately wanted, and to be paid into the Hands of Thomas and 
John Ross, Vendue masters." 

The question naturally arises, could that have been the building 
erected on the lot in Decker ward granted for church purposes in 1756 ? 
Was the population of Savannah at that time large enough to 
warrant the use of two Presbyterian churches, especially as a large 
portion of the citizens worshiped in Christ church and were devoted 
to the ceremonial rites of the Church of England ? All the province of 
Georgia, at the end of the administration of Governor Ellis, 1760, did 
not have more than 9,578 inhabitants, of which number 6,000 were 
whites, * and many of that race lived on farms outside of the city. Was 
it possible, then, that there could have been two congregations in Savan- 
nah at that time holding services according to the Westminster standards 
of religion 1 Stress is laid upon the words of the grant that the church 
was founded according to "the doctrine of the Church of Scotland:" 
but if it was a different organization from that body engaged in the 
erection of a "Presbyterian Meeting-House," how can the presence 
of so many typical Scotch names on the list of members of the latter be 
accounted for? Every name mentioned in the two notices which 
appeared in the Gazette in May and July, 1769, is Scotch, and it would 
seem the most reasonable conclusion from that fact that those persons 
represented the congregation who so greatly desired to be classed as 
allies of the established church of the country they represented. 

We glean some light on this question through a ((uotation from a 
letter of Mr. Zubly's to the Rev. Dr. Stiles, at Newport, Rhode 
Island, dated April 19, 1769, and found in Dr. George Howe's "History 
of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina." Mr. Zubly wrote: 
' ' Since my last, a Presbyterian meeting is set on foot in this place as the 
house I preach in is upon so general a plan as to receive the Westminster 
Confession of Faith. Some think it done out of opposition to me ; how- 
ever, Phil. 1:18." Commenting on that extract Doctor Howe remarks: 
"These allusions we do not fully understand. Dr. Zubly was ordained 
in the German Reformed Church at London, in August, 1744. There 
was no Presbyterian organization from which an effort of the kind 
alluded to could emanate but the Presbytery then in existence in South 
Carolina." 

Having, down to this point, given the facts cited by persons endeav- 
oring to prove on the one hand that the church began and has ever 
continued as an absolutely independent organization, but with form 
of worship in accord with the Presbyterian system, and by those contrari- 
wise believing that its origin was under authority of some court of the 

* History of Georgia, by C. C. Jones, Jr., Vol. I, p. 541. 



138 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Presbyterian church (presumably the Presbytery of South Carolina), 
we will bring this matter to a conclusion by reproducing the state- 
ments of an author who has heretofore been entirely overlooked but 
whose testimony should be sufficient to satisfy even the most ardent 
opponent of the independence theory and so forever set at rest any 
doubt upon the subject. De Brahm, writing probably not later than 
1771, on the 36th page of his "History of the Province of Georgia,"* 
and describing Savannah as it was then, says "The City consists of 400 
Houses; a Church (Christ Church), an independent Meeting House, 
a Council House, a Court-House, and a Filatur." In the plan of the 
town accompanying the description he marks the lot in Decker ward, 
granted in 1756, as "Indian Meeting," but with the light now before 
us we know, of course, that Independent was intended. And, lastly, 
on page 37, he says "The prevailing Religion is, what is cultivated by 
the Church of England ; next to this is the Lutheran & the inde- 
pendent, then Calvinist, the Jews are ye last," which shows that there 
was a Presbyterian church in the town besides the Independent ; but 
the former must have had a precarious existence, as we find no evidence 
of its survival after the incident just mentioned. 

Lutheran Church Organized 

Three years after the grant was made to the trustees of the Inde- 
pendent church a Lutheran church was organized in the city, but it 
was too feeble to support a minister in its infancy. Founded in 1759, 
it had in 1771, according to the Rev. Samuel Frink, rector of Christ 
church from 1767 to 1771, 193 in its congregation. 

Having witnessed the installation of his successor, Henry Ellis 
hastened his departure, and two days after the delivery of the great 
seal of the province to Wright he left the shores of Georgia, not to 
return again. 

A little more than three months after the inauguration of Lieutenant- 
Governor Wright, the council and citizens generally were called upon to 
do reverence and for the first time to pay respect to the memory of a king, 
and that king the grantor of the charter under which the colony had been 
founded. The transaction was of such a solemn character and its im- 
portance having been attested by the recording of the same in full upon 
the minute book of the assembly, it seems that a complete account of it 
deserves a place in this liistory, especially as it has probably never 
before been reproduced from the official account. 

George III Succeeds George II 

The council met on Thursday, the 5th of February, 1761, when His 
Honor James Wright, lieutenant-governor, and only three of his asso- 
ciates (Noble Jones, James Edward Powell, and William Clifton) were 
present. "His Honour acquainted the- Board that late last Night he 
had received a Packet from tlie Lords Commissioners for Trade and 

» Wornsloe, 1849. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 139 

Plantations inclosing a Notification from the Lords of his Majesty's 
most honourable Privy Council of the Death of our late most gracious 
Sovereign King George the Second of blessed and glorious ^lemory; 
with directions for proclaiming his most sacred Majesty King George 
the Third ; Also inclosing other Instructions and Proclamations neces- 
sary on that Important Event — All which were by his Honour laid before 
the Board and are as follows, viz : — 

"A Letter from the Right Honorable the Lords of his Majesty's 
Privy Council as follows: — 

" 'After our Hearty Congratulations — It having pleased Almighty 
God to take to his Mercy out of this troublesome Life our late Sovereign 
Lord King George the Second of Blessed and Glorious Memory, And 
therefore his Royal Majesty King George the Third being here pro- 
claimed, We have thought fit to signify the same unto You, with direc- 
tions that you do, witli the Assistance of the Council and others of the 
principal Inhabitants and Planters of the Province of Georgia, forth- 
with proclaim His most sacred Majesty King George the Third, accord- 
ing to the form here inclosed with the Solemnities and Ceremonies requi- 
site on the like Occasions. — -And you are likewise to publish and proclaim 
a Proclamation for continuing the Officers in his Majesty's Plantations 
'till his Majesty 's Pleasure shall be further signified, which Proclamation 
will be transmitted to you by the Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations. — And so not doubting of your ready compliance herein We 
bid you hearty farewell. Prom the Council Chamber at Leicester House 
this 31st day of October, 1760. 

Your Loving Friends, 
C Tho. Cant 

I Temple em 

Gower, 
t R. Neugent. 

" '(Subscription) on his Majesty's Service. 

" 'To our Loving Friend, the Governor or Commander in Chief of 
Georgia.' 

"The Proclamation of his Majesty King George the Third as follows: 
" 'Whereas it hath pleased Almighty God to call to his Mercy our late 
Sovereign Lord King George the Second of blessed and glorious Memory 
by whose Decease the Imperial Crown of Great Britain France and Ire- 
land is also the Supreme Dominion and Sovereign Right of the Province 
of Georgia and all other his late Majesty's Dominions in America are 
solely and rightfully come to the high and mighty Prince George Prince 
of Wales We therefore the Lieutenant Governor and Council with Num- 
bers of the Principal Inhabitants and Planters of this Province do now 
hereby with one full <Voice and Consent of Tongue and Heart pub- 
lish and Proclaim that the high and mighty Prince George Prince of 
Wales is now by the Death of our late Sovereign of happy and glorious 
Memory become our only lawfuU and rightful liege Lord George the 
Third by the Grace of God King of Great Britain France and Ireland 



140 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Defender of the Faith Supreme Lord of the said Province of Georgia and 
all other his late Majesty's Territories and Dominions in America to 
whom we do acknowledge all Faith and constant Obedience with all 
hearty and humble Affection beseeching God by whom Kings and Queens 
do Reign to bless the Royal King George the Third with long and happy 
Years to Reign over us Given. — 

" 'God Save the King.' 

' ' An additional Instruction to his Honour the Governour as follows : — 
'George R. An additional Instruction to our Trusty and well beloved 
James Wright, Esq. our Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief 
of our Province of Georgia in America. And in his Absence to the Com- 
mander in Chief of the Said Province for the Time being Given at our 
Court at Leicester House the 31st Day of October 1760 in the first Year 
of our Reign. 

'"[L. S.] 

" 'Wliereas we have been pleased by our Order in Council of the 27th 
of October instant, (a copy whereby is hereunto annexed) to declare our 
Pleasure that in all the Prayers and Litanies and Collects for the Royal 
Family instead of the Words their Royal Highnesses, George, Prince of 
Wales, the Princess Dowager of Wales, the Duke and Duchesses and all 
the Royal Family, there should be inserted Her Royal Highness, the 
Princess Dowager of Wales and all the Royal Family. Our Will and 
Pleasure therefore is that in all the Prayers, Litanies and Collects for 
the Royal Family to be used within our Province of Georgia under your 
Government instead of the Words their Royal Highnesses, George Prince 
of Wales, the Princess Dowager of Wales, the Duke, the Princesses and 
all the Royal Family and for the better Notice thereof in our said 
Province. It is our further Will and Pleasure that you cause the same to 
be forthwith published in the several Parish Churches and other Places 
of Divine Worship within the said Province, and that you take Care that 
Obedience be paid thereto accordingly.' 

' ' Copy of the Order of Council as follows — 

'A Court at Saville House the twenty-seventh day of October, 1760 — • 

" 'Present. 

" 'The King's most Excellent JMajesty in Council. 

" 'Whereas by the late Act of Uniformity which established the 
Liturgy, and enacts. That no Form or Order of Common Prayers be 
openly used in and by the said Book, it is notwithstanding, provided that 
in all those Prayers, Litanies and Collects which do anywise relate to 
the King, Queen or Royal Progeny, the Names be altered and changed 
from time to time and fitted to tlie present occasion according to the 
Direction of lawfull Authority. His JMajesty was pleased this Day in 
Council to declare his royal Will and Pleasure that in all the Prayers, 
Liturgies and Collects for the Royal Family instead of the words [their 
Royal Highnesses, George Prince of Wales, the Princess Dowager of 
Wales, the Duke, the Princesses and all the Royal Family] be inserted 
[Her Royal Highness, the Princess Dowager of Wales and all the Royal 
Family], And his iMajesty doth strictly charge and command that no 
Edition of the Common Prayer be from henceforth printed but with 
this Amendment, and that in tlie meantime till co^jies of siioh Edition 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 141 

may be had, all Parsons, Vicars and Curates within this Realm do (for 
the preventing of Mistakes) with the Pen correct and amend all such 
Prayers in their Church Books* according to the aforegoing Direction ; 
and for the better Notice hereof that this Order be forthwith printed and 
published and sent to the several Parishes and that the Right Reverend, 
rhe Bishops do take care that Obedience be paid to the same accoi^dingly. 

" 'F. Vernon.' 

"A copy of the PrQclamation for continuing the Officers in his 
Majesty 's Plantations as follows, vizt. : 

" 'By the King. 
" 'A Proclamation. 

" 'Declaring his Majesty's Pleasure for continuing the Officers in 
his Majesty's Plantations till his Majesty's Pleasure shall be further 
signified. 

" 'George R. 

" 'Whereas by an Act of Parliament made in the Sixth Year of the 
late Queen Ann of blessed Memory, "intituled an Act for the security 
of her Majesty's Person and Government and of the succession of the 
Crown of Great Britain in the Protestant Line," it was enacted (amongst 
other things) that no Office Place or Employment, Civil or Military, 
within any of her said late Majesty's Plantations should become void 
by Reason of the Demise or Death of her said late Majesty, her Heirs 
or Successors, Kings or Queens of this Realm ; but that the Person and 
Persons in any of the Offices, Places or Employments aforesaid should 
continue in their respective Offices, Places and Employments for the 
Space of six IMonths next after such Death or Demise unless sooner 
removed and discharged by the next in Succession to whom the Crown of 
this Realm should come, remain and be according to the several Acts 
of Parliament for limiting and settling the Succession of the Crown as 
by the said recited Act may appear ; and in Regard it may happen that 
our Pleasure may not within the said Time l^e declared touching the 
said Offices, Places and Employments in our foreign Plantations which 
will at the End of the said six Months become void ; We for preventing 
the Inconvenience that may happen thereby in our Princely Wisdom 
and Care of the State (reserving to our Judgment hereafter the Refor- 
mation and Redress of any Abuses in the Execution of any such Offices, 
Places and Employments upon due Knowledge and Examination 
thereof). Have thought fit with the Advice of our Privy Council to issue 
this our Royal Proclamation, And do hereby order, signify and declare 
That all persons that at the Time of the Decease of our Royal Grand- 
father. King George the Second of glorious Memory were duly and 
lawfully possessed of or invested in any Office, Place or Employment, 
civil or military, in any of our Plantations and which have not been 
since removed from such, their Offices, Places or Employments shall be 
and shall hold themselves continued in the said Offices, Places and Em- 
ployments as formerly they held and enjoyed the same until our Pleasure 
be further known, or other Provisions be made pursuant to the Com- 
missions and Instructions of our said late Royal Grandfather to his 
Governors and Officers of their Plantations aforesaid; And that in the 
mean Time for the Preservation of the Peace and necessary Proceedings 



1J2 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

in Matters of Justice and for the Safety and Service of the State, all 
the said Persons of whatever Degree or Condition do not fail everyone 
severally according to his Place, Office or Charge to proceed in the Per- 
formance and Execution of all Duties thereunto belonging as formerly 
appertained unto them during the Life of our late said Royal Grand- 
father ; And further Ave do hereby will and command all and singular 
our Subjects in the said Plantations of what estate or Degree they or any 
of them be to be aiding, helping and assisting at the Commandment of 
the said Officers in the Performance and Execution of the said Offices 
and Places as they tender our Displeasure and will answer the Contrary 
at their utmost Perils. 

" 'Given at our Court in Saville House the twenty-seventh Day of 
October, one thousand seven and sixty in the first Year of our Reign. 

" 'God Save the King.' 

"Whereupon it was proposed by his Honour in Council that seventy- 
seven Minute Guns be fired on Alonday, the ninth Day of this Instant 
February, at Savannah between the Hours of nine and twelve in the 
Forenoon and that the High and mighty Prince George Prince of 
Wales be proclaimed throughout the Province our lawful and right- 
ful Liege Lord George the third by the Grace of God King of Great 
Britain France and Ireland Defender of the Faith Supreme Lord of this 
his Province of Georgia and all other his late Majesty's Territories 
and Dominions in America ; at the Town of Savannah on Tuesdaj^ the 
tenth Day of this instant February ; and also at Sunburj-, Frederica, 
and Augusta, in the said Province under a triple Discharge of the Can- 
non and Musquetry ; and that the same be done in the Words and 
according to the Form transmitted hither by the Lords of his Majesty's 
most honourable privy Council, herein before inserted. 

"Also that his Majesty's Proclamation for continuing all Officers in 
his Plantations in their several Places and Employments until his 
Majesty's Pleasure shall be ftirther signified, be published at the said 
several Places at the same Time. 

"And also that his Majesty's Instructions for an Alteration to be 
made in the Prayers for the Royal Family be likewise ptiblished and 
dulj' observed in the several Parish Chtirches and other Places of Divine 
Worship throughout the Province." 

At the next sitting of the cotancil, Satttrday, 7th February, it was 
stated in the Jottrnal that ''The several IMatters proposed on Thttrsday, 
the fifth of this Instant Febrttary, were at this Board read over, ap- 
proved, and ordered to be carried into Exectition. " 

On Tuesday the 10th of February, 1761. "His Honottr the Governor 
and the Council being assembled and a Proclamation in the Words and 
Form transmitted hither by the Lords of his Majesty's most honourable 
privy Council having been prepared fair, wrote on a large Sheet of 
Paper the same was sttbscribed by his Honottr and the Cotmcil As 
also by Nttmbers of the Principal Inhabitants and Planters of the Prov- 
ince who attended for tliat Purpose, and is as follows, viz.: 

"Whereas it hath pleased Almighty God to call to his Mercy otir 
late Sovereign Lord King George the Second of blessed and glorious 
Memory, by whose Decease the imperial Crown of Great Britain France 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 143 

and Ireland, as also the supreme Dominion and sovereign Right of the 
Province of Georgia and all other his late Majesty's Dominions in 
America are solely and rightfully come to the high and Mighty Prince, 
George Prince of Wales ; We therefore, the Lieutenant Governor and 
Council with Numbers of the Principal Inhabitants and Planters of 
this Province do now hereby with one full Voice and Consent of Tongue 
and Heart publish and proclaim that the High and Mighty Prince 
George, Prince of Wales is now by the Death of our late Sovereign of 
happy and glorious JVIemory become our only lawfull and Rightfull Liege 
Lord, George the Third by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Lord of the said 
Province of Georgia and all other his late Majesty's Territories and 
Dominions in America ; to whom We do acknowledge all Faith and 
constant Obedience with all hearty and humble Affection ; beseeching 
God by whom Kings and Queens do reign to bless the Royal King George 
the third with long and happy years to reign over Us. Given at the 
Council Chamber in Savannah the tenth Day of February in the year 
cf our Lord, one seven hundred and sixty-one. 

"God Save the King. 
"Signed — Phil Delegal, AVilliam Francis, James DeVeaux, Tnigo 
Jones, Henry Parker, John Morel, William Ewen, William Dews, Joseph 
Summers, Jaines Mossman, Jno. Simpson, James Parker, Benja Gold- 
wire, Pickering Robinson, William Handley, Charles Watson, Matt 
Roche, W. G. D. Brahm, Grey Elliott, John Milledge, James Read, Ed- 
mund Tannalt, David Montaigne, Thos. Hooper, Benjamin Farley, Lewis 
Johnson, Clemt Martin, James Wright, Patrick Houstoun, James Haber- 
sham, N. Jones, Francis Harris, James Edward Powell, William Knox, 
William Clifton. 

Public Ceremonies Proclaiming New Sovereign 

"Then the Regulars and IMilitia, being under Arms, and drawn up 
by their respective Officers before the Council Chamber and the Win- 
dows thrown open the Clerk of the Council, by order of his Honour 
the Governour, did publish the said Proclamation audibly and distinctly 
under a discharge of twenty-one Pieces of Cannon ; After which the said 
Proclamation being delivered to the Provost Marshal, His Honour and 
the Council accompanied by the principal Inhabitants and attended by 
the Regulars and Militia proceeded to the Market Place where the Pro- 
vost IMarshal published the said Proclamation under a like Discharge of 
Cannon ; Then the Procession moved to the Fort in Savannah called 
Hallifax Fort where the Provost Marshal did again publish the same 
under a like Discharge of the Cannon and a Triple Discharge of the 
Musquetry; And his Majesty's Proclamation for continuing all Officers, 
&c., was then published." 

The next meeting of council was held on Wednesday, February 11, 
when — 

"His Honour the Governour and the Gentlemen of the Council 
present did this Day severally take the State Oaths and declare and 
subscribe the Teste on the Occasion of his Majesty, King George the 



144 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

third being proclaimed ; as at the same Time did also the Clerk of the 
Council. 

"Then his Honour proposed to the Board that an Address of Con- 
dolence and Congratulation to his Majesty should l)e drawn up and 
transmitted Home on this interesting and important Occasion which was 
joyfully and unanimously assented to and drawn up accordingly in 
the Words following, vizt. : 

" 'To the King's most Excellent Majesty the humble Address of 
the Lieutenant Governor and Council of the Province of Georgia. 

' ' ' Most gracious Sovereign : 

" 'We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Lieuten- 
ant Governor and Council of your Majesty's Province of Georgia, though 
by our Distance prevented the Happiness of Approaching your Sacred 
Person, yet deeply affected with the most unfeigned Concern, humbly 
beg Leave to Condole with your Majesty on the Death of your Royal 
Grandfather, our late most gratious Sovereign, whose Justice and ]\Iercy 
were equal to the Lustre of his Arms and Dignity of his Crown ; So 
sensible a Loss could only be alleviated by your Majesty's immediate 
and happy Accession to the Throne, as from a Prince so eminently pos- 
sessed of every royal virtue. We promise our Selves a continuance of the 
greatest Blessings. 

" 'Permit Us therefore most gratious Sovereign to mingle our very 
sincere and affectionate Congratulations with those of Your J\rajesty's 
other faithful Subjects on this great and important Event ; and also 
to assure your Majesty that the Inhabitants of this Province are zealous 
and united in their Attachment to your Majesty's Royal Person and 
Government. It is their earnest Prayer that your ]\Iajest}' may long 
continue to reign over a grateful and happ.y People ; That you may long 
continue the Arbiter of Europe, and the sure Refuge of oppressed 
Nations ; and that your People to their latest Posterity may be ever 
blessed with a Prince of your illustrious House endowed with your 
Majesty's most amiable Virtues and Accomplishments. 

" 'In the Council Chamber, Savanuah in Georgia, the 11th February, 
1761.' 

"Then the said Address being read over and approved was signed 
by his Honour the Governour and the President of the Council in Order 
to be forwarded for England." 

At the next following meeting : 
"His Honour the Governor put the Question 'Whether it was at this 
Time necessary that a new Assembly shoiild be called?' 

"The Board were unanimous in Opinion that it was extremely nec- 
essary. 

"Ordered, That the Secretary of this Province do prepare writs for 
electing Meml)ers to represent the Different Parishes and Places of this 
Province in general Assembly." 



CHAPTER XV 

GEORGIA'S LAST ROYAL GOVERNOR 

Wright's Good Traits — Rising Discontent Against Royalty — Pros- 
perous Condition of Colony — Sunbury — Spirit op Sedition in 
Georgia — Governor Wright 's Dilemma — Repeal of the Stamp Act 
Acknowledged — Franklin, Georgia's British Agent — Renewed 
Protests Against British Acts — House Resents Wright's Inter- 
ference. 

The last royal governor of Georgia was James Wright, who succeeded 
Henry Ellis in 1760, and of whom brief mention has been made. His 
appointment was dated May 13th, of that year, but he did not reach 
Savannah until October. His long administration was without doubt 
the most important as well as the most eventful since the time of Ogle- 
thorpe, as the seven years' war between Great Britain and the thirteen 
colonies, resulting in the independence of the latter, was embraced within 
that period. 

Wright's Good Traits 

Wright was, in some respects, well fitted for the position to which 
he was appointed, and his acts met with the general approval of the 
government in England. Of the many incidents connected with his 
residence in Savannah and the province of Georgia the details will be 
found in the following pages as they come before us in regular chrono- 
logical sequence. The journal of the governor and council of Friday, 
October 31, 1760, gives an account of his inauguration which, with the 
exception of the insertion in full of his commission and the several 
oaths taken on the occasion, is remarkably brief. It states that "James 
Wright, Esq., being introduced, laid before the Board his most sacred 
Majesty's Commission appointing him Lieutenant Governor of the 
Province, which commission was read by the Clerk and ordered to be 
entered." After ([uoting the commission in full it proceeds: "Then the 
said James Wright, Es((., took all the state oaths appointed by law and 
declared and subscribed the Tests and took the oaths for administering 
the Government and for securing the Act of Trade and Navigation." 
He found here a colony whose population amounted to no more than 
ninety-five hundred and seventy-eight, of whom there were thirty-five 
hundred and seventy-eight negro slaves, while, for the protection of the 

Vol. I— 10 

145 



146 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

people against invasion, the military force numbered about one thousand 
and twenty-five, included in which were two companies of rangers, inde- 
pendent companies known as "Independent Companies in his Majesty's 
service," and militia. The principal town. Savannah, had at that time 
between three and four hundred small frame houses, with a few public 
buildings of more imposing appearance, as mentioned by De Brahm, 
whom we have already quoted. 

Wright adopted many plans for the welfare of the people and the 
progress of the colony in the matters of agriculture and commerce, and, 
like his predecessors, one of the first steps taken by him was to secure 
the friendship of the Indians, and to assure them of his desire to look 
after their interests. He was firm in the stand he took in respect to 
what he considered intrusion upon the rights of his dominion, and 
protested against certain acts of Governor Boone, of South Carolina, 
in 1763, whereby that official endeavored to retard the progress of 
Georgia by issuing grants to a large portion of territory south of the 
Altamaha. Protesting against such proceedings, and meeting with no 
success from that method of acting, Wright laid the matter before the 
Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, and that body put a stop to 
the issuing of grants. 

He had another trouble with the chief justice of the province, Will- 
iam Grover, who proved to be anything than honorable in the performance 
of his duties, and Avho, when confronted with the charge of being unjust 
and with using his office for advancing his personal interests, retorted 
by publishing a libel upon the governor, filled with vituperation and 
defamatory epithets which only served to bring the writer into disgrace 
and to cause liis suspension from office. 

Rising Discontent Against Royalty 

Until the news of the passage of the stamp act, in 1765. was received 
in Georgia, everything was calm and restful under the conservative 
policy of the man who represented the British government in that 
nation's far-away dependency, but then the time had come when his 
life was to be spent with a continual feeling that he could no longer 
carry out the will of his sovereign and at the same time please the ma- 
jority of the people who had tlieretofore looked upon him as a friend. 
During the years to follow he had around him many who continued 
loyally to obey the laws of the mother country Avhile a vast number 
saw in the measures adopted by parliament nothing but oppression 
and tyranny. The time was not far distant when he should find his 
task so arduous as to force him to declare, as he did in a letter to the 
Earl of Dartmouth, secretary of state, dated July 10, 1775. "It being 
impossible, my Lord, for me to submit to these daily insults, I must 
again request his IMajesty will be graciously pleased to give me leave 
to return to England," and a little further on, "I begin to think a 
King's Governor has little or no business here;" and only a week later 
to make this utterance, apparently in anguish of mind: "I am humbly 
to request that his IMajesty will be graciously pleased to give me leave 
to return to England in order to resign the Government." He recon- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



147 



sidered the matter, however, and remained in office until the inde- 
pendence of the colonies was established, and England had no further 
need of a royal governor in any of the thirteen provinces which had 
unitedly succeeded in winning the liberty which they stubbornly con- 
tended for during a disastrous war of seven years. 

The first act on the part of Georgia's patriots to cause his disap- 
pointment was the adoption of a resolution by the general assembly in 
regard to AVilliam Knox, agent of the province in England, who 
wrote a letter to an American friend in defense of the stamp act. On 
learning this the assembly i^romptly, on the 15th of November, 1765, 
"resolved to give instructions to the Committee of Correspondence to 
acquaint Mr. Knox, agent of this Province, that the Province has no 




C()L(^uiTT County Court House, ^Ioultkie 



further occasion for his services." The assembly then appointed Mr. 
Charles Garth in the place of Knox, to which action Governor Wright 
objected and requested the appointment of another person ; but the 
assembly not only insisted upon the confirmation of their action by 
the council but asked that body to concur in fixing the salary of Mr. 
Garth at £100. On the ground that the appointee was the agent of 
South Carolina and could not represent another province, council 
declined to concur, but expressed a willingness to ratify the appoint- 
ment of any other suitable person. The assembly still insisted upon 
the confirmation of Garth, and resolved that in the event of a continued 
disagreement they would appoint him themselves, and they did so on 
the 26th of Marcii, 1767. This so angered Governor Wright that he 
wrote to Secretary Conway : ' ' The nomination of a provincial agent 
by the Assembly alone is a thing, I believe, never before attempted in 
any province on the Continent of America, unless very lately, when 



148 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

they have been seized with their strange enthusiastic ideas of Liberty 
and power," and again asserted in another letter of about the same 
date, "A large proportion of the people of Georgia are sons of liberty, 
and the same spirit of sedition which first appeared in Boston has 
reached Georgia." 

He left nothing undone to keep the province from taking part with 
the other English dependencies in protesting against the acts of the 
mother country which so incensed the people who had in a more sub- 
stantial and trying manner felt the effects of measures deemed by 
them as attacks upon their constitutional liberties. His efforts to keep 
this part of the country from overt acts of resistance were continued 
as long as possible, and his failure to convince the people that they were 
wrong in opposing the policy of the royal council was galling to his 
feelings and was shown in all his communications addressed to the 
Earl of Dartmouth as long as the war lasted, as well as in his dealings 
with the people of Georgia, directly or through his supj^orters in the 
council and assembly. Many scenes of violence and of opposition to 
his measures for "cheeking the spirit of rebellion," as he termed it, 
were enacted in Savannah, and these we will mention in their proper 
order. 

Prosperous Condition op Colony 

Lieutenant-Governor James Wright was a man who not only planned 
for the upbuilding of the country over which he had been appointed 
leader and in whose interests he had taken an oath to "well and truly 
perform all matters and things which by the statutes" he was required 
to do "for the encouraging and increasing of shipping and navigation" 
as well as "for the encouragement of trade" and "for preventing of 
frauds and regulating abuses in the plantation trade ; ' ' but he saw to it 
that his plans were executed in a proper manner. Consequently, just 
before the beginning of the troubles caused by the passing of the stamp 
act, Georgia was in that happy condition described so well by Hugh 
MeCall in his "History of Savannah":* "No province on the continent 
felt the happy effects of this public security sooner than Georgia, which 
had long struggled under many difficulties arising from the want of 
credit from friends, and the frequent molestations of enemies. During 
the late Avar the government had been given to a man who wanted neither 
wisdom to discern nor resolution to pursue tbe most effectual means for 
its improvement. While he proved a father to the people and governed 
the i^rovince with ecjuity and justice, he discovered at the same time the 
excellence of its low lands and river swamps, by the proper management 
and diligent cultivation of which he accjuired in a few years a jilentiful 
fortune. His exami^le and success gave vigor to industry and promoted 
a spirit of emulation among the planters for improvement. The rich 
lands were sought for with zeal and cleared with that ardor which the 
prospect of riches naturally inspired. The British merchants, observing 
the province safe and advancing to a hopeful and promising state, were 
no longer backward in extending credit to it, Init supplied it with 

* Vol. I, p. 2SS. Savannah, 1811. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 149 

negroes, and goods of British manufacture with equal freedom as other 
provinces on the continent. The planters no sooner got the strength of 
Africa to assist them than they labored with success, and the lands every 
year yielded greater and greater increase. The trade of the province 
kept pace with its progress in cultivation. The rich swamps attracted 
the attention not only of strangers, hut even with the planters of Car- 
olina who had been accustomed to treat their poor neighbors with the 
utmost contempt; several of whom sold their estates in that colony and 
removed with their families and effects to Georgia. Many settlements 
were made by the Carolinians about Sunbury and upon the Alatamaha. 
The price of produce at Savannah increased as the quality improved, a 
circumstance which contributed much to the prosperity of the country. 
The planters situated on the opposite side of Savannah River found in 
the capital of Georgia a convenient and excellent market for their staple 
commodities. In short, from this period the rice, indigo, and naval 
stores arrived in the markets in Europe of equal excellence and perfec- 
tion and, in proportion to its strength, in equal quantities with those of 
its most powerful and opulent neighbors." 

Sunbury 

The allusion in the above extract to the influx of planters from Car- 
olina, especially to the territory lying adjacent to the Midway river, 
caused the population of that section to increase so rapidly that 
the town of Sunbury, which was settled in 1758, had grown so rapidly 
that in September, 1762, it was raised to the dignity of a port of entry 
with Thomas Carr as its first collector, John Martin naval officer, and 
Francis Lee searcher. At the date of Governor Wright's report the 
collector of customs was James Kitchen, whose salary was £65 per 
annum, and his fees amounted to £90, and he was "appointed as Col- 
lector at Savannah," that is to say by the Lords of the Treasury and 
Commissioners of the Customs. The collector at Savannah at that 
time was Alexander Thompson, and his salary, according to Wright, 
was £60 per annum, being five pounds less than that of Sunbury 's col- 
lector, but his fees amounted to £298 a year. 

Much has been said and written concerning the once important com- 
mercial position held by Sunbury and the expectation that it would out- 
grow Savannah. On this point we will quote what Hugh MeCall says: 
' ' Soon after its settlement and organization as a town, it rose into consid- 
erable commercial importance ; emigrants came from different quarters to 
this healthy maritime port, particularly from Bermuda ; about seventy 
came from that island, but unfortunately for them and the reputation of 
the town, a mortal epidemic broke out and carried off about fifty of their 
number the first year; it is highly probable they brought the seeds of 
the disease with them. Of the remainder as many as were able returned 
to their native country. This circumstance, however, did not very 
much retard the growing state of this eligible spot ; a lucrative trade was 
carried on with various parts of the West Indies in lumber, rice, indigo, 
corn, &c. Seven square-rigged vessels have been known to enter the 
port of Sunbury in one day, and about the years 1769 and 1770 it was 



150 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

thought by many, in point of commercial consequence, to rival Savannah. 
In this prosperous state it continued with very little interruption until 
the war commenced between Great Britain and America, when it was 
taken by the Bi-itish troops under command of General Provost. After 
the Revolutionary war trade took a different channel, and Savannah be- 
came the receptacle for the exports and imports of the province which had 
formerly passed through Sunbury. " 

The incidents leading to the founding of the town of Sunbury are 
briefly as follows : Under the government of the trustees of Georgia, 
tracts amounting to five hundred or more acres of land were eonvej'ed 
to none but such persons as they approved of, with the promise on the 
part of the parties that they would within twelve months at their own 
expense settle upon said l«,nds, bringing with them ten able-bodied men 
servants. In 1757, George II granted to Mark Carr "All that tract of 
land containing five hundred acres, situated and being in the District of 
Midway in the Province of Georgia, bounded on the east by the Midway 
river, on the west by land of Thomas Carr, on the south by vacant land, 
and on all other sides by marshes of the said river." In 1752 the Dor- 
chester Society moved from their settlement in South Carolina to the 
Midway district in Georgia, and in 1758 Mark Carr conveyed to James 
Maxwell, Kenneth Baillie, John Elliott, Grey Elliott and John Stevens, 
of Midway, three hundred acres of the original five hundred obtained 
by the grant from the crown, in trust that the said land should be 
laid out as a town to be named Sunbury. John Stevens and John 
Elliott were members of Dorchester (or Midway) congregation, and they 
and others who from time to time came from South Carolina formed 
the nucleus of the town whose population comprised many of the mem- 
bers of that body. 

Spirit of Sedition in Georgia 

When the circular letter from the Massachusetts assembly calling for 
a congress to convene in New York in October, 1765, in consequence of 
the passage of the stamp act, was received in Georgia, Alexander Wjdly, 
speaker of the commons house of assembly, called for a convention of the 
members, and on the 2d of September sixteen of them met in Savannah, 
but Wright's influence was then so great that he dissuaded them from 
sending delegates ; but they did respond to the invitation by expressing 
a willingness to cooperate in sustaining any measure which might be 
adopted for the protection of the rights of the colonies. 

Wright was so buoyed up by his success in preventing the representa- 
tion of the province in the congress that he felt encouraged to believe his 
influence would still serve to keep Georgia out of the struggle, and to 
that end he wrote to the Earl of Halifax on the 20th of September, that 
everything wnthin his jurisdiction was in good shape. He did not feel 
safe, however, for a great length of time, and the feeling of the people 
who still considered their liberty in danger could not be held in check 
was shown so plainly as to cause him to become very apprehensive ; and 
he expressed his anxiety and told the story of what had happened and 
was still happening under his eyes in Savannah in a long letter to 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 151 

Secretary Conway, dated the 31st of January, 1766, as follows: "Sir, — 
Yesterday I had the honour to receive the duplicates of your Excellency's 
letter of the 24th of October, and it is with the utmost concern that I am 
to actjuaint your Excellency that the same spirit of sedition, or rather 
rebellion, wliich first appeared at Boston has reached this Province, and 
I have for three months past been continually reasoning and talking with 
the most dispassionate and sensible people in order to convince them of 
the propriety of an acquiescence, and submission to the King's authority 
and that of the British Parliament, until they could point out their 
grievances, if any, and apply for redress in a constitutional way. I 
have also Sir, pointed out the dangerous consequences, distresses, and 
misery they must inevitably bring upon themselves by following the 
example of the Northern Colonies. This I have done in the strongest 
and most striking point of view I could place it in, and exactly agree- 
able to the sense and spirit of your Excellency's letter I had the honour 
to receive yesterday. At other times I had had recourse to such little 
force as is in my power, and have in some measure preserved and sup- 
ported his Majesty's authority and prevented the Stamp papers from 
being destroyed, but Sir, I must at the same time declare that I have had 
the great mortification to see the reins of government nearly wrested 
out of my hands, his Majesty's authority insulted, and the civil power 
obstructed. But that your Excellency may be more clearly enabled to 
judge of the true state of affairs in this Province, and to lay the same 
before his IMajesty, I humbly beg leave to state a brief narrative of 
some transactions here, and which I from time to time haVe acquainted 
the Lords of Trade with. 

"On the 26th of October, the day of his Majesty's accession, I had 
ordered a general Muster ; and in the evening, a little after night, there 
was a very great tumult in the streets, and some effigies burnt, and a 
day or two after several incendiary threatening letters were wrote on 
which I issued a proclamation as your Excellency will see by the en- 
closed newspaper. I also issued another proclamation against riots and 
tumultuous and unlawful assemblies, and from that time the spirit of 
faction and sedition took place and increased, and those persons who 
falsely called themselves the Sons of Liberty began to have private 
cabals and meetings, and I was informed that many had signed an 
Association to oppose and prevent the distribution of Stamped papers, 
and the act from taking effect. But it was impossible to come at such 
proof as would enable me to support any legal proceedings against 
them, and I found they had determined on attacking the distributor as 
soon as he arrived, and compelling him to resign or promise not to act, 
as had been done in the Northern Colonies. I had also been informed 
that they intended to seize upon and destroy the papers whenever they 
should come. In the mean time Sir, every argument I could suggest 
was used to convince them of the rashness of such attempts and the 
dangerous consequences that must attend them, and every method, both 
public and private, was pursued by me to bring them to a right way of 
thinking, and which I frequently thought I had effected, and am sure 
I should have done but for the inflammatory papers, letters, and mes- 
sages continually sent to the people here from the Liberty Boys, as they 



152 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

call themselves, in Charlestown, South Carolina, and by whom I am 
very clear all our disturbances and difficulties have been occasioned. 

"And thus matters rested Sir, till the 5th of December when his 
Majesty's ship 'Speedwell' arrived here with the stamped papers on 
board. I had used every precaution necessary to prevent either papers 
or officer from falling into the hands of those people, which they were 
not ignorant of. And when it was known that the ' Speedwell' was in the 
river with the papers, several of the principal inhabitants came to me and 
gave me the strongest assurances possible that there was then no inten- 
tion to seize upon or destroy the papers. And they were landed with- 
out any appearance of tumult and lodged in the King's store or ware- 
house under the care of the Commissary. But notwithstanding these 
assurances with respect to the papers, I still found there was a design 
against the Officer. 

' ' From the 5th of November everything remained pretty quiet, but I 
found cabals were frequently held and inflammatory letters sent from 
Charlestown, and on the 2nd of Januax'y, about 3 in the afternoon, I was 
informed that the Liberty Boj^s in town had assembled together to the 
number of about 200 and were gathering fast, and that some of them 
had declared they were determined to go to the Fort and break open 
the Store and take out the stamped papers and destroy them ; on which 
I immediately ordered the officers to get their men together, but 
appearances and threats were such that in three days I had not less 
than 40 men on duty every night to protect the papers, or I am con- 
fident they would have been destroyed. 

' ' On the 3rd of January Mr. Angus, the distributor for this Province, 
arrived, of which I had the earliest notice in consequence of measures 
concerted for that purpose, and innnediately sent the scout boat with 
an officer and a party of men to protect him and suffer nobody to speak 
to him, but conduct him safely to my house, which was done the next 
day at noon when he took the State oaths and oath of office, and I had 
the papers distribiited and lodged in all the different offices relative 
to the shipping and opening our ports, which had been shut for some 
time. But here the people in general have agreed not to apply for 
any other papers till his IMajesty's pleasure be known on the petitions 
sent from the Colonies. I kept the Officer in my house for a fortnight, 
after which he went into the Country, to avoid the resentment of the 
people, for awhile. No pains have been spared in the Northern Colonies 
to spirit up and inflame the people, and a spirit of faction and sedi- 
tion was stirred up throughout the Province, and parties of armed 
men actually assembled themselves together and were preparing to do 
so in different parts, but by sending expresses with letters to many of 
the most prudent I had the satisfaction to find that iny weight and 
credit was sufficient to check all commotions and disturbances in the 
country at that time, and everything was quiet again and remained 
so till a few days ago when some incendiaries from Charlestown came 
full fraught with sedition and rebellion, and have been about the 
country and inflamed the people to such a degree that they were again 
assembling together in all parts of the province and, to the number of 
about 600, were to have come here on yesterday, all armed, and these 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 153 

people as I have been informed, were to have surrounded my house 
and endeavored to extort a promise from me that no papers shoukl be 
issued till his Majesty's pleasure be known on the petitions sent home 
and if I did not immediately comply they were to seize upon and destroy 
the papers and commit many acts of violence against the persons and 
property of those gentlemen that have declared themselves friends of 
government. On this last alarm I thought it advisable to remove the 
papers to a place of greater security, and accordingly ordered them 
to be carried to Fort George on Cockspur Island where they are pro- 
tected by a captain, two subalterns, and fifty private men of the rangers. 

"But I have the satisfaction to inform your Excellency that I have 
with the assistance of some well disposed gentlemen, taken off and got 
a great many dispersed who were actually on their way down here, but 
many are still under arms and I can't yet say how the aft'airs will end. 

' ' This Sir, is a wretched situation to be in, and it 's clear that further 
force is necessary to support his Majesty's authority from insults and 
reduce the people to obedience to the civil power. My task is rendered 
much more difficult by the people in the next province going the 
lengths they have done, and to this day do and it's said, and I believe 
it may be true (although Sir, I will not aver it for a fact), that the 
Carolinians have offered to assist the people here with 500 men to 
prosecute their vile attempts. 

"Upon the whole. Sir, there is still a possibility of bringing the 
people to reason and restoring the peace and tranquility of the Province, 
on which, your Excellency so justly observes, their welfare and hap- 
piness depend. A few days will determine this point, and if not, 
then, agreeable to your Excellency's letter, I shall write to General 
Gage and Lord Colville for assistance. I have only to add that not- 
withstanding every threat and attempt, your Excellency may be assured 
I will firmly persevere to the utmost of my power in the faithful dis- 
charge of my duty to his Majesty; but really Sir, such of the King's 
Servants in America as are firm in their opposition to the present 
seditious spirit have a very uncomfortable time of it. 

"The whole military force in this Province, Sir, is two troops of 
Rangers, consisting in the whole of 120 effective men, which occupy 5 
forts or posts in different parts of the Province, and 30 of the Royal 
Americans, — 20 of them at Fort Augusta, 150 miles from hence, and 10 
at Frederica about the same distance. And on the first appearance of 
faction and sedition I ordered in some of the Rangers from each post 
and made up the number here at Savannah 56 privates and 8 officers, 
with which, and the assistance of such gentlemen as were of a right way 
of thinking I have been able in some measure to support his Majesty's 
authority, but I have been obliged to send two officers and 35 of those 
men with the papers to Fort George." 

Wright's alarm had not subsided on the 7th of February following, 
at which time he adds to his information to the secretary the further 
proceedings of the people in preparing for resistance to the oppressive 
measures, especially in the enforcement of the stamp act : ' ' On the 
2nd inst. I had the pleasure to hear of the arrival of his Majesty's ship 
'Speedwell,' Captain Fanshawe, who had promised me when he went 



154 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

from hence, after bringing the papers, that he would return again 
soon. I assure your Excellency he came at a very reasonable time, as 
by his taking the papers on board the King's ship I was enabled to 
order up the Officers and Rangers to town, and then mustered 71 
Officers and men. Captain Fanshawe brought his ship up and several 
gentlemen and others also promised to join me if the Villains should 
come into town. For notwithstanding I had been able to dispose of a 
, great number, yet two hundred and forty of them were within 3 miles, 
and, being much exasperated against me for sending the papers away, 
agreed to come to me and demand that I would order the papers to be 
delivered up to them, and if I did not, they were to shoot me. This 
Sir, was avowedly declared by some of them ; and on Thursday, the -Ith 
instant, they actually had the insolence to appear at the Town Common 
with their arms and colours, but finding I had near 100 men I could 
command and depend upon, and being told that many would join me 
as volunteers, after staying about 3 liours I was informed they differed 
among themselves and began to disperse, and I have now the great 
satisfaction to acquaint your Excellency that they are all dispersed: 
but Sir, some of them, declared they were offered the assistance of 
from 4 to 500 men from Carolina, and if they came, would be ready 
to return again. If none come from thence I hope to remain quiet. 
I shall see some of the most dispassionate people and of the most con- 
siderable property amongst them, and endeavour to restore the peace 
of the Province, but even if I succeed in this so far as to obtain prom- 
ises of submission, yet Sir, some troops will nevertheless be absolutely 
necessary, for I fear I can not have entire confidence in the peopli! 
for some time, and your Excellency sees the insults his Majesty's author- 
ity has received, and which I am still liable to. Possibly your Excel- 
lency may be surprised that I have not mentioned calling out the 
militia, but I have too much reason to think I should have armed more 
against me than for me, and that volunteers were the onlj^ people I 
could have any confidence in or dependence upon." 

Governor Wright's Dilemma 

The truth as to Governor Wright's fears and position as the repre- 
sentative of the crown in this dilemma is but feebly expressed in the 
foregoing. He did not know just how many of the inhabitants were 
with him in his efforts to support the measure which had so highly 
excited the people in the American colonies and which he knew was 
opposed even at home by some of the leaders of public opinion there. 
The stand of those men in behalf of the colonies had weight, and the 
repeal of the act was largely due to their influence. The Georgians had a 
powerful example in tlie action of their South Carolina neighbors who 
had been represented in the American congress in New York by such 
men as Lynch and Rutledge and who on their return influenced the 
assembly of their colony to adopt resolutions in accord with the spirit of 
that congress. Indeed, it is possible that Wright may himself have had 
some idea of the injustice of the legislation aimed against the people. 

The stiunp act which brought the English colonies to that stand 
where they felt that it was a long step in the direction of their treatment 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 155 

as slaves was uplield by James Wright, and he did all in his power to 
reconcile the people of Georgia to its provisions. He did not succeed, 
although he had, as in all other measures that were objectionable to the 
sturdy patriots, his supporters. Resistance was determined upon by his 
opponents, and even by some of his warmest friends, like the good and 
pious James Habersham, who expressed iiimseli in this way : "The annual 
tax raised here for the support of our internal policy is full as much 
as the inhabitants can bear; and suppose the stamps produce only one- 
eighth of what they would in South Carolina, it would amount to as 
much in one year as our tax laws will raise in three ; and perhaps we 
have not five thousand pounds in gold and silver come into the Province 
in five years, though the act requires it in one. If this is really the case, 
as I believe it is, how must every inhabitant shudder at the thought of 
the act taking place, which, according to my present apprehension, must 
inevitably ruin them." 

It was unfortunate for the people of Georgia that Governor Wright's 
influence had prevented the people from being represented at the New 
York congress. The South Carolina Gazette of February 11, 1765, in 
commenting on his success in that matter called hnn a "parricide," said 
the people had been "deluded and bullied out of their rights and priv- 
ileges," and added that "like Esau of old, they had sold their birthright 
for a mess of pottage. ' ' 

Stamps were used in Georgia only to a limited extent, and in cases 
of emergency as in the clearing of a numl)er of vessels which had touched 
at Savannah and whose commanders were afraid to depart without them. 
This also brought a howl from South Carolina, where Georgia was up- 
braided as an "infamous colony," the declaration made that "every 
vessel trading there should be burnt" and that those persons who chose 
to transact business with her people "should be put to death," and it 
actually happened that two vessels were destroyed. 

In spite of the efforts of Governor Wright to make the people see 
their duty as he put it before them, the "Libei-fy people" did things 
which kept the town in an excited condition as long as the act was in 
operation. On the 2d of January, he was informed that about two 
hundred of them had collected with the determination to break open 
the store and destroy the stamped paper, and this caused him to make 
arrangement to prevent the seizure. IMr. Angus, the distributor of the 
stamps, arrived on the 3d, and he had to be protected and guarded to 
the governor's house where he remained two weeks, after which, on 
account of the continued excitement, he was sent into the country. At 
one time six hundred men consorted together and made known to Wright 
that if he issued any more stamps until it was known what the king 
would do in reply to the protests made they would surround his house, 
secure the papers and destroy them, and proceed to other acts of violence, 
and he had the papers sent to Fort George, on Cockspur island, under 
a guard of a captain, two subalterns and fifty men. 

Repeal of the Stamp Act Acknowledged 

With the news of the repeal of the stamp act Governor Wright 
called the general assembly together and addressed both houses on the 



156 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

16th of July, 1766, as follows: "I think myself happy that I have it in 
my power to congratulate you on this Province having no injuries or 
damages, either of a public or private nature, with respect to property 
to compensate, and that you, Gentlemen of the Assembly, have no votes 
or resolutions injurious to the honor of his Majesty's government, or 
tending to destroy the legal or constitutional dependency of the Colonies 
on the Imperial Crown and Parliament of Great Britain to reconsider." 
He furnished the assembly with a copy of the act repealing the stamp 
act and other documents in relation to the connection of the colonies 
with England, referring to them in this language : ' ' When you consider 
the paper I shall now lay before you, I am persuaded your hearts must 
be tilled with the highest veneration and filial gratitude, with a most 
ardent zeal to declare and express your grateful feelings and acknowledg- 
ments, and to make a dutiful and proper return, and show a cheerful 
obedience to the laws and legislative authority of Great Britain." 

Whether the response of the representatives met with his entire ap- 
proval we are not informed, but he seems to have left on record nothing 
to indicate that he was in any way dissatisfied with their action, which 
he anxiously waited for, and which was duly submitted in this language : 
"We, his Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, beg leave to return 
your Excellency our sincere thanks for your affectionate speech. Hope- 
ful as we were that no occasion would have offered of calling us together 
till the usual season of our meeting, yet it is with the highest pleasure 
and satisfaction, and with hearts overflowing with filial affectioii and 
gratitude to our most gracious Sovereign, that Ave embrace the opportu- 
nity now presented to us of expressing our most dutiful acknowledgments 
to the best of Kings for his paternal and princely attention and regard 
manifested to his faithful subjects in these remote parts of his dominions 
in graciously condescending to lend his royal ear to their supplications 
and removing from them those evils they lamented. Nor can we suf- 
ficiently venerate and admire the magnanimity and justice of the British 
Parliament in so speedily redressing the grievances by them com- 
plained of. 

"We can not indeed felicitate ourselves in that we have no injuines 
or damages either of a public or a private nature nor any votes or reso- 
lutions derogatory to the honor of his Majesty's govei"nment or tending 
to destroy the true constitutional dependency of the Colonies on the 
Imperial Crown and Parliament of Great Britain to reconsider. 

"We will immediately proceed to take into our most serious consider- 
ation the papers laid before us by yoiir Excellency, and we shall upon all 
occasions be ready to testify our loyalty to our King and firm attach- 
ment to our Mother Country. ' ' 

The address to the governor just quoted was followed by one to the 
king which is also here reproduced: "We your Majesty's loyal subjects, 
the Council and Commons of your Majesty's Province of Georgia in 
General Assembly met, beg leave to approach your Royal person A^ath 
hearts full of the most dutiful affection and gratitude. Influenced by 
principle, and animated by your jNIajesty's exemplary justice and pater- 
nal care in redressing the grievances of your faithful subjects in these 
remote parts of your wide extended Empire, with the deepest sense of 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 157 

your Majesty's royal clemency and goodness, we humbly offer to your 
most sacred Majesty our sincere thanks for the repeal of the late Act of 
the British Parliament commonly called the American Stamp Act. Nor 
can we sufficiently admire the magnanimity and justice displayed by the 
British Parliament on this occasion. Permit us, dread Sire, while we 
endeavor to express our gratitude to the best of Kings for affording us 
so speedy and necessary relief, to assure yovxr Majesty that we shall, upon 
all occasions, strive to evince our loyalty and firm attachment to your 
Majesty's sacred person and government, being truly sensible of the ad- 
vantages derived to us from the protection of our Mother Country ; and 
that it is and ever will be our honor, happiness, and true interest to re- 
main connected with and dependent on the Imperial Crown and Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain upon the solid basis of the British Constitution. 
That your Majesty's Illustrious House may continue to reign over a free, 
loyal, and grateful people to the latest posterity is, most gracious Sov- 
ereign, our constant prayer, unfeigned wish, and our most sanguine hope. 

"By order of the Upper House, 

"James Habersham, President. 

"By order of the Commons House of Assembly, 

"A. Wylly, Speaker." 

Franklin, Georgia's British Agent 

In April, 1768, Benjamin Franklin was appointed agent of the Prov- 
ince of Georgia "to represent, solicit, and transact its affairs in Great 
Britain," and to that appointment Governor Wright did not withhold 
his assent. Indeed Franklin acted in the same capacity for other prov- 
inces, and he had replied to Grenville when the latter asked, "Do you 
think the people of America would submit to pay the Stamp Duty if it 
was modified ? ' ' in these words : ' ' No, never. They will never submit to 
it." A joint committee, with James Habersham, Noble Jones, James 
Edward Powell, Lewis Johnson and Clement Martin representing the 
council and John MuUryne, John Smith, Noble Wymberley Jones, John 
Milledge, John Simpson, Archibald Bulloch, William Ewen and Joseph 
Gibbons representing the Commons House of Assembly, was charged with 
the duty of corresponding with him, "and give him such orders and in- 
structions from time to time as they should judge to be for the best 
service of this province." 

Renewed Protests Against British Acts 

The determination of parliament to enforce the oppressive acts despite 
the protests of the Americans caused the provinces to take a decided 
stand and to resolve not to carry on commercial transactions with England 
unless an acknowledgment of their rights was admitted. It was proposed 
that the colonies import no goods which could be produced or made within 
their own borders, and to discard the use of all luxuries. Boston mer- 
chants first made the suggestion, but the Virginia Assembly first took 
the firm stand by resolving to carry into effect the suggestion already 
made, and Georgia naturally fell in line with the others. Accordingly, 



158 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

on the 16th of September, 1769, the merchants of Savannah met at the 
home of Mr. Alexander Creighton, and resolved that the parliamentary 
acts which the northern colonies had eomjilained of ''were unconstitu- 
tional, and that the taxes therein contemplated were inconsistent with 
the ability of the American Provinces, ' ' and it was also resolved ' ' That 
any person or persons whatsoever importing any of the articles subject 
to such duties, after having it in their power to prevent it, ought not 
only to be treated with contempt, but deemed enemies to their country; 
it being a circumstance that need only be mentioned to any person in- 
spired with the least sense of liberty, that it may be detested and ab- 
horred." 

This action was closely followed by the adoption at a meeting of the 
citizens, with the Hon. Jonathan Bryan presiding, of the following 
resolutions : 

"We, inhabitants of Georgia, finding ourselves reduced to the great- 
est distress and most abject condition by the operation of several acts of 
the British Legislature by means whereof our property is arbitraril.y 
wrested from us contrary to the true spirit of our Constitution and the 
repeatedly confirmed birthright of every Briton, under all these oppres- 
sions finding that the most dutiful and loyal petitions from the Colonies 
for redress of these grievances have not answered the salutary purpose 
we intended, and being destitute of all hope of relief from our multi- 
plied and increasing distresses but by our industry, frugality, and econ- 
omy, are firmly resolved never to be in the least accessory to the loss of 
any privilege we are entitled to : 

"Therefore, we, whose names are hereunto subscribed, do solemnly 
agree and promise to and with each other that until the said acts are re- 
pealed, we will most faithfully abide by, adhere, to, and fulfill the fol- 
lowing resolutions. 

"I. That we will encourage and promote American manufactures, 
and of this Province in particular. 

"II. That as the raising of Sheep for the benefit of wool will be of 
the utmost utility, we do therefore engage not to kill or sell any lambs 
that shall be yeaned, before the 1st of May in every year, to any butcher 
or other person who, we may have reason to think, intends to kill the same. 

"III. That we will promote the raising of cotton and flax, and en- 
courage spinning and weaving. 

"IV. That we will upon no pretense, either upon our own account 
or on commission, import into this Province any of the manufactures of 
Great Britain, or European or East India goods, other than may be 
shipped in consequence of former orders, except only cloth, not exceeding 
Is 4d pr yard, osnabrigs, canvass, coi'dage, drugs, and hardware of all 
sorts, paper not exceeding 10s pr ream, fire arms, gunpowder, shot, lead, 
flints, salt, saltpetre, coals, printed books and pamphlets, white and 
striped flannels, not above 9s pr yard, white linen not above Is 8d pr 
yard, woollen and thread hose not exceeding 24s pr doz : striped cotton 
not exceeding Is 4d pr yard, cheeks not above Is 3d per yarcf, felt hats 
not above 48s per doz : bolting cloths, mill and grind stones, cotton and 
wool cards, and wire, thread not above 8s pr lb., shoes not above 48s per 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 159 

doz: as also the following goods necessary for the Indian Trade, viz. 
strouds, vermilion, beads, looking glasses, and paint. And exclusive of 
these articles we do solemnly promise and declare that we will immedi- 
ately countermand all orders to our correspondents in Great Britain for 
shipping any goods, wares, and merchandize other than hereinbefore 
excepted, and will sell and dispose of the goods' we now or hereafter 
may have at the same rates and prices as before. 

"V. That we will neither purchase nor give mourning at funerals. 

"VI. That from and after the 1st June 1770 we will not import, 
buy, or sell, any negroes that shall be brought into this Province from 
Africa, nor after the 1st of January next any negroes from the West 
Indies or any other place excepting from Africa aforesaid. And if any 
goods or negroes be sent to us contrary to our agreement in this subscrip- 
tion, such goods shall be reshipped or stored, and such negroes reshipped 
from this Province and not by any means offered for sale therein. 

"VII. That we will not import on our own account or on commission, 
or purchase from any masters of vessels, transient persons, or non-sub- 
scribers, any wines after the 1st March next. 

"VIII. That we will not purchase any negroes imported, or any 
goods, wares, or merchandize, from any resident of this Province, or 
transient person, that shall refuse or neglect to sign this agreement 
within 5 weeks from the date thereof, except it appear he shall have been 
unavoidably prevented from so doing. And every person signing and 
not strictly adhering to the same according to the true intent and mean- 
ing thereof, and also to every non-subscriber, shall be looked upon as no 
friend to his country." 

Be it known that the chairman of the meeting at which those resolu- 
tions were adopted was at the same time a member of the royal council 
of Georgia. He was a man "sans peur et sans reproche," and his fear- 
less conduct on that occasion was thoroughly in keeping with his pre- 
vious recoi'd and his subse(iuent stalwart action throughout a life of 
blameless conduct and strict integrity. That man, as already stated, 
was Jonathan Bryan. The fact that one of the official family of a royal 
province had taken such a decided action in opposition to the will of 
his majesty was promptly conveyed to the king who forthwith instructed 
the Earl of Hillsborough that Mr. Bryan "should be immediately sus- 
pended from his seat at the Council Board, and removed from any office 
he might hold in Georgia," and that order was carried out as stated in 
a letter from Wright to the Earl of Hillsborough .written at Savannah 
and dated March 1, 1770. The king's wish in the matter was communi- 
cated to the former by the latter in a letter from Whitehall, of December 
9, 1769. 

There were disagreements about this time between the council and the 
lower house of assembly by reason of the fact that the members of the 
house were chosen by the people and a majority of them shared the feel- 
ing of their constituents in regard to the offensive acts of parliament 
while the council members were appointed by the crown and naturally 
felt bound to support the measures proposed for the maintenance of the 
royal government. 



160 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

House Resents Wright 's Interference 

When the assembly convened in 1770, the lower house chose Dr. 
Noble Wymberley Jones as speaker; but, knowing that the choice was 
made because of the speaker's complete sympathy with the patriot cause, 
Governor Wright declined to recognize him, and ordered the election of 
another man ; but the house resented that interference with their right 
to elect, adopted resolutions commendatory of Dr. Jones, and asserted 
"that the sense and approbation this House entertain of his conduct can 
never be lessened by any slight cast upon him in opposition to the unani- 
mous voice of the Commons House of Assembly in particular and the 
Province in general," and went farther by declaring "that this rejection 
by the Governor of a Speaker, unanimousl.y elected, was a high breach of 
the privileges of the House, and tended to subvert the most valuable rights 
and liberties of the people and their representatives." Taking excep- 
tion to this sharp reproof of the governor, the council characterized the 
proceeding of the house as "a most indecent and insolent denial of his 
Majesty's authority" and the governor, availing himself of the only 
method of relief in his power, on the 22d of February, 1770, ordered a 
dissolution of the assembly. 

Governor Wright, finding it necessary, as he put it, to visit England 
in the interest of his private affairs, applied, on the 3d of July, 1769, 
for a leave of absence to begin some time in the spring of 1770. and made 
this suggestion in his letter to the Earl of Hillsborough : ' ' Mr. Haber- 
sham, the Secretary of the Province, who is the President, or eldest 
Councillor, is a gentleman of property, no Liberty Boy, but a firm friend 
to the Government, and a very worthy, honest man. He has been in the 
Province from nearly its first settling, and must therefore know the 
people, and I think him of sufficient ability to fill up a short vacancy, 
especially when things are in an orderly way." 

Looking back to the condition of affairs in the English provinces as 
existed at that time, and considering the fact that they were in the very 
midst of that critical period when the clouds were fast gathering for the 
storm which was destined to break and deluge the country in a seven 
years ' war full of devastation and of horrors, it seems strange that James 
Wright should have chosen just that time to ask such a favor and stranger 
still that the request should have been so readily granted. Hillsborough, 
in the letter enclosing the royal permission to Wright, Avrote : " I hope 
that Mr. Habersham's conduct in the administration of Government 
during yoxir absence will ji;stify the favorable report you made of him, 
and that it will not be found necessary to send out a Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. " Wright found it necessary to delay his departure iintil the 
10th of July, 1771, before he considered it safe to leave, and Mr. Haber- 
sham took the oaths of office three days after, with the rank of "Presi- 
dent and Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty's Province of Georgia, 
Chancellor, Vice-Admiral, and Ordinary of the same for the time being." 
It is doubtful whether a better substitute could have been found, as 
"Mr. Habersham's conduct in the administration of Government" fully 
"justified the favorable report made of him." and his majesty's inter- 
ests were as well protected as James Wright himself could have done. 



CHAPTER XVI 

PROGRESS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE 

Council and House Differ — Governor Wright Dissolves Assembly — 
The State of the Province (1773) — The Forts — Savannah Puts 
Up a Liberty Tree. June 2, 1775 — Governor Wright Forbids Pub- 
lic Meeting — Meeting Held — The "Liberty Boys" — Dissent to 
Resolutions of August 10, 1774 — "Liberty Boys" Worry Royal 
CouNcii.. — Steps Leading to Georgia's Independence. 

In the absence of the governor the affairs of the province were in 
about the same state of excitement as they had been for several years 
before his departure. The council, led by Mr. Habersham who was true 
to the king, had difficulty in keeping down the spirit of resistance as 
exhibited by the Liberty Boys who in a large measure influenced the pro- 
ceedings in the house of assembly. 

Council and House Differ 

When the eighth general assembly met in April, 1772, the commons 
house elected Dr. Noble Wymberley Jones as speaker, and as soon as 
Governor Habersham received oflicial information thereof he returned 
to that body a message in which he thus addressed the members: "I 
have his Majesty's commands to put a negative on the Speaker now 
elected by the Commons House, which I accordingly do ; and I desire that 
you inform the House that I direct them to proceed to a new choice 
of a Speaker." After waiting a while he received through Messrs. 
Archibald Bulloch and Samuel Farley a message informing him that 
the Commons House ' ' had proceeded to a second choice of a Speaker and 
had re-elected Nol)le Wymberley Jones, Esq., and desired to know when 
his Honor would please that the House should attend him to present 
their Speaker." Again the governor expressed his disapproval of the 
choice, and required the members "to proceed to the selection of some 
other person as Speaker. ' ' It was not until the next afternoon that Mr. 
Habersham was informed by Messrs. William Le Conte and Samuel 
Farley that the house had made choice of Archibald Bulloch as Speaker, 
and he was promptly confirmed. He then delivered an address in which 
he said: "His Majesty having been pleased to grant his Excellency 
Governor Wright leave of absence to go to Great Britain, the govern- 

Vol. I— 1 1 

161 



162 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

ment of this Province, on his Excellency's departure, devolved upon 
me. * * * My long residence in this Province, and the strong attach- 
ment I must have for its welfare from motives obvious to you must 
make it extremely grateful to me to be in the least instrumental in 
furthering its growing prosperity, in which I am persuaded I shall have 
the candid advice and assistance of you gentlemen, and of every friend 
of this Country." To that address the house made a suitable response, 
and everything seemed to point to a harmonious relation between the 
executive and legislative branches of the government. But Mr. Haber- 
sham took it into his head that an inspection of the journal of the house 
might disclose facts with which he had not been made acquainted, and 
discovered that Mr. Jones had been elected speaker for the third time 
and that the choice of Mr. Bulloch had only been made upon the refusal 
of Mr. Jones to accept; whereupon he sent in this message: "Mr. 
Speaker, and Gentlemen of the Assembly : I am extremely sorry to find 
by your Journals that some very exceptionable minutes are entered. 
I particularly mean your third choice of Noble Wymberley Jones, Esq., 
as your Speaker, upon whom I had, agreeable to his Majestj^'s express 
instructions, twice put a negative, and that your choice of your present 
Speaker was only in consequence of his declining the chair. If this min- 
ute is to stand upon your Journals I have no choice left but to proceed 
to an immediate dissolution. I desire therefore that you will come 
to a present and speedy determination to recede from it. If you do, I 
shall, with the most imfeigned satisfaction, proceed to business which 
you cannot but be sensible will be of the highest advantage to the Prov- 
ince. I shall expect your immediate answer to this message that my 
conduct may be regulated by it ; and shall for that purpose remain in the 
Council Chamber." 

The house did not take long to deliberate, but very promptly re- 
plied : "May it please your Honour : We his Majesty's most dutiful and 
loyal subjects, the Commions of Georgia in General Assembly met, are 
very unhappy to find by your message to us of this day that any Minutes 
entered on our Journals should be construed by your Honour in a 
manner so very diiferent from the true intent and design of this House. 
Conscious we are, Sir, that our third choice of Noble Wymberley Jones, 
Esq., as our Speaker was not in the least meant as disrespectful to his 
Majesty, or to you his representative, nor thereby did we mean to in- 
fringe on the just prerogative of the Crown. We have seriously recon- 
sidered that particular minute which seems to have given your Honour 
so much offence, and cannot perceive wherein it is contrary to the strict 
mode of Parliamentary proceeding, or repugnant to anything com- 
municated to us by your Honour. We were hopeful that no further 
impediment would have arisen to retard the urgent business of the 
public, and still flatter ourselves that we may be permitted to^ do that 
justice to our constituents which they have a right to expect irom us; 
and we sincerely assure your Honour that it is our hearty wish and 
desire to finish the business by you reconnnended to us with all har- 
mony and dispatch. 

Archibald Bulloch, Speaker." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 163 

Governor Wright Dissolves Assembly 

That was equivalent to a refusal on the part of the house to ex- 
punge from the minutes the objectionable language, and Mr. Haber- 
sham carried out his threat by dissolving the assembly. The effect of 
this action was injurious to the progress of Georgia. The assembly 
was charged with the duty of passing a tax act, and there was little or 
no money in the treasury, besides there were other matters of importance 
recpiiring the prompt attention of the legislature. On the 30th of the 
month (April, 1772), Mr. Habersham wrote to the Earl of Hillsborough, 
stating the facts, and commenting on the important measures which 
that assembly should have adopted. He was severe in his language con- 
cerning Dr. Jones whom he charged, with the aid of his friends, with 
"opposing the public business" and that it was all through a "spurious 
pretense of Liberty and Privilege." He further said in regard to the 
one whom he considered the most guilty of them all "It is very painful 
to me to say or even to intimate a disrespectful word of any one: and 
every person who knows me will acknowledge that it is contrary to vny 
disposition to dip my pen in gall, but I cannot help considering Mr 
Jones' .conduct for some time past in opposing Public Business as very 
ungrateful and unworthy a good man, as his family have reaped more 
advantages from Government than any I know in this Province. He 
was several years first Lieutenant and Surgeon of a Company of Rangers 
paid by the Crown, and in these capacities met with great indulgence. 
His father is the King's Treasurer and, if I am not mistaken, reaps 
very considerable emoluments from it." 

Governor Wright's leave of absence expired early in 1773, and he 
returned to Georgia about the middle of February. That his services 
were acceptable to the crown he was fully assured by his being compli- 
mented with a baronetcy on the 8th of December, 1772," just before his 
departure from England. His first public duties on his return were 
jierformed in the settlement of some troubles with the Indians, and that 
matter was finally adjusted at a congress of the Upper and Lower Creeks, 
represented by their head men and kings, with Governor Wright and 
his council, in Savannah, on the 20th of October, 1774. 

The State of the Province (1773) 

Towards the close of the year 1773, Governor Wright was required 
to report to the home government upon the state of the province, and 
that report was in the form of replies to a number of inquiries which 
embraced every part of the territory as well as every department of the 
government of the same. In forwarding that report to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, he states, in the letter accompanying it, dated at Savannah, 
December 20: "I have now the honor to transmit your Lordship my 
report in answer to the several queries relative to the state of this 
Province, in which I have not attempted a pompous description or ac- 
count of the Country, etc., but confined myself to the more substantial 
and material facts which, from the best of ray knowledge and judgment 
I have truly stated, and hope the same will prove agreeable to his 



134 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Majesty's royal intention, and a satisfactory account of things in the 
Province." From that report we make the following extracts as 
bearing upon the business transacted in the town of Savannah and the 
standing she held from a commercial standpoint : 

' ' There is at present no other Port in this Province but Savannah and 
Sunbury, the situation of which and depth of water I have mentioned 
in my answer next preceding. * * * Since the surrender of the 
Charter by the Trustees the Constitution of this Government is estab- 
lished by and depends upon his Majesty's commission and instructions 
to his Governor, by which he, with the concurrence of the Council and 
the House of Assembly (to consist of a certain number to be elected by 
the freeholders as their representatives) or the major part of them is 
empowered to make laws, statutes and ordinances for the public peace, 
welfai-e, and good government of the Province and the inhabitants 
thereof, which laws, etc., are not to be repugnant but as near as may 
be agreeable to the laws and statutes of Great Britain. And the Gov- 
ernor as his Majesty's representative, and the other branches of the 
Legislature are presumed to be an epitome of the Parliamentary Con- 
stitution of Great Britain. And here I must beg leave to observe that 
the right of the Council to sit as an Upper House being now denied in 
the neighboring Province, much will depend on his JMajesty's determina- 
tion on that matter, and, if it be against that right, I am very appre- 
hensive that disagreeable consequences may attend it. 

' ' There is a Court of Chancery and a Court of General and Common 
Pleas, also a Court of Sessions, or Oyer and Terminer, and general 
gaol delivery, the rules and method of proceeding in all which are as 
near as may be agreeable to those in use and practice in his ^Majesty's 
several Courts in Great Britain. * * * The trade of this Province 
is principally with Great Britain from whence we are supplied with 
linens and woolens of all sorts, ironware of all sorts, hats, shoes, stock- 
ings and all sorts of apparel, tea, paper, paints, and a great variety of 
other articles ; and altho ' the negroes are brought here immediately from 
Africa, yet the returns in payment for them are made to Great Britain, 
so that they may also be deemed as a part of our trade with Great 
Britain, to which place we export deer skins, rice, indigo, naval stores 
and sundry other articles. The anniial amount of our imports from Great 
Britain is computed at £76,322 on an average for three years past 
besides the negroes imported which in the last year amounted to twenty 
thousand pounds, and our exports to Great Britain only in the year 1772 
amounted to £68,688.10.2 sterling; and besides this we are supplied with 
rum and sugar from the West Indies, and also with rum, flour and bis- 
cuit and other provisions, etc., from the Northern Colonies. To the 
West Indies we send rice, corn, pease, lumber, shingles, cattle, horses, 
and live stock; also barreled beef and pork. But the Northern trade is 
an injurious trade, as they take of Init little of our produce, and drain 
us of every trifle of gold and silver that is brought here, by giving a 
price for guineas, moidores, Johannes's pistoles, and dollars far above 
their real and intrinsic value, so that we can never keep any amongst 
us. There is belonging to this province, that is owned and part owned 
here, five ships, one snow, seven brigantines, thirteen sloops and schooners, 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 165 

and ten coasting vessels, in all to the amount of nineteen hundred and 
ninety tons, and trading boats that go up our rivers and to which may 
belong about two hundred and twelve seafaring men. And we have 
entered and cleared at the Custom House in the Port of Savannah for 
the last year one hundred and sixty-one sail of vessels of different sorts, 
and at Sunbury fifty-six, in the whole two hundred and seventeen, the 
tonnage of which is computed at 12,124 tons, and in all which vessels 
there may be employed seventeen hundred seafaring men. In the year 
1761 we only entered and cleared in the whole Province forty-five ves- 
sels, the whole tonnage of which amounted only to 1,604 tons, from 
which the increase of the trade and produce of this Province since that 
time is most evident. * * * The methods are by taking care that the 
Custom House officers do their duty, that the master of every vessel 
immediately on his arrival waits on the Governor with his manifesto, 
and then goes directly to the Custom House, when the officers send a 
waiter on board who stays till the ship is unloaded and in general the 
laws of trade and navigation are as duly and regularly attended to and 
observed as it is possible to do. This is the method observed at the 
Port of Savannah, and at Sunliury the Captain goes immediately to 
the collector who observes the same method as at Savannah, and, upon 
the whole, I believe there is very little contraband trade or smuggling 
carried on here ; there may be some, but I believe of no great conse- 
quence, and as the Province and people increase illicit trade may also, 
and they have great opportunity, as the ports are not immediately on 
the sea coast and there are many rivers and inlets into which vessels 
may run and land goods before they come in sight of the towns. The 
Custom House officers at Savannah have complained to me that the 
Commissioners of the Customs will not allow them a boat and hands, 
and that if they were to hear of any illicit trade or landing of goods 
at any inlet, or in any creek, etc., before they could get a boat and hands, 
it would be too late to detect and seize them. Wherefore I should sup- 
pose such trade, if attempted, might be more effectually prevented if a 
Custom House boat was allowed. And as the officers have returned 
me what they call a Political Report or Estimate of Loss to the Revenue 
by illicit trade, I think it my duty to transmit it, altho' I look upon the 
same to be chimerical and very erroneous. * * * The staple com- 
modities are rice, indigo, deer skins, raw silk, pitch, tar, turpentine, 
beef, pork, Indian corn, pease, tobacco, staves, shingles, lumber of all 
sorts, and we have a great deal of fine live oak for ship-building, and 
hemp will grow very well, but little is planted as yet. And besides 
these, cattle, horses, and live stock is exported to the West Indies. And 
also bees' wax, beaver skins, etc., etc. The amount of the whole ex- 
ports annually for five years past on an average is £101,240 sterling. 
* * * In the year 1761 the whole number of white inhabitants 
amounted to no more than six thousand one hundred. The increase 
therefore since that time is eleven thousand nine hundred. The reasons 
of this increase are principally the great inducement people have to 
come and settle in a Province where they could get fresh and good 
lands at a moderate price and plenty of good range for cattle, horses, 
and hogs, and where they will not be so much pent up and confined as 



166 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

in thick settled countries. * * * The number of ]\Iilitia, say effpptivp 
white men from sixteen to sixty years of age, according to the spvpi-al 
returns made to me lately by the officers amount to two thousand eiarht 
hundred and twenty-eight in the whole Province, and the officers arpi 
all commissioned by the Governor, and obliged by the law of the Prov- 
ince to furnish and provide themselves with arms and ammunition and 
accoutrements of every kind, and to muster and exercise six times in the 
year, and as much oftener as the Governor may order and direct. And 
the Governor is empowered to order them out as occasion may require, 
to repel all enemies, invasions, insurrections, rebellions, etc." 

The Forts 

Wright then gave an account of the forts in the province, beginning 
with "Fort George on Cockspur Island, opposite to Tybee Island, being 
at the entrance of the River Savannah and a very necessary post as it 
is the key to our port and may command all vessels that come in or 
go out ; enforce due obedience to the laws of trade and our commercial 
laws, and, in case of war, prevent enemies' privateers from cutting out 
and carrying off' our shipping or from coming up the river to plunder, 
etc.. This fort was built in the year 1762, being mud walls faced with 
palmetto trees, but is now almost in ruins, for, as it stands on a point 
of land exposed to the easterly winds from the sea, it is very liable to 
suffer by the sea beating and washing against it when there is strong 
easterly winds. On the inside is a Caponiere which serves for officers' 
apartments, and in lieu of barracks ; it used to be garrisoned by an 
officer and ten men, but now it's almost in ruins. There is only an 
officer and three men just to make signals, etc. I look upon this fort, 
or having a proper fort at this place to be of the utmost consequence, 
and shall propose building a new fort of tabby, but as our property is 
yet small and our taxes pretty high, I doubt much whether the Province 
can afford to go to the expense of building a proper fort. I am well 
informed that in South Carolina the Capt. of Fort Johnson (which is 
near the entrance of the harbor and answers the same purposes that 
Fort George is intended to do) is paid two hundred pounds sterling per 
annum by his Majesty out of the quit rents, and if his Majesty would be 
graciously pleased to permit that to be done here, it would be a great 
encouragement and inducement to the Legislature to raise and grant 
money for building a new fort. 

"Fort Halifax in the town of Savannah, built in the years 1759 and 
1760, made of plank fill'd in with earth, and four Caponiers, one at 
each corner; this is totally down, except two of the Caponiers, and in- 
deed would be of little use." 

The next step in the progress of events leading to a separation of the 
English dependencies from the mother country and causing excitement 
in Georgia was the passage of the Boston Port Bill. When the news 
of that legislation was received in Savannah, the spirit ^\•hich had taken 
possession of the liberty loving people in the matter of the Stamp Act 
was revived, and it was with the deepest concern for the outcome of 
certain proceedings on their part that Sir James Wright wrote to Eng- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 167 

land on the 25th of July, 1774, informing Lord Dartmouth that a public 
meeting was called for the 27th, just two days after, and that he would 
"give a full account of the conduct and proceedings of the Liberty 
People here, as soon as I know for certain what they did. ' ' That letter 
was written on seeing the following notice in the Georgia Gazette of the 
20th of July : 

"The critical situation to which the British Colonies in America 
are likely to be reduced from the arbitrary and alarming imposition of 
the late acts of the British Parliament respecting the town of Boston, 
as well as the acts that at present exist tending to the raising of a pez'- 
petual revenue without the consent of the people or their representatives, 
is considered an object extremely important at this juncture, and par- 
ticularly calculated to deprive the American subjects of their constitu- 
tional rights and liberties as a part of the English Empire. It is there- 
fore requested that all persons within the limits of this Province do at- 
tend in Savannah, on Wednesday the 27th instant, in order that the 
said matters may be taken under consideration and such other constitu 
tional measures pursued as may then appear to be more eligible." 

Some historians have included in the above between the words "do 
attend" and "in Savannah" the words "at the Liberty Pole, at Tondee's 
tavern," but the reference to a liberty pole was evidently not in the 
original notice, as it can be clearly shown there was no such thing in 
Savannah at that time. How those words crept into the account cannot 
be ascertained, and it is not the purpose of this writer to attempt an 
explanation ; but the facts are as follows : 

SavzVNnah Puts up a Liberty Tree June 2, 1775 

Sir James Wright, in one of his letters to Lord Dartmouth, dated the 
17th of June, 1775, said "It gives me much concern to acquaint your 
Lordship that on Thursday, the 13th instant, the Liberty Folks have 
assembled in the Town of Sav. and put up a Liberty Tree and a Flagg, 
and in the evening paraded about the Town I am informed to the num- 
ber of 300, some say 400." That Governor Wright made an error of 
eight days can easily be proved. The liberty pole was erected on Mon- 
day, the 5th, as stated in the following account of all that happened 
at that time given in the Georgia Gazette of Wednesday, June 7, 1775. 

"Last Friday night [June 2] the cannon on the battery at the east 
end of this town, consisting of 21 pieces, were spiked up and thrown down 
to the bottom of the bluff by persons unknown. Some of the inhabitants, 
assisted by the Commanders of several vessels and their people, had 
them brought up again, and some of them being drilled were fired as 
customary on Sunday (being the Birth-Day of our most gracious Sov- 
ereign GEORGE the Third) at one o'clock, when his Excellency the 
Governor, such of the members of his Majesty's Honourable Council as 
were in town, and a number of other gentlemen, repaired to the flag 
staff to drink his Majesty's health. On Monday his Excellency gave a 
genteel entertainment at the Court-House to the members of the Council 
and Assembly, the Public Officers, Officers of the Militia, and several 
other Gentlemen, and in the evening there were illuminations as usual. 



168 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"On Monday last [June 5] a considerable number of the Inhabi- 
tants of this town met, and having erected a Liberty Pole, afterwards 
dined at Tondee's Long Room. They spent the day Avith the utmost 
harmony, and concluded the evening with great decorum. Amongst 
many others the following toasts were drank at dinner, accompanied 
with a discharge of cannon placed under the Liberty Flag, viz. 

' ' The KING. American Liberty. The General Continental Congress. 
Unanimity and Firmness to America. No Taxation without Representa- 
tion. A speedy Reconciliation between Great Britain and America upon 
constitutional principles. The Earl of Chatham. The Protesting Lords. 
Mr. Burke, Governor Johnstone, and the rest of the worthy members of 
the House of Commons who distinguished themselves in favour of 
America. The Lord i\Iayor and Citizens of London. Mr. Hancock. 
Dr. Franklin. IMr. Dickinson. The Sons of Freedom in everv part of the 
globe." 

Let it be remembered that the raising of a liberty pole in Savan- 
nah was in the month of June, 1775. The matter now under discussion, 
namely, the meeting of the inhabitants of the Province to consider the 
effects of the Boston Pert Bill, was in the year 1774 ; but we make this 
digression in order to show the mistake on the part of some writers in 
mentioning a liberty pole in connection with the incident of July 27, 
1774, when the erection of the pole took place nearly a year afterwards. 
Governor Wright was mistaken when, in relating that incident, he 
placed it on Thursday the 13th of June, 1775, the fact being that the 
13th was Tuesday, and he was also mistaken in saying it was on the 13th ; 
as the full account in the Georgia Gazette proves it was on Monday, the 
5th. The notice of the meeting of July 27, 1774. made no reference to 
any particular place in the town where such meeting was to be held, and 
it was with a signature or signatures, as we will now see. It has been 
stated that the advertisement was inserted in the Gazette of the 20th, 
and it is unfortunate that no copy of that issue can be found. It is 
not included in the tiles in possession of the Georgia Historical Society, 
but a thorough search has brought to light a communication of one sign- 
ing himself EUGENIUS, dated August 20, and appearing in the paper 
of September 7, reviewing the facts concerning the meeting of July 27, 
quoting in full said advertisement, saying it appeared in the issue of 
July 20, and that it was an anonymous advertisement. It did not con- 
tain the words "at the Liberty Pole, at Tondee's tavern." but, as already 
shown, it simply "requested that all persons within the limits of this 
Province do attend in Savannah on Wednesday the 27th instant. ' ' It is 
unaccountable therefore, how the words "at the Liberty Pole, at Ton- 
dee's tavern" ever crept into accounts of that meeting, or that the 
statement was ever made that the notice was signed by Noble Jones, 
Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun, and John Walton. An account of 
That meeting in the Gazette of August 3d, shows it was held at the 
Exchange. The liberty pole was. as we now see. erected in June. 1775, 
but the notice we are now considering was an affair of nearly a full 
year previous, and to tliat affair, namely, the consideration of the effects 
of the Boston Port Bill, we will now return. 

In answer to that summons for a meeting on the 27th of July. 1774, 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 169 

a goodly number of inhabitants, we are told, met at the Exchange, but 
some accounts say at the Watch House,* in Savannah, and Mr. John 
Glen was called to the chair. Following the organization of the meeting 
letters and resolutions sent by committees of correspondence in Boston, 
Philadelphia, Annapolis, "Williamsburg, Charlestown, and other places, 
were read and acted on. A large committee was appointed to prepare 
resolutions along the same lines as those passed by the northern colonies 
expressiA'e of the sentiment of the people who considered the measures 
proposed by Great Britain as uncallecl for and unjust. On that com- 
mittee were John Glen, John Smith, Joseph Clay, John Houstoun, 
Noble Wymberley Jones, Lyman Hall, William Young, Edward Telfair, 
Samuel Farley, George Walton, Joseph Habersham, Jonathan Bryan, 
Jonathan Gocliran, George Mcintosh, Sutton Bankes, William Gibbons, 
Benjamin Andrew, John Winn, John Stirk, Archibald Bulloch, James 
Screven, David Zubly, Henry Louis Bour(iuin, Elisha Butler, William 
Baker, Parmenus Way, John Baker, John Mann, John Bennefield, John 
Stacy and John ]\Iorel. In considering the resolutions, it was decided 
that, as persons residing in distant portions of the province who might 
be in sympathy with the meeting but had not time to respond to the 
call could not co-operatt in any action that might be taken, it would be 
wise to postpone action so as to allow such jiersons to be present should 
they so desire, and the meeting therefore was adjourned until the 
10th of August, at which time delegates equal in number to the repre- 
sentatives elected to the general assembly would be recognized, and 
notices were sent promptly throughout all the parishes to that effect. 

Governor Wright Forbids Public Meeting 

Governor Wright, fearing the effect of such a meeting, called a meet- 
ing of his council at which a motion was made to expel Mr. Jonathan 
Bryan from the body, as his name appeared on the committee, but that 
gentleman, according to Hugh IMcCall, "with patriotic indignation, in- 
formed them in a style peculiar to himself for its candour and energy, 
that he would 'save them the trouble,' and handed his resignation to 
the governor." The council, wisely concluding that nothing short of a 
proclamation from the governor would tend toward checking the design 
of the leaders of the opposing party, determined to resort to that method, 
with the hope that it would cause some at least to pause and consider the 
danger involved in the proposed action, and the following paper was 
promulgated : 

"By his Excellency Sir James Wright, Bart., Captain General of 
his Majesty's Province of Georgia, Chancellor, Vice Admiral, and Or- 
dinary of the same : Whereas I have received information that on 
Wednesday the 27th day of July last past, a number of persons, in 
consequence of a printed Bill or Summons issued and dispersed through- 
out the Province by certain Persons unknown, did unlawfully assemble 

* It seems probable that the Exchange and Watch House were names used for 
one place. 



170 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

together at the Watch House in the Town of Savannah under colour 
or pretense of consulting together for the Redress of -Grievances or 
imaginary Grievances, and that the Persons so assembled for the pur- 
poses aforesaid, or some of them are, from and by their own authority, 
by a certain other Hand Bill issued and dispersed throughout the 
Province, and by other methods, endeavoring to prevail on his Llajesty's 
liege subjects to have another meeting on Wednesday the 10th instant 
similar to the former and for the purposes aforesaid, which summonses 
and meetings must tend to raise fears and jealousies in the minds of his 
Majesty's good subjects: 

"And whereas au opinion prevails and has been industriously propa- 
gated that Summonses and Meetings of this nature are constitutional 
and legal: in order therefore that his IMajesty's liege subjects may 
not be misled and imposed upon by artful and designing men I do, by 
this Proclamation, by and with the advice of his Majesty's honorable 
Council, issue this my Proclamation notifying that all such Summonses 
and calls by Private Persons and all Assemblings and .Meetings of the 
People which may tend to raise fears and jealousies with his Llajesty's 
subjects under pretense of consulting together for redress of Public 
Grievances, are unconstitutional, illegal and punishable by Law. 

"And I do hereby require all his Majesty's subjects within this Prov- 
ince to pay due regard to this my Proclamation as they will answer the 
contrary. 

"Given under my hand and the Great Seal of his Majesty's said 
Province, in the Council Chaml^er at Savannah, the 5th day of August 
in the 14th year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George III. in the 
year of our Lord 1774. 

James Wright. By his Excellency's command. Thos. Moodie, Dep : 
Sec: God save the King. " 

Meeting Held 

Whatever effect the proclamation may have had upon some of the 
persons at whom it was aimed may never be known, but a large num- 
ber treated it with no regard whatever, and the meeting, a large one 
we are told, was held this time at Tondee's tavei'n in Savannah, at the 
time appointed, when the following resolutions, prepared by the com- 
mittee, were, as therein stated, without dissent, adopted : 

"Resolved, ncmine contradiccnfe. That his Majesty's subjects in 
America owe the same allegiance, and are entitled to the same rights, 
privileges, and immunities with their fellow subjects in Great Britain. 

"Resolved, nemine eoiitradiceiite, That as protection and allegiance 
are reciprocal, and under the British Constitution correlative terms, his 
Majesty's subjects in America have a clear and indisputable right, as 
well from the general laws of mankind, as from the ancient and estab- 
lished customs of the land so often recognized, to petition the Throne 
upon every emergency. 

"Resolved, nemine coniradicente, That an Act of Parliament lately 
passed for blockading the port and harbour of Boston is contrary to our 
idea of the British Constitution : First, for that it in eft'ect deprives good 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 171 

and lawful men of the use of their property without judgment of their 
peers; and secondly, for it is in the nature of an c.r post facto law, and 
indiscriminately blends as objects of punishment the innocent with the 
guilty ; neither do we conceive the same justified upon a principle of 
necessity, for that numerous instances evince that the laws and executive 
power of Boston have made sufficient provision for the punishment of 
all offenders against persons and property. 

"Resolved, nemine contradicente, That the Act for abolishing the 
Charter of Massachusetts Bay tends to the subversion of American 
rights ; for besides those general liberties, tlie original settlers brought 
over with them as their birthright particular immunities granted by 
such Charter, as an inducement and means of settling the Province : 
and we apprehend the said Charter can not be dissolved but by a volun- 
tary surrender of the people, representatively declared. 

"Resolved, nemine contradicente. That we apprehend the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain hath not, nor ever had, any right to tax his 
Majesty's American sul)jects; for it is evident, beyond contradiction, 
the constitution admits of no taxation without representation ; that they 
are coeval and inseparable; and every demand for the support of gov- 
ernment should be by requisition made to the several houses of repre- 
sentatives. 

"Resolved, nemine c&ntradicentc. That it is contrary to natural jus- 
tice and the established law of the land, to transport any person to Great 
Britain or elsewhere to be tried under indictment for a crime committed 
in any of the colonies, as the party prosecuted would thereby be de- 
prived of the privilege of trial by his peers from the vicinage, the in- 
jured perhaps prevented from legal reparation, and both lose the full 
benefit of their witnesses. 

"Resolved, nemine contradicente. That we concur with our sister 
colonies in every constitutional measure to ol)tain redress of American 
grievances, and will, by every lawful means in our power, maintain 
those inestimable blessings for which we are indebted to God and the 
Constitution of our country — a Constitution founded upon reason and 
justice and the indelible rights of mankind. 

"Resolved, nemine contradicente, That the Committee appointed by 
the meeting of the inhabitants of this Province on Wednesday, the 27th 
of July last, together with the deputies who have appeared here on this 
day from the different parishes, be a general committee to act. and 
that any eleven or more of them shall have full power to correspond 
with the counnittees of the several Provinces upon the Continent ; and 
that copies of these resolutions, as well as all other proceedings, be trans- 
mitted without delay to the Committees of Correspondence in the re- 
spective Provinces. ' ' 

At the same meeting a committee was appointed "to receive sub- 
scriptions for the suffering poor in Boston." The gentlemen composing 
that committee were William Ewen, William Young, Joseph Clay, John 
Houstoun, Noble Wymberley Jones, Edward Telfair, John Smith, Sam- 
uel Farlev, and Andrew Elton Wells. As the result of that action the 



172 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

people of Savannah and of St. John's Parish contributed five hundred 
and seventy-nine barrels of rice to help in feeding those people. * 

The Liberty Boys 

A most interesting study of the transactions of this period, if we 
had time to devote to it, would be the standing of the members of the 
various families prominent in the meetings held to give expression to the 
views of the people on the events transpiring. Such an investigation 
would show that father and son, in a number of instances, were directly 
opposed to each other, and families were otherwise divided. Thus, 
while the Hon. James Habersham was a member of the royal 
council and as long as he lived, loyal to England's cause, his sons were 
prominently connected with the "Liberty Boys," and the same was the 
ease with Col. Noble Jones and his son Noble Wymberley Jones, 
Edward Telfair, from first to last, stood firm in defense of the rights of 
the colonies while his brother William was equally an adherent to the 
interests of the crown. It is a remarkable fact that in the short space 
of one month in the year 1775, three of the governor's council died. 
In a letter to Lord Dartmouth, Avritten October 14, Sir James "Wright 
mentioned the fact that "last week Mr. Clement Martin, one of the 
council, died." On the 10th of July he wrote that "Mr. Habersham is 
gone to Philadelphia for the recovery of his health," and on the 1st 
of November he penned these words: "Ten days ago I had an account 
of the death of Mr. Habersham, one of his ]\Ia.iesty's Council and Sec- 
retary of this Province." And after writing that letter on the 1st of 
November he kept it open, adding a postscript on the 3d, stating that 
' ' last night Mr. Jones, one of the Council and Treasurer of this province, 
died." 

Of course, the loyalists of the colony took steps to counteract the 
influence of the "Sons of Liberty," and to them the spirit manifested in 
the meeting of August 10th, was very distasteful. A card appeared in 
the Gazette of Wednesday, September 7, signed by James Habersham, 
Lachlan McGillivray, Josiah Tattnall, James Hume, Anthony Stokes, 
Edward Langworthy, Henry Yonge, Robert Bolton, Noble Jones, David 

* An interesting fact linked with this incident is the collecting of funds bv the 
citizens of Boston, in January, 186.3, when Savannah was evacuated by the Con- 
federate forces and occupied by Gen. Sherman 's army, and the people of the former 
city contributed of their substance to the relief of the wants of their brethren of 
the latter city, when the committee of Boston's contributors feelingly alluded to this 
matter as follows : ' ' The history of former days is not forgotten. It has been 
deepened by the later trials of our nation. We remember the earlier kindness and 
liberality of the citizens of Savannah towards the ])eople of Boston in the dark 
colonial days. We recall the meeting held there on the 10th day of August. 1774, 
when a committee was appointed ' to receive subscriptions for the suffering jioor of 
Boston;' as to which it is recorded, 'There are large donations of rice for the suf- 
ferers in Boston ; and we had the means of sending it to them, with very little more 
trouble, much more would be collected and sent. Few have subscribed less than ten 
tierces of rice.' The rice was sent to Xew York, and sold there, and the proceeds, 
£ 216 Os. 5d., were remitted to the Boston committee, and by them applied to the 
relief of the poor here. ' ' 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 173 

Montaigut and many others, commenting on those proceedings in this 
manner : 

Dissent to Resolutions op August 10, 1774 

"On the 10th instant, a meeting was held at Savannah, to which 
several districts and parishes, particularly St. Paul's, one of the most 
populous in the province, sent no deputies; and although one Lord and 
another person attended as deputies from the parish of St. George, 
yet upwards of eighty respectable inhabitants of that parish sent down 
their dissent. Nor was the parish of Christ Church represented at this 
meeting, unless the self appointed committee be considered as their 
representatives. The measure left an opening for any to appear at the 
meeting in the character of deputies who brought down an appointment 
as such, without any inquiry whether they were constituted by the ma- 
jority of the parish or not. Several artful falsehoods were thrown out to 
induce the parishes and districts to send deputies. In the parish of 
St. George it was said that the Stamp Act was to be enforced; and in 
the parish of St. Matthew the people were told that nothing was in- 
tended but a dutiful petition to the king, as the father of his people ; 
and to such lengths were matters carried that when some of the in- 
habitants of St. Matthew's parish discovered the deception, and desired 
that they might scratch out their names from the instrument appoint- 
ing deputies, it was refused them. Their adjournment from the 27th 
of July to the 10th of August was general, and therefore it was natural 
to suppose that the meeting would be held at the Vendue house, the same 
place as the iirst ; for whenever it is intended that a future meeting of 
any kind shall be held at a different place than that which is usual, 
notice is always given of the alteration of the place of meeting, other- 
wise most of those who may be desirous of attending would not know 
where to go. In the present case none knew that the second meeting 
would be held at a different place than the first, except those few who 
were in the secret. But the important meeting of the 10th of August, 
in defence of the constitutional rights and liberties of American sub- 
jects was held at a tavern, and it was said twenty-six persons, with the 
door shut for a considerable time, undertook to bind them by resolution ; 
and when several gentlemen attempted to join, the tavern-keeper, who 
stood at the door with a list in his hand, refused them admittance because 
their names were not mentioned in that list. Such was the conduct of 
these pretended advocates for the liberties of America. Several of the 
inhabitants of St. Paul's and St. George's, two of the most populous, 
have transmitted their written dissent to any resolutions, and there were 
gentlemen ready to present their dissent had not the door been shut 
for a considerable time, and admittance refused. And it is conceived 
that shutting the door and refusing admittance to any but resolutioners 
was calculated to prevent the rest of the inhabitants from giving their 
dissent to measures that were intended to operate as the unanimous 
sense of the province. Upon the whole, the world will judge whether 
the meeting of the 10th instant, held by a few persons in a tavern, with 
doors shut, can with any appearance of truth or decency, be called a 



174 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

general meeting of the inhabitants of Georgia. Having now given our 
reasons at large, we enter this our public dissent to the said resolutions 
of the 10th, and all the proceedings had or to be had thereon, and do 
earnestly desire that such resolutions may not be taken as the sense of 
the inhabitants of Georgia." 

It was not long after this (the 24th of August, to be exact) that Gov- 
ernor Wright reported that meeting to the Earl of Dartmouth, and he 
did not treat the matter as so trivial an affair as the dissenters just quoted 
tried to make it appear. He wrote in this strain: "Everything, my 
Lord, was done that could be thought of, to frustrate their attempt, but 
this did not totally prevent it * * * and now again, my Lord, as 
in the time of the Stamp Act, I am to be reflected upon and abused for 
opposing the licentiousness of the people * * * ; in short, my Lord, 
at such times as these if a man has resolution and integrity enough to 
stand forth and attempt to do his duty its like being set up as a mark to 
be shot at and raising the resentment of great numbers against him." 
His allusion to "the resentment of great numbers" does not tally with 
the scoffing charge of the dissenters that the resolutions were the senti- 
ment of "a few persons in a tavern," and in using those words he con- 
tradicted the statement made in the first paragraph of the same letter 
that "it would appear that these resolutions were not the voice of the 
people, but unfairly and insolently made by a junto of a very few only." 

At the meeting of the 10th of August the proposition to send a dele- 
gation to the proposed congress of the American colonies Avas rejected, 
and the Parish of St. John, not satisfied with the decision, held a con- 
vention on the 30th, at which representatives from St. David and St. 
George were present and passed a resolution "that if a majority of the 
Parishes would unite with them, they would send deputies to join the 
General Congress and faithfully and religiously abide by and conform to 
such determination as should be there entered into, and come from thence 
recommended;" but the effort failed, and Georgia had no delegation in 
the first congress of provincial deputies. 

"Liberty Boys" Worry Royal Council 

The young patriots, styled by Governor Wright as "Liberty People," 
"Sons of Liberty" and "Liberty Folks" but whom we now love to 
honor with the appellation of "Lilierty Boys," kept up a continual round 
of well laid schemes to worry and annoy the royal council and their asso- 
ciates ranked among the loyalists, of which the incident of "shutting the 
door and refusing admittance to any but resolutioners" at Tondee's 
tavern was only one example. The purpose of these annoyances was fully 
sustained, but those ardent patriots chafed under the failure of their 
efforts to secure representation in the convention of representatives from 
tlie other twelve American colonies which they so ardently wished to 
enter. 

As a step in that direction some of the leaders assembled at the 
Savannah market, on the 8th of December, 1774, and selected John Glen 
as their chairman, when it was determined that a provincial congress 
sliould be held on the 18th of January following, and the following 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 175 

were chosen to represent Christ Church Parish and Savannah in that 
body ; Joseph Clay, George Houstoun, Ambrose Wright, Thomas Lee, 
Joseph Habersham, Edward Telfair, John Houstoun, Peter Tondee, 
Samuel Farley, William Young, John Smith, Archibald Bulloch, John 
McCluer, Noble Wymberley Jones, and John JMorel. Great things were 
expected of that meeting, and a correspondent of the Georgia Gazette 
said: "It cannot surely at this time admit of a doubt but every Parish 
and District throughout the Province will, as soon as possible, follow so 
laudable an example. Every thinking man must be convinced how much 
the honor, welfare and happiness of us and our posterity depend upon a 
vigorous assertion and claim of our just and natural rights which the 
arbitrary system of politics adopted by the Administration is undeni- 
ably calculated to deprive us of." 

When the delegates assembled, however, it was found that of the 
twelve parishes in the province only five were represented. Governor 
Wright, thinking that he would thwart the designs of the patriots, called 
the general assembly together on the same day, and in his message to both 
houses he called their attention to "the alarming situation of American 
affairs at this juncture," and said further "I shall avoid making any 
observations on the resolutions adopted by the other Colonies; but hope, 
through your prudence and regard for the welfare and happiness of this 
Province, of yourselves and your "posterity, none will be entered into 
here." The upper house sent a message to the commons house of assem- 
bly showing that "this House having taken seriously into consideration 
those matters mentioned by his Excellency in his speech to both Hoiises 
respecting the present alarming state of the iinhappy dispute between 
Great Britain and the Colonies," they asked for "a free conference 
with your House thereon, in hopes of being able to fix on such a plan of 
conduct as may reasonably be expected will prove conducive to the ob- 
taining the great point which every true friend to America hath or ought 
to have only in view, to Avit that of securing to its inhabitants, on a clear, 
st)lid and permanent footing, all the rights and privileges to which, as 
British subjects, they are entitled on the principles of the Constitution." 

The conference was held, bi;t did not result in the way hoped for by 
the seekers after the joint session, and the lower house took into con- 
sideration the resolutions of the provincial congress then also in session, 
which resolutions were nearly the same as those adopted by the con- 
tinental congress on the 14th of October, three others having been added : 
one, a tribute to the advocates of civil and religious liberty for the de- 
fence' of the cause of America ; the second, thanking the delegates to the 
American congress for their efforts in the cause of American liberty ; 
and the third, advocating the sending of commissioners to the Philadel- 
phia Continental Congress called for the 10th of ]\Iay. 

Steps Leading to Georgia's Independence 

While the house of assembly was discussing these matters Governor 
Wright, on the 10th of February, declared the general assembly ad- 
journed until May 9th, thus completely frustrating the plan to nominate 
delegates to the Continental Congress. The provincial congress thus 



176 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

found itself almost unable to accomplish anything planned for its accom- 
plishment ; but after electing Noble Wymberley Jones, Archibald Bulloch 
and John Houstoun representatives to the Philadelphia congress it ad- 
journed on the 25th of January without having taken favorable action 
on the resolutions adopted by the other twelve colonies, and, owing to 
the political intiuence of the governor, not in union with them as a con- 
gress. The delegates from St. John's Parish had withdrawn when they 
found that they could not carry the majority with them in the attempt 
to ratify the resolutions of the Continental Congress, and thej^ "resolved 
to prosecute their claims to an equality with the Confederated Colonies. " ' 
They were dissatisfied at the decision of the provincial congress extend- 
ing the time for closing the port from the 1st of December to the 15th of 
March, in the ninth article of association, declaring that action to be con- 
trary to the very object of the association. That parish, on the 25th of 
March, elected Dr. Lyman Hall to represent the people there in the Con- 
tinental Congress, and on the presentation of his credentials he was iinan- 
imously admitted "as a delegate from the Parish of St. John in the 
Colony of Georgia" under certain conditions involving his right to vote. 
Although elected shortly before this time, Messrs. Jones, Bulloch and 
Houstoun did not attend the Congress with Lyman Hall, and the province 
was not as such recognized in that body until the adjourned session on 
the 13th of September, 1775. 

In the meanwhile another provincial congress was held on the 4th of 
July, 1775, when every parish was represented, and at that time Georgia 
decided to cast her lot with the other colonies in the determination to 
break off all allegiance to the mother country, on a motion made and car- 
ried ' ' that this Congress do put this Province upon the same footing with 
our sister Colonies. ' ' Then it was resolved that five persons be selected 
to represent the people in Continental Congress, and in addition to those 
three gentlemen the names of the Rev. Dr. John Joachim Zubly and Ly- 
man Hall were added. Of those five Messrs. Bulloch, Houstoun and 
Zubly took their seats September 13th. 



CHAPTER XVII 

EVENTS PRECEDING THE REVOLUTION 

"Liberty Boys" Raid Powder Magazine — Meetings op Protesting 
Citizens — Address of Provincial Congress — Georgia Received Into 
the Union — Unpleasant for Royalists — Continental Battalion 
for Georgia — On the Eve of the Revolution. 

The news of the conflicts between the British troops and the Massa- 
chusetts militia on the 19th of April, 1775, was not known in Savannah 
until the night of May 10th, just twentj^-one days after, and created the 
most intense excitement. 

Liberty Boys Raid Powder iMagazine 

The Liberty Boys took immediate notice of the way things were going, 
and promptly let their influence be felt. Knowing that gunpowder 
would be needed, and that right soon, they set to work to gain possession 
of the supply of that useful material then stored in the substantially 
built brick magazine in the eastern side of the town. They held a meeting 
at the residence of Dr. Jones, on the following evening, and a party, 
formed of their leading members, broke open the structure and departed 
with nearly all of its contents. The raiding force consisted of Dr. Noble 
Wymberley Jones, Joseph Habersham, Edward Telfair, William Gibbons, 
Joseph Clay, John Milledge, and others whose names have not been 
recorded. On the 12t]i Governor Wright wrote to the Earl of Dartmouth 
that the amount taken was about six hundred pounds, leaving in the 
magazine "not above 300 lbs of the King's Powder, and about as much 
more belonging to the merchants." Some ot it was sent for safety to 
Beaufort, South Carolina, and the remaining portion the captors took 
care to hide in garrets, cellars, and elsewhere. Governor Wright, of 
course, issued a proclamation on the subject, and offered a reward of 
£150 sterling for the arrest of the persons engaged in the capture, but 
no one ever claimed the reward. There is a tradition that some of the 
powder taken was sent to Cambridge and was used by the patriots at 
the battle of Bunker Hill. The truth of this statement cannot be sub- 
stantiated, but it is certain that on the first of June following sixty-three 
barrels of rice and £122 sterling in specie were contributed by the citi- 
zens of Savannah and sent to the relief of the people of Boston who had, 

Vol. 1—12 

177 



178 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

in consequence of the ''late acts of a cruel and vindictive ministry" been 
forced to leave the town. For that purpose John Eaton Le Conte was 
chosen to bear the present to those people and he and the stores in his 
charge were conveyed to Boston in the Juliana, commanded by Captain 
Stringham. Why, then, is it not probable that the same spirit which 
actuated the Georgians in this instance possessed them to such an extent 
as to prompt them to send powder for their defence against a common 
enemy ? 

On the 4th of June, according to custom, preparations having been 
previously made, the king's birthday was celebrated. Orders for that 
event had been issued on the first ; but in the night of the second the 
liberty-loving people gathered, and, proceeding to the bay, spiked the 
cannon, dismounted them, and rolled them to the river bank at the bottom 
of the bluif . Some of them, however, were raised to their places and put 
in condition to be used in firing the salute. As Sunday was the king's 
birthday the celebration did not occur until ^Monday, the 5th, at which 
time the liberty pole was erected by those who did not believe in his 
treatment of his subjects on this side of the Atlantic. An account of 
this proceeding has already been given. 

Meetings of Protesting Citizens 

In the Georgia Gazette of Wednesday, June 14, 1775, the following ac- 
count of a meeting of the citizens of Savannah and some others appeared, 
and Governor Wright was so alarmed by its import that he sent it to 
the home government with these remarks : ' ' They have entered into an 
Association, as your Lordship will see by the inclosed paper, and what- 
ever is agreed upon by the Continental Congress will undoubtedly be 
adopted and carried into execution here, and will meet with little or no 
opposition. ' ' 

' ' A number of the Inhabitants of the Town and District of Savannah 
and also of several other pai'ishes within this Province having assembled 
together and taking into consideration the alarming heighth to which the 
present contest between Great Britain and America is risen, and re- 
flecting on the danger of instigated insurrections among themselves, 
were of the opinion that prudence and common safety suggest the imme- 
diate adoption of some measures within this Province ; They therefore 
entered into and subscribed the following Association, being persuaded 
that the salvation of the rights and liberties of America depend under 
God on the firm union of the Inhabitants in its vigorous prosecution of 
the measures necessary for its safety, and convinced of the necessity 
of preventing the anarchy and confusion which attend the dissolution of 
the powers of government : We freemen, freeliolders and inhabitants 
of the Province of Georgia, being greatly alarmed at the avowed design of 
the ]\Iinistry to raise a revenue in America, and shocked by the bloody 
scene now acting in the Massachusetts Bay, do, in the most solemn man- 
ner, resolve never to become slaves, and do associate under all the ties of 
religion, honor and love to our country to adopt and endeavor to carry 
into execution whatever may be recommended by the Continental Con- 
gress or resolved upon by our Provincial Convention that shall be ap- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 179 

pointed for the purpose of preserving our Constitution and opposing 
the execution of the several arbitrary and oppressive Acts of the British 
Parliament, until a reconciliation between Great Britain and America 
on constitutional principles, which we most ardently desire, to be ob- 
tained ; and that we will in all things follow the advice of our General 
Committee to be appointed respecting the purposes aforesaid the pres- 
ervation of peace and good order and the safety of individuals and 
private property. 

"And also come into the following Resolves: 

"First, That the foregoing Association be strongly recommended to 
the inhabitants of the several parishes and districts within this Prov- 
ince ; and also that a Committee be appointed among themselves to carry 
the said measures into execution. 

"Second, That it is highly expedient that a General Provincial Con- 
gress be held at Savannah on the first Tuesday in July next, and that it 
be recommended that each Parish and district elect Delegates to attend 
the same. 

"Third, That the inhabitants of this Town and District meet at 
Savannah on the twenty-second day of June instant, to choose Delegates 
to attend in the Provincial Congress, and also to elect a Committee for 
enforcing the foregoing Association. 

"By Order of the Meeting, 

" N. W. Jones, Chairman. ' ' * 

Various meetings were held about this time by the people who were 
advocates of strenuous measures in contesting the policy of England in 
regard to the atfairs of the province. One such was held on Monday, 
the 26th of June, and ordered another meeting to be held on the 30th, 
at nine o'clock, A. M. at the house of Mrs. Cuyler. Another was held on 
the 22d, when it was resolved "that Georgia should not afford protection 
to, or become an asylum for. any person who, from his conduct, might be 
properly considered inimical to the common cause of America, or who 
should have drawn upon himself the disapprobation or censure of any 
of the other colonies." 

Address of Provincial Congress 

Delegates having been elected in all the parishes and districts, the 
Provincial Congress met in Savannah, at Tondee's tavern, in what was 
called the "Long Room" on the 4th of July, 1775. Archibald Bulloch 
was elected President, and George Walton secretary, when the body ad- 
journed to the meetinghouse of Rev. Dr. John J. Zubly where he preached 
a sermon on the state of American affairs. On re-assembling at the 
tavern a resolution of thanks to Dr. Zubly for his excellent sermon was 
adopted. The next day it was moved and seconded that the governor be 
requested to appoint a day of fasting and prayer which motion was unani- 

* Historians have asserted that the foregoing Article of Association, was adopted 
July 13, 177.5. They are at fault here, as it was adopted just one month earlier, and 
appeared in the Gazette of June 14, 177.5. 



180 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

mously adopted. Among the other acts of this congress was the appoint- 
ment of the five delegates to the Continental Congress already mentioned, 
namely John Houstoun, Archibald Bulloch, J. J. Zubly, Lyman Hall and 
Noble W. Jones. 

In June, a council of safety had been appointed, and the affairs of 
the province were virtually conducted by that organization. Governor 
Wright was helpless in his efforts to control the people who so freely took 
hold of the government, but he did all in his power to assert his authority 
as the head of the royal government. An address was presented to him 
by a committee appointed by the congress, signed by President Bulloch, 
outlining the course pursued by that body and the reasons therefor, tell- 
ing him "we have now joined with the other Provinces in the Continental 
Congress, and have sent a petition to his Majesty, appointed delegates to 
the American Congress, and entered into such resolutions — which we 
mean inviolably to adhere to — or will convince the friends and foes of 
America that we would not live unworthy of the name of Britons, 
or labour under the suspicion of being unconcerned for the rights and 
freedom of America." That address was delivered to him on the 13tli 
of July, and he waited until the 18th to send a copy of it to England. 
In the letter accompanying it he stated that he had been misrepresented ; 
that he had laid it before the council ; and that the assembly was prac- 
tically controlled by the liberty people. He goes on to say that: ''They 
have appointed here what they call a Council of Safety, and vei"y nearly 
followed the example of the Carolinas except as to raising an army * * * 
I am well informed that the gentlemen who came from Carolina assured 
the Congress here that if they should on any account want assistance they 
should immediately have it to the amount of 1,000 men." He closed 
with making the request that he be permitted "to return to England in 
order to resign the Government. ' ' 

The Provincial Congress sent, through a committee, the following 
address : 

"To the Inhabitants of the Province of Georgia — Fellow-Country- 
men : We are directed to transmit to you an account of the present state 
of American atfaii-s, as well as the proceedings of the late Provincial 
Congress. 

"It is with great sorrow we are to acquaint you. tliat what our fears 
suggested, but our reason thought impossible, is actually come to pass. 

"A civil war in America is begun. Several engagements have already 
happened. The friends and foes of America were in hopes British 
troops could never be induced to slay their brethren. It is, however, 
done, and the circumstances are such as must be an everlasting lilot on 
their character for humanity and generosity. An unfeeling Commander 
has found means to inspire his troops with the same evil spirit that 
possesseth himself. After tlie starving, helpless, innocent inluiliitants of 
Boston delivered up their arms and received his promise that they miglit 
leave that virtuous, devoted town, he is said to liave broke his word; 
and the wretched inhabitants are still kept to fall a prey to disease, famine 
and confinement. If there are powers which abhor injustice and oppres- 
sion, it may be hoped such perfidy cannot go long unpunislied. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 181 

"But the enemies of America have been no less disappointed. Noth- 
ing was so contemptible in their eyes as the rabble of an American mil- 
itia ; nothing more improbable than that they would dare to look regulars 
in the face, or stand a single lire. By this time they must have felt how 
much they were mistaken. In every engagement the Americans ap- 
peared with a In-avery worthy of men that fight for the liberties of their 
oppressed country. Their success has been remarkable ; the number of 
the slain and wounded on every occasion vastly exceeded theirs, and the 
advantages they gained are the more honorable, because, with a patience 
that scarce has an example, they bore every act of injustice and insult 
till their lives were attacked, and then gave the fullest proof that the 
man of calmness and moderation in counsel is usually also the most in- 
trepid and courageous in battle. 

"You will doubtless lament with us the hundreds that died in their 
country's cause; but does it not call for greater sorrow that thousands 
of British soldiers sought and found their deaths when they were active 
to enslave their brethren and their country? However irritating all 
these proceedings, yet so unnatural is this quarrel, that every good man 
must wish and pray that it may soon cease ; that the injured rights of 
America may be vindicated by milder means ; and that no more blood 
may be shed, unless it be by those who fomented and mean to make an 
advantage of these unhappy divisions. 

' ' From the proceedings of the Congress, a copy of which accompanies 
the present, you will be convinced that a reconciliation on honorable 
principles is an object which your delegates never lost sight of. We have 
sent an humble and manly petition to his Majesty : addressed his repre- 
sentative, our Governor; provided, as far as in our power, for internal 
quiet and safety ; and Delegates will soon attend the General Congress 
to assist and co-operate in any measure that shall be thought necessary 
for the saving of America. 

"His Excellency, at our request, having appointed the 19th inst as 
a Day of Humiliation, and news being recommended the 20th inst to 
be observed as such, both days have been observed with a becoming sol- 
emnity ; and we humbly hope many earnest prayers have been presented 
to the Father of Mercies on that day through this extensive continent, 
and that He has heard the cries of the destitute and will not despise 
their prayers. 

"You will permit us most earnestly to recommend to you a steady 
perseverance in the cause of Liberty, and that you will use all possible 
caution not to say or do anything unworthy of so glorious a cause ; to 
promote frugality, peace, and good order, and, in the practice of every 
social and religious duty, patiently to wait the return of that happy day 
when we may quietly sit under our vine and fig tree and no man make 
us afraid." 

J. J. ZUBLY, 

N. W. Jokes, 
George Wai/ton. 

Following the address to the people, this petition was presented to 
the king: 



182 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"To the King's most excellent Majesty. 

"May it please your Majesty: Though we luring up the rear of 
American Petitioners and, from the fate of so many petitions presented 
to your Majesty from America, your great city of London, and others 
of your European subjects, have a most melancholy prospect, we still 
hope that He by whom Kings rule and to whom mouarchs are account- 
able, will incline you to receive and pay some regard to our most hum- 
ble and faithful representation. 

"In times like these, when the edge of present feelings is blunted 
by the expectation of calamities still greater, we must take the liberty 
to speak before we die. We would acquaint our Sovereign with things 
which greatly affect his interest. We would endeavor to waken the 
feelings and pity of our common father. Hear us therefore, that God 
may hear you also. 

"Your Majesty is the rightful Sovereign of the most important em- 
pire of the universe. 

"The blessings of Pi'ovidence on your arms have put a country in 
America under you of greater importance and extent than several king- 
doms in Europe. In this large extent of territorj^ by some late acts, 
Popery is not only tolerated (which we conceive would have been but an 
act of justice), but an indulgence has been granted, little short of a full 
establishment, to a religion which is ecjually injurious to the rights of 
Sovereign and of mankind. French and arbitrary laws have there by 
authority taken the place of the just and mild British Constitution, and 
all this has been done with a professed and avowed design to overawe 
your Majesty's ancient Protestant and loyal subjects, some of whom 
had no small share in the merit of that conquest. 

"Acts to raise a perpetual revenue on the Americans without their 
consent have been enacted, which at one stroke, turn all your American 
subjects into slaves, and deprive them of that right which the most 
oppressive taskmaster does not deny to the servant bought with his own 
money. Experience must now have shown, as it will clearer should 
these acts be enforced, that instead of increasing the revenue or lessening 
the bvirdens of your European subjects, they can only serve to increase 
their taxation. 

"Laws which we conceive fraught with so much injustice have been 
attempted to be enforced by equal cruelty, and whenever we thought our- 
selves at the height of our troubles, your ]\Iajesty's ^Ministry have 
strained their unhappy ingenuity to find out new methods of distress; 
and, it is believed, methods have been more than thought of too shock- 
ing to hunum nature to be even named in the list of grievances suffered 
under a British king. 

"The goodness of God hath nuule your INIajesty the father of a very 
numerous issue, on whom we place the pleasing hopes of a Protestant 
succession; but your Majesty's arms in America now every day make 
mothers childless, and children fatherless. The blood of your subjects 
has been shed with pleasure rather than with pity, for an action which 
amounted to no more, even under the worst construction, than an irregu- 
lar zeal for constitutional lil)erty; and without any step taken to find 
out the supposed guilty persons, the capital of your American dominions 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 183 

has been blocked up, deprived of its trade, and its poor of subsistence. 
Thousands, confessedly innocent, have been starved, ruined, and driven 
from, or kept like prisoners in their own habitations ; their cries and 
blood innocently shed have undoubtedly reached, and daily do reach His 
ears who hatetli injustice and oppression. 

"Believe us, great Sir, America is not divided; all men (Crown 
officers not excepted) speak of these acts and measures with disapproba- 
tion, and if there has been some difference of opinion as to the mode 
of relief, the rigorous experiments which your Ministry thought fit to 
try on the Americans have been the most etfeetual means to convince 
these of the iniquitous designs of your IMinistry and to unite them all 
as in a common cause. Your INIajesty's Ministers, after thus introducing 
the demon of discord into your empire and driving America to the brink 
of despair, place all their dignity in measures obstinately pursued be- 
cause they were once wantonly taken. They hearkened to no informa- 
tion but what represented Americans either as rebels or cowards. Time 
will every day make it clearer how much they were infatuated and 
mistaken. Too long, we must lament, have these men imposed on your 
paternal affection. Deign now, most gracious Prince, in their room, 
to hearken to the cries of your loyal and affectionate subjects of this 
extensive Continent ; let the goodness of your heart interpose between 
weak or wicked Ministers, and millions of loyal and affectionate subjects. 
No longer let the sword be stained with the blood of your own children ; 
recall your troops and fleets ; and if any misunderstanding remains, let 
the Americans be heard, and justice and equity take place. Let us be 
ruled according to the known principles of our excellent Constitution, 
and command the last shilling of our property and the last drop of our 
blood in your service. 

"Uncertain as to the event of this our humble representation, it 
affords us a relief that we may, unrestrained, apply to the great and 
merciful Sovereign of the whole earth, who will not despise the prayer 
of the oppressed ; and to Him we most ardently pray that the wicked 
being taken away from before the king, the king's throne may be estab- 
lished in righteousness. 

"By order of the Congress, at Savannah, this 14th day of July. 

A. Bulloch, President." 

At the meeting on the 21st of June a Council of Safety was appointed, 
and the members consisted of William Ewen, president ; Wm. Le Conte, 
Joseph Clay, Basil Cowper, Samuel Elbert, Wm. Young, Elisha Butler, 
Edward Telfair. John Glen, George Houstoun, George Walton, Joseph 
Habersham, Francis H. Harris, John Smith and John IMorel. Seth John 
Cuthbert was the secretary. Then the members of the convention dined 
at Tondee's tavern, the Union flag was hoisted on the liberty pole, two 
field pieces were posted at its foot, thirteen toasts were drunk, and the 
cannon were used in firing a salute with martial music accompanying. 

Georgla. Received into the Union 

On the 20th of July. 1775, the day appointed as one of fasting and 
prayer, the news that Georgia had at last taken the step to join the 



184 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

other colonies and had appointed her delegates, reached the Continental 
Congress, and she was received heartily into the Union. Her delegates, 
as we have seen, appeared at an adjourned session September 13th. Dr. 
Zubly at first acted in full harmony with the people who had placed 
him in the forefront as one able to represent them in the stand they 
had taken, but he flinched when the determination was reached to dis- 
solve the bond of union with Great Britain, and he severed his connec- 
tion with the congress, returning to Georgia and siding Avith the loyal- 
ists. He was banished, took refuge in South Carolina, returned to Georgia 
after the siege of Savannah in 1779, when he remained as pastor of the 
Independent church until his death in 1781. 

A committee was appointed by the provincial congress "to present 
the association to all the inhabitants of the town and district of Savan- 
nah to be signed, ' ' and the members of it were asked to hasten their work 
and to report promptly the names of those who refused to sign. Al- 
though Governor Wright remained in Savannah, he was not permitted 
to exercise any of the powers theretofore vested in him by royal com- 
mission. Georgia was really controlled by the Council of Safety, and in 
the seizure of the custom house by the Republicans the port was virtually 
closed. 

Unpleasant for Royalists 

The "liberty boys," some of whom were members of the Council of 
Safety, began to make it very unpleasant for every one who showed in the 
slightest way his sympathy for the British government or who refused 
to show his respect for the cause of America. The town of Savannah 
must have been in a continual state of turmoil and alarm. Judged by 
certain statements contained in the letters he wrote to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth about that time. Governor Wright must have been in a most piti- 
able state of mind. In addition to the treatment to which he was sub- 
jected he was called upon to listen to the woes of others conspicuous for 
their loyalty to the English government and for their determination 
to resist the demands of the republicans and the rollicking liberty peo- 
ple. In a letter dated July 29, 1775, he said: "Since my last of the 
18th instant. No. 54, the Council of Safety as they call themselves have 
in a solemn manner forbid the Rector of the Parish to preach any more 
in the church, and he has been so nuich threatened that on the 25th 
instant he left the town and went over into Carolina because he refused 
to preach a sermon and observe a fast which had been directed by the 
Continental Congress to be observed throughout all the Colonies, and 
has reflected on the conduct of the Americans. And my Lord on the 
24th instant about 9 o'clock at night I heard a very great huzzaingin 
the streets, and on sending out found they had seized lapon one Hopkins 
a pilot and were tarring and feathering him, and soon after they 
brought him in a cart down by my house, and such a horrid spectacle 
I really never saw. They made this man stand up in a cart with a 
candle in his hand, and a great many candles were carried round the 
cart, and thus they went through most of the streets in town for upwards 
of three hours. And on inquiring what he had done I was informed that 
he had behaved disrespectfully towards the Sons of Liberty and drank 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 185 

some toasts which gave great offence; but for your Lordship's more par- 
ticular information in both these matters I inclose a copy of the affida- 
vits of the parties, and the newspaper, and I must at the same time 
observe that I cannot believe this conduct is promoted or approved of by 
the people in general, but only by some very violent ones amongst them 
and the mob. Your Lordship will be the best judge what is most proper 
to be done, but I beg leave most heartily to wish that conciliatory meas- 
ures may speedily take place, or total ruin and destruction will soon 
follow, and America lost and gone." 

"The Deposition of John Hopkins of the Town of Savannah Mariner 
taken on Oath the twenty-fifth Day of July, one thousand seven hundred 
and seventy-five, before the Honourable Anthony Stokes Esq., Chief 
Justice of the Province aforesaid : This Deponent being duly sworn on 
the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God maketh Oath and saith That 
about nine of the Clock in the Evening of the twenty-fourth instant as 
this Deponent was sitting at supper with his family there came to this 
Deponent's House a number of Persons (some were in disguise) and 
opened the door. That Joseph Reynolds of Savannah, Bricklayer, Capt. 
MeCluer and Capt. Bunner at Present of Savannah Mai-iners laid hold 
of this Deponent, without saying anything to him That as soon as the 
aforesaid People laid hold of this Deponent a great number rushed in 
and hurried this Deponent out of his house and led him to the out side 
of the Town, That they consulted to tar and feather him but the Ma- 
jority resolved to Carry him to a more public place. Accordingly they 
led this Deponent into the middle of the square near to the Dial in Savan- 
nah and striped this Deponent of his Jacket & Shirt and with great 
reluctance left the rest of his Apparrel on him And then they pro- 
ceeded to tar and feather this Deponent And innnediately put this Depo- 
nent into a Cart & Carted him up & down the Street of Savannah 
for upwards of three Hours in the Above Condition That during the 
aforesaid Time they Carted this Deponent to the Liberty tree And there 
swore they would hang him That the said Bunner said, 'he was rather 
fat But He would go up the tree and hang this Deponent.' That the 
said Buimer further said 'that unless he would drink "Damnation to 
all Tories and Success to American Liberty" he should be hung imme- 
diately' which request this Deponent, was obliged to Comply with, that 
they continued to abuse this Deponent, gave him a great deal of ill 
Language and upbraided him with his Conduct That some one or other 
said That if they could lay hold of the Parson they would put him along 
side of this Deponent in the Cart, That this Deponent also heard said 
in the IVIob that Mr. Smith should be next And that they intended to 
Continue until they had Tarred and feathered all the Tories or Words 
to That Effect, That this Deponent saw in the Aforesaid Mob, together 
with the Persons aforementioned, Thomas Lee Carpenter John Spencer 
Carpenter, Alexander Phoenix Merchant Ambrose Wright Planter Sam- 
uel Wells Mariner Francis Arthur of Savannah Surveyor, Oliver Bowen 
Merchant John McCluer & Capt. McCluer Joseph Habersham and 
Francis Harris Gentleman Quintin Pooler Merchant Capt. Hawkins 
Mariner and Thomas Hamilton Butcher and several others that this 
Deponent cannot recollect That between the Hours of Twelve and One 



186 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA' 

of the Clock at Midnight they discharged this Deponent at the Vendue 
House with orders to beg 'all America pardon.' 

"John Hopkins. 
' ' Sworn the Day and Year Aforesaid : Anthony Stokes. 

"I desire that a Warrent may Issue against the abovenamed Joseph 
Reynolds of Savannah Bricklayer and Capt. George Buuner Mariner 
and against none of the other persons. 

"John Hopkins." 
A true Copy : Preston & Prvce. 

[In Sir James Wright's (No. 55) of 29th July, 1775.] 

"The Reverend Haddon Smith Rector of the Parish of Christ Church 
being duly sworn saith : That on Saturday the Twenty -second Day of 
this Instant July about nine of the Clock in the forenoon some Gentle- 
men came to this Deponent's House at the Parsonage. That this Depo- 
nent being up Stairs in his Chambers sent down word immediately to 
desire the Gentlemen to walk in and he would wait upon them. That 
before this Deponent came down Stairs he heard some one of them to 
say 'We cannot Walk in' or words to that purport. That this Depo- 
nent then concluded who they were and went down directly to them. 
That this Deponent saw standing in the Porch of the House Peter Tarl- 
ing of St. John's Parish, Jonathan Cochran of Saint Andrews Parish 
Planters, Edward Telfair of Savannah Merchant, George Walton of 
Savannah Esq., and Oliver Bowen of Savannah Merchant and some 
others. That the aforesaid Peter Tarling held a written Paper in his 
hand and read from it to this Deponent the following words "Sir from 
your late Conduct in disobeying the Orders of the Congress. You are 
deemed an Enemy to America and by Order of the Committee We are 
to inform you that you are to be suffered no longer to officiate in this 
Town' or Words to that Effect, That the aforesaid Peter Tarling hav- 
ing read the paper above ment'd he together with the rest of the Persons 
immediately went awa\ without giving this Deponent an opportunity 
to reply or ask for the Paper since which this Deponent hath not 
thought himself safe in doing his Duty as Rector. 

"Haddon Smith. 

"Sworn the 25th day of July 1775 before Anthony Stokes." 

[A true Copy: Preston & Pryee.] 

In a postscript to the letter conveying the foregoing. Governor 
Wright said: "1st of August the delegates went away for Philadelphia. 
I forgot to mention tbat the committee here take upon them to order 
ships and vessels that arrive to depart again without suffering them to 
come up to the town and unload. Some they admit, some they order 
away just as they please, and exacth- copy after Carolina, and are 
making a very rapid progrv-ss in the execution of their assumed jiower. 
£10,000 sterling is to be issued in notes or eertiticates and your Lordship 
will see the proceedings of the Congress by the enclosed newspaper, and 
beg I leave to repeat that no correspondence is safe. I dare not venture 
a single letter by the post U\ Charles Town for the packet, or to send 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



187 



any to your Lordship but under cover as private letters. No sloop of 
war or cruiser is come yet." 

A vessel arrived from London on the 17th of September, laden with 
two hundred and fifty barrels of gunpowder, intended as a present for 
the Indians, and consigned to the superintendent, Mr. Stuart. She 
was boarded at Tybee by the "liberty boys" who seized the powder and 
transported it to Savannali for use in a way not intended by the royal 
shipper. Another ship with a cargo of two hundred and four slaves 
from Senegal was not permitted to land, and her captain set sail for 
St. Augustine. Hence the reference in the postscript just quoted. 
Things continuing to annoy the royal governor he added another to his 
already long list of doleful statements in a letter to his superior on the 
23d of September: "What remedy these evils may require, is for the 
wisdom of my superiors to determine, but I must beg leave to add that 




Agriculti'ral School, Tifton 



from the situation of affairs here no time should be lost. It is really 
a wretched state to be left in, and what it's impossible to submit to 
much longer — Government totally annihilated and assumed by Con- 
gresses, Councils, and Committees, and the greatest acts of tyranny, op- 
pression, gross insults, etc., etc., etc., committed, and not the least means 
of protection, support, or even personal safety and these almost daily 
occurrences are ioo much, my Lord." 

Governor Wright's powers were extremely limited at that time. 
Indeed all he was called on to do was to issue letters of administration 
and to probate wills. 

The provincial congress adjourned on the 11th of December, and 
before doing so made a new appointment of members of the Council of 
Safety which body then assumed the entire reins of government, and 
made it a rule to meet regularly every Monday morning, at Tondee's 
Long Room, at ten o'clock. This new committee was composed of 



188 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

George Walton, president; Edward Langworthy, secretarj^, and the 
following other members : Wm. Eweu, Stephen Drayton, Noble W. Jones, 
Basil Cowper, Edward Telfair, John Bohun Girardeau, John Smith, 
Jonathan Bryan, Wm. Gibbons, John Martin, Oliver Bowen, Ambrose 
Wright, Samuel Elbert, Joseph Habersham, and Francis Henry Harris. 
During the existence of the council many changes were made from time 
to time, but all the members serving in that capacity have not been 
named. 

Continental Battalion for Georgia 

Among the measures enacted by the Continental Congress, Novem- 
ber, was the raising of a battalion at the common charge of the united 
provinces for Georgia's protection, and for that purpose the sum of five 
thousand dollars was appropriated, and therefore the Council of Safety 
connnissioned, at its first meeting, Andrew Maybank, Joseph Woodruffe, 
Hezekiah Wade, and John Dooly as captains, James Cochran, John 
Morrison, Jeremiah Beale, and Thomas Dooly as fii-st lieutenants, James 
Galoche, Moses Way, Jacob Blust, Zephaniah Beale, and William 
Bugg as second lieutenants, and Thomas Dowly, George Phillips, and 
Joshua Smith as third lieutenants. The battalion thus formed was more 
completely organized on the 7th of January, 1776, by the commissioning 
of the following : Lachlan Mcintosh, colonel ; Samuel Elbert, lieutenant- 
colonel ; Joseph Habersham, major. 

1st Company — Francis Henry Harris, captain ; John Habersham, first 
lieutenant. 

2nd Company — Oliver Bowen, captain ; George Handley, first lieu- 
tenant. 

3rd Company — John Mcintosh, Jr., captain; Lachlan Mcintosh, Jr., 
first lieutenant. 

4th Company — Arthur Carney, captain; Benjamin Odingsell, first 
lieutenant. 

5th Company — Thomas Chisholm, captain; Caleb Howell, first lieu- 
tenant. 

6th Company — John Green, captain; Ignatius Few, first lieutenant. 

7th Company — Cheslej' Bostick, captain; John Martin, first lieu- 
tenant. 

8th Company — Jacob Colson, captain; Shadracli Wright, first lieu- 
tenant. 

On the Eve of the Revolution 

We will, in closing this chapter, briefly outline the state of affairs 
as existing in the Province of Georgia, of which Savannah was the seat 
of government, in fact of two conflicting governments, on the eve of the 
American Revolution. 

Practically, on the Republican side, the Council of Safety was the 
maker of laws, and its president was. to all intents and purposes, the 
governor, and the autliority for tliis was the result of legislation on the 
part of the provincial congress. All business, both of a civil and a mili- 
tary nature, originated in and was put in force by it. as will be seen 
by an inspection of its minutes. The royal governor remained at his 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 189 

post, but he was powerless, without the protection of even a small mili- 
tary guard, and his council, composed of men who were presumed to 
advise him, were as helpless as himself, being held in utter disregard 
by the opposition. The functions of tlie king's officers were performed 
by men who, in the name of liberty, asserted the right to vacate the royal 
commissions and transact the public affairs in a manner unobjectionable 
to freemen. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

COMMENCEMENT OF ACTUAL WAR 

Governor Wright's Arrest and Escape — Georgia's Temporary Con- 
stitution — Conflict Between Royal Troops and ^Militia — Expor- 
tation OF Rice Stopped — Royalists Attempt to Capture Rice 
Boats — Oistly Two Vessels Escape to Sea — Council of Safety 
Takes Heroic Measures — Congress Thanks Colonial Militia — 
Wright Goes to England and Returns to Savannah — John Gra- 
ham AND Thunderbolt — Savannah's First "Fourth of July" 
(August 10th). 

Though delayed in reaching Savannah, the relief sought by Sir 
James Wright came on the 12th of January, 1776, when a transport from 
Boston, with troops under the command of Majors ]\Iaitland and Grant, 
touched at Tybee. That event, coupled with the determination to put 
down any demonstration of authority by the royal party, forced the 
Council of Safety, on the 18th, to resolve "that the person of his ex- 
cellency Sir James Wright, Bart., and of John ]\Iulh\yne, Josiah Tatt- 
nall, and Anthony Stokes, Esqs., be forthwith arrested and secured, 
and that all non-associates be forthwith disarmed except those who will 
give their parole assuring that they will not aid, assist, or comfort any 
of the persons on board his Majesty's ships of war, or take up arms 
against America in the present unhappy dispute." 

Governor Wright's Arrest and Escape 

Naturally it would be presumed that volunteers for the patriotic act 
of arresting the royal governor could easily be had among the youthful 
constituency of the "Liberty Boys," and the immediate offer of Major 
Joseph Habersham was accepted. Well did he perform the self imposed 
duty. Selecting the very hour when that official was in consultation 
with his council in his own home, the young man, disregarding the sen- 
tinel at the door of the mansion, walked into the presence of his ex- 
cellency, touched him on the shoulder, and said. "Sir James, you are 
my prisoner!" The act was one that might well produce the greatest 
astonishment not only on the part of the one arrested, but also of the 
witnesses to the bold transaction. Its effect on the latter resulted in a 
precipitate retreat from the house — tlieir presence of mind, as has been 
well stated, giving way to a very hasty absence of bodj'. Left alone with 
his prisoner, Habersham secured from him a pledge to make no effort 

190 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 191 

to depart from the town or to ooiunuinicate with the royal troops at 
Tybee. It was deemed advisable, however, to place a guard on duty 
all the time to report any manifestation of the prisoner's inclination to 
abuse the privileges granted him or to make any attempt to escape. De- 
spite such precaution, the royal governor did make his escape sometime in 
the night of the 11th of February, by exit through the rear of his house, 
and made his way down to the river where a boat and crew, awaiting his 
coming, took him, by way of Tybee Creek, to the warship Scarborough, 
under the command of Captain Barclay, reaching her about three o'clock 
in the morning of the 12th. From that point he wrote, on the day of 
his arrival to one of the royal council, Capt. James Maekay, urging 
upon him, "'as the best friend the people of Georgia have," to plead with 
them to consider well the course they liad taken and to escape the in- 
evitable punishment following subjugation by a return to their true 
allegiance, promising, in that case, on his arrival in England, his in- 
fluence in their favor as to past offenses. The appeal, of course, had no 
effect, though the president of the provincial congress, Archibald Bul- 
loch, made a coiirteous reply to the letter. For the reason that the 
communication of the president made no response to the offer of his 
services as a peacemaker. Governor Wright did not consider it a satis- 
factory acknowledgment of his overture, and then ventured this laconic 
expression of his opinion as to the result of the rejection of his offer: 
"However, if Georgians will not be their own friends, the province 
will blame them and not me who through friendship put it into their 
power to be happy." 

When the provincial congress met in Savannah on the 20th of Jan- 
uary, 1776, it proceeded to the election of a president, and the choice 
again fell on Archibald Bulloch at the election held two days after- 
wards. Following this action, on the 2d of February five delegates to 
the Continental Congress were appointed, namely, Archibald Bulloch, 
John Houstoun, Lyman Hall, Button Gwannett, and George Walton, and 
the last three were the signers of the Declaration of Independence from 
Georgia. 

Georgia's Temporary Constitution 

The state of affairs brought about by the escape of Sir James Wright 
and the uncertainty as to the manner in which the province should 
be governed, necessitated the prompt action of the provincial congress 
in the matter of providing rules or laws for the guidance of the people. 
Nothing definite or permanent could, under the circumstances, be accom- 
plished in this matter, but, as the groundwork of a more stable govern- 
ment, a temporary constitution was adopted and declared to be in effect 
in the month of April, 1776, and it is herewith given in full : 

"Whereas, the unwise and iniquitous system of administration ob- 
stinately persisted in by the British Parliament and ministry against 
the good people of America hath at length driven the latter to take up 
arms as their last resource for the preservation of their rights and 
liberties which God and the constitution gave them ; 

"And whereas an armed force, with hostile intentions against the 



192 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

people of this Province, liaving lately arrived at Coekspur, his Excel- 
lency Sir James Wright, Baronet, and King's Governor of Georgia, in 
aid of the views of the administration, and with a design to add to those 
inconveniences which necessarily result from a state of confusion, sud- 
denly and unexpectedly carried off the great seal of the Province with 
him; 

"And whereas, in consequence of this and other events, doubts have 
arisen with the several magistrates how far they are authorized to act 
under the former appointments, and the greatest part of them have 
absolutely refused to do so, whereby all judicial powers are become 
totally suspended to the great danger of persons and property ; 

"And whereas, before any general system of government can be 
concluded upon, it is necessary that application be made to the Con- 
tinental Congress for their advice and directions upon the same ; but, 
nevertheless, in the present state of things, it is indispensably requisite 
that some temporary expedient be fallen upon to curb the lawless and 
protect the peaceable ; 

"This Congress, therefore, as the representatives of the people, with 
whom all power originates, and for whose benefit all government is in- 
tended, deeply impressed with a sense of duty to their constituents, 
of love to their country, and inviolable attachment to the liberties of 
America, and seeing how much it will tend to the advantage of each 
to preserve rules, justice, and order, do take upon them for the present, 
and until the further order of the Continental Congress, or of this, or any 
future Provisional Congress, to declare, and they accordingly do declare, 
order, and direct that the following rules and regulations be. adopted 
in this Province — that is to say — 

' ' 1st. There shall be a President and Commander-in-Chief appointed 
by ballot in this Congress, for six months, or during the time specified 
above. 

"2d. There shall be in like manner, and for the like time, also a 
Council of Safety, consisting of 13 persons, besides the five delegates 
to the General Congress, appointed to act in the nature of a Privy 
Council to the said President or Commander-in-Chief. 

"3d. That the President shall be invested with all the executive 
powers of government not inconsistent with what is hereafter mentioned, 
but shall be bound to consult and follow the advice of the said Council 
in all cases whatsoever, and any seven of said Committee shall be a 
quorum for the purpose of advising. 

"4th. That all the laws whether common or statute, and acts of 
Assembly which have formerly been acknowledged to be of force in 
this Province, and which do not interfere with the proceedings of the 
Continental or our Provincial Congresses, and also all and singular the 
resolves and recommendations of the said Continental and Provincial 
Congress, shall be of full force, validity, and effect until otherwise 
ordered. 

"5th. That there shall be a Chief Justice and two assistant judges, 
an Attorne.y-General, a Provost-^Iarshal, and Clerk of the Court of 
Sessions, appointed by ballot, to serve during the pleasure of the Con- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 193 

gress. The Court of Sessions, or Oyer and Terminer, sliall be opened 
and held on tlie seeond Tuesday in June and December, and the former 
rules and methods of proceeding, as nearly as may be, shall be observed 
in regard to summoning of Juries and all other cases whatsoever. 

"6th. That the President or Commander-in-Chief, with the advice 
of the Council as before mentioned, shall appoint magistrates to act 
during pleasure in the several Parishes throughout this Province, and 
such magistrates shall conform themselves, as nearly as may be, to the 
old established forms and methods of proceedings. 

"Tth. That all legislative powers shall be reserved to the Con- 
gress, and no person who holds any place of jjrofit, civil or military, shall 
he eligiljle as a member either of the Congress or of the Council of 
Safety. 

"8th. That the following sums shall be allowed as salaries to the 
respective officers for and during the time they shall serve, over and 
besides all such perquisites and fees as have been formerly annexed to 
the said offices respectively : 

"To the President and Commander-in-Chief after 

the rate, per annum of sterling £300 

"To the Chief Justice 100 

' ' To the Attorney-General 25 

"To the Provost-i'arshal 60 

"To the Clerk of Court 50" 

Under this Constitution Archibald Bulloch was elected as the head 
of the government with the full title of president and commander-in- 
chief, John Glen became chief justice, William Stephens was made 
attorney-general, and James Jackson filled the office of clerk of the court. 

This constitution was the code by which the province was governed 
until the adoption on the 5th of February, 1777, of the first regular 
constitution made and promulgated by a convention chosen for that 
purpose, and its provisions were sustained by the official conduct of 
Archibald Bulloch who, as chief executive, served the people as faith- 
fully and conscientiously as well as any man within the confines of this 
or any other province could have done. For the position he was probablj' 
better equipped in every way than any of his associates in the conven- 
tion which elected him ; and because of his fitness for such leadership 
they undoubtedly insisted upon his assuming the position. 

Conflict Between Royal Troops and Militia 

A conflict between the royal troops and the newly established provin- 
cial militia was inevitable, and it came early in March, when some 
vessels with cargoes of rice were ready to sail from Savannah. They 
amounted to eleven in all, and were the property of loyalists, or, at 
least, of persons not in sympathy with the American cause but standing 
ready to violate the resolutions of non-intercourse adopted by congress. 

Vo'l. I— 1 3 



194 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Exportation op Rice Stopped 

It happened that on the first day of that month the order of the 
Continental Congress which prohibited the exportation of rice expired, 
and the Council of Safety, assuming that the war vessels at Tybee would 
attempt to capture those rice ships, took positive action to prevent it. 
Indeed, on the last of February the Scarborough, Hinchinbroke, St. 
John, and two transports with troops moved up the river as far as 
"Five Fathom Hole." The action of the Council of Safety was in the 
form of resolutions as follows : 

"Resolved that no ships loaded with rice or any other article of 
produce, in this Province, shall be permitted to sail without leave of 
the Council of "Safety or next Congress, except such vessels as are or shall 
be permitted to sail for the purpose of procuring the necessary means 
of defence. 

"Resolved that in case any loss shall be sustained by such detention, 
the Delegates from this Province shall be instructed to apply to the Con- 
tinental Congress to make the reimbursement for such loss a general 
charge. 

"Ordered that the rudders be unshipped, and that the rigging and 
sails be taken away and secured from the several vessels now riding in 
the port of Savannah." 

Colonel Lachlan Mcintosh was detailed to see that the order was 
enforced, and, on the 2d of March, the Council of Safety resolved "for 
the safety of the Province and the good of the United Colonies. 

' ' That the houses in the town of Savannah and the hamlets thereunto 
belonging, together with the shipping now in port of Savannah the 
property of or appertaining to the friends of America who have asso- 
ciated and appeared or who shall appear in the present alarm to defend 
the same, and also the houses of the widows and orphans, and none 
others, be forthwith valued and appraised. 

"Ordered that Messrs. Joseph Clay, Joseph Reynolds, John McCluer, 
Joseph Dunlap and John Glen, or any three of them, be a committee 
for that purpose, and that they make a return of such value and ap- 
praisement to the Council of Safety to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock 
or as soon after as possible. 

"Resolved That the delegates for this Province shall be instructed 
to apply to the Continental Congress for an indemnification to such 
persons as shall suffer in the defence of this town or sliipping. 

"Resolved That it shall be considered a defection from the cause of 
America, and a desertion of propert.y in such persons as have left or 
who shall leave the town of Savannah or the hamlets thereunto belong- 
ing during the present alarm, and such persons shall be precluded from 
any support or countenance towards obtaining an indemnification. 

"Resolved, That it be incumbent upon the friends of America in this 
Province to defend the INIetropolis as long as the same shall be tenable. 

"Resolved That rather tlian the same shall be held and occupied 
by our enemies, or that the sliipping now in the port of Savannah should 
be taken and employed by them, the same shall be burnt and destroyed. 
"Resolved That "orders shall be issued to the commaudingofficer di- 
recting him to have the foregoing resolutions put into execution." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 195 

In order tliat there could be no mistake in the matter the following 
proclamation was issued in connection with the resolutions : 

"In the Council of Safety, Savannah, March 2nd, 1776. — Whereas 
many householders in the town of Savannah, and the hamlets thereunto 
belonging, have basely deserted their habitations since the commence- 
ment of the present alarms : 

"And whereas some of them are associates in the great American 
Union, and, by consequence, their lives and fortunes bound to support 
it: 

"And whereas there is a number of shijjping in the port of Savannah 
belonging and appertaining to persons resident in this Province : 

' ' And whereas we deem it incumbent on every person, more especially 
on those who have associated to defend their property with their lives : 

"These are therefore to cite and admonish all persons holding any 
property in the town or hamlets, or shipping aforesaid, forthwith to re- 
pair to head(iuarters in Savannah to defend the same, on pain of suffer- 
ing all the consequences contained in the foregoing resolutions. 

"By order of the Council of Safety. 

"Wm. Ewen, President." 

Royalists Attempt to Capture Rice Boats 

When he secured refuge on board the Scarborough Sir James Wright 
endeavored to secure supplies for the fleet through the aid of the assem- 
bly, but a refusal having been given to the retjuest, the royal party re- 
sorted to the expedient of trying to obtain what was needed by a capture 
of the eleven rice boats, and then happened the conflict of which mention 
has been made. Two of the vessels sailed up Back river on the 2d of 
March, it having been found by soundings that it was practicable to do 
so, and one of them anchored just opposite the city while the other, in 
attempting to make a circuit of Hutchinson's island and reach the scene 
of action from above, went aground at the extreme western point of the 
island. That night Majors Maitland and Grant marched their troops 
from the first vessel, and boarded the merchant vessels on the south 
side of the island, their presence being discovered by the citizens the 
next morning. A company of riflemen, led by Maj. John Habersham, 
attacked the grounded ship and drove every man from deck. The inten- 
tion of that ofificer to secure the vessel as a prize was thwarted for the 
want of boats, and she floated off at high tide and escaped. Colonel 
Mcintosh, at the head of three hundred men, made a stand atYamacraw 
Bluff, and there threw up breastworks where he stationed three four- 
pounder guns, and then sent Lieut. Daniel Roberts, of the St. John's 
Rangers, and Capt. Raymond Demere, of St. Andrew's parish, under a 
flag of truce, to demand the release of Captain Rice and his boat's crew, 
w^ho had in the discharge of duty under the order of the Council of Safety 
been detained as prisoners. Roberts and Demere were arrested and 
held as prisoners, but were subsequently (about March 20th) exchanged 
for eight loyalists whom the liberty people had seized in retaliation, 
among them James Edward Powell, Anthony Stokes and Josiah Tattnall, 



196 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

three of the royal council. lu the meantime, insulting replies having 
been made to the demand for the release of Rice, Roberts and Demere, 
two shots were fired from the four-pounders at the vessel, which brought 
the response that the British would treat with the enemy through two 
men in whom the greatest confidence could be placed, and accordingly 
Capt. James Screven, of the St. John's Rangers, and Capt. John Baker, 
of the St. John's Riflemen, were sent. They took with them twelve men 
of Baker's company and rowed over to the vessel, demanding the release 
of the prisoners. The demand meeting with an insulting reply, Baker 
fired at a man on the vessel. Small arms and swivels were discharged 
at the small boat which was nearly sunk, and one man was wounded. 
Firing upon that boat was kept up as long as it was within range, and 
the battery on shore opened upon the vessel. This was kept up for about 
four hours, when the Council of Safety met and resolved that fire be set 
to the shipping. Volunteers for this service were not wanting, and among 
those who thus shared in the act were Capt. Oliver Bowen, John ]\Iorel, 
Lieut. James Jackson, Thomas Hamilton and James Bryan. One vessel, 
called the Inveimess, with a cargo of deer-skins and rice, was set adrift 
in the river in a state of conflagration, and the incident is at this point 
well described by William Ewen, president of the Council of Safety, to 
the body of the same name in South Carolina : ' " Upon this, the soldiers 
in the most laughable confusion got ashore in the marsh, while our rifle- 
men and field-pieces with grape shot Avere incessantly galling them. The 
shipping was now also in confusion. Some got up the river under cover 
of the armed schooner, while others caught the flame, and, as night ap- 
proached, exhibited a scene as they passed and repassed with the tide, 
which at any but the present time would be truly horrible, but now a 
subject only of gratitude and applause. The ships of Captains Inglis 
and Wardell neither got up the river nor on fire. They were ordered on 
shore and now are prisoners of Capt. Screven in the country, and their 
vessels brought down close into a wharf. They were permitted to write 
to Captain Barclay in the evening, to inform him of their situation and 
to request an exchange of prisoners, which the latter peremptorily re- 
fused. ' ' 

Only Two Vessels Escape to Sea 

Nobly did the South Carolina Council of Safety redeem their promise 
to help the Georgians, and Colonel Bull with 350 militia besides 150 
volunteers from Charleston, reached Savannah just in time to unite with 
their neighbors in bringing the conflict to a close, with the result showing 
three of the vessels burnt, six dismantled, and two escaping and going 
to sea. The British, in making their way back to Tybee, landed a party 
of marines at Skidaway to collect supplies, but Lieutenant Hext with a 
company of militia drove them away, and, on the same day, in a skirmish 
on Cockspur island Lieutenants Oates and LaRoche were killed. 

Of that incident, Bishop Stevens, in sunnning up the account, says : 
"The scenes of that day and night were solemn and terrific. The sudden 
marshalling of troops, the alarm of the people, the hurried death-volley, 
and the vessels wrapped in flames, every mast a pinnacle of fire, their 
loosened sails forming the element wliirh was destroying tlieni, and mak- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 197 

ing the darkness hideous with a lurid glare, combined to form a scene of 
awful and soul-stirring sublimity. Hitherto, they had but heard of 
British aggression, but now, their own soil was moist with the blood of 
their slain ; their quiet homes had been assailed ; their property pillaged ; 
and their province threatened with desolation and ruin. The crisis had 
arrived — they met it like heroes: ' ' * 

The affair was undoubtedly creditable to the Georgians, but Gov- 
ernor Wright reported to Lord Dartmouth an exaggerated account of it, 
claiming the capture of "14 or 15 merchant-ships and vessels of one sort 
or other, and on board of which there is about 1600 barrels of rice. It 
was attended with very little loss. I think on the side of the King's 
troops none are hurt : only four sailors are wounded and three of them 
very slightly, and on the part of the rebels I believe only one or two are 
wounded. The rebels burnt a ship, a brig and two small vessels, and have 
detained three or four more which were so situated that they could not 
be brought away." 

Wishing to avoid the cramped quarters on board the vessels and to 
enjoy the comforts of home as far as possible, the officers of the war-ships 
and the refugee governor occupied, whenever they so desired, the houses 
then standing on Tybee island. Considering it a little more in the way 
of comfort than their enemies deserved, the Council of Safety deemed it 
a most proper act on their part to have those houses removed, and under 
the orders of that body an expedition was formed with their destruction 
in view, and the president, Archibald Bulloch, personally led that party, 
burning every house except one occupied by a sick mother and her chil- 
dren. This was done while the destroying force worked under a con- 
stant fire from the man-of-war Cherokee and an armed sloop, in spite 
of which not a man was killed, while two marines and a Tory were 
killed on the island and one marine and several Tories were captured 
by Bulloch's troops. 

Council op Safety Takes Heroic Measures 

The Council of Safety not only directed that the buildings on Tybee 
island be destroyed to prevent their occupancy by Sir James Wright 
and the other loyalists, but on the 2d of March, 1776, they took similar 
steps in reference to the houses in Savannah in the event that the town 
should at any time have to be evacuated, resolving "That rather than 
the same shall be held and occupied by our enemies, or the shipping now 
in the port of Savannah taken and employed by them, that the same shall 
be burnt and destroyed." Commenting on that action, Hugh McCall, 
the historian, says (History of Georgia, Vol. 2, p. 60, Savannah, 1816) : 
"There are many instances of conflagration by order of a monarch 'who 
can do no wrong,' but there are few instances upon record where +he patri- 
otism of the citi/en has urged him on to the destruction of his own prop- 
erty to prevent it becoming an asylum to the enemies of his country." 
This incident is one of many which might be cited in proof of the un- 
selfish spirit of the Americans in the trying times of the Revolution ; 

* Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, Vol. II, p. 31. 



198 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

but we will here mention only one of which we are reminded at this point 
— that of Mrs. Motte, of South Carolina. The story is briefly told by 
Alexander Garden in his "Anecdotes of the Revolutionary War," and 
his own words will answer our purpose: "The patriotic enthusiasm of 
Mrs. Jacob Motte demands particular notice. When, compelled by pain- 
ful duty, Lieutenant Colonel Lee informed her 'that in order to ac- 
complish the immediate surrender of the British garrison occupying 
her elegant mansion, its destruction was indispensable,' she instantly 
replied, 'the sacrifice of my property is nothing, and I shall view its 
destruction with delight, if it shall in any degree contribute to the good 
of my country.' In proof of her sincerity she immediately presented 
the arrows by which combustible matter was to be convej'ed to the 
building. ' ' 

Grandly did South Carolina come to the aid of the Georgians in this 
first conflict. Under Col. Stephen Bull and Major Bourquin' these people, 
to the number of 450, hastened to render such assistance as they could 
give, and, according to Drayton, the various detachments were sta- 
tioned in such way as to protect the interests of Georgia in every way. 
At Ebenezer forty acted as guards to the public records and the gun- 
powder which being more that requisite for the occasion had been 
removed to that point. The adjutant, Thomas Rutledge, certifled on 
the 15th of March that the following troojos served during that crisis : 
the Charleston Volunteers, Charleston Rangers, Charleston Light In- 
fantry, Charleston Fuzileers, Beaufort Light Infantry, St. Helena Vol- 
unteers, Euhaw Volunteers, Hvispa Volunteers, Light Horse or Pocotaligo 
Hunters, detachments from Oakety Creek, St. Peter's Black Swamp, 
Pipe Creek, Boggy Gut, New Windsor and LTpper Three Runs, and the 
Beaufort Artillery. 

Congress Thanks Colonial ]\Iilitlv 

Eight vessels, unhurt and escaping capture in the conflict, were 
left at or near their moorings, and, in order to assure their keeping the 
Council of Safety decreed that their rigging should be removed and 
taken to land, and their rudders unhung. That duty was entrusted to 
Colonel Bull, l)ut it was rumored tliat *'the Carolinians had taken jdos- 
session of Savannah," and that officer therefore turned the matter over 
to Lieutenant Stirk who did what was necessary in good order, assisted 
by forty men detailed from the Georgia militia. The troops from South 
Carolina then departed, and the Georgia provincial congress, on the 
24th of March, adopted a resolution "That the thanks of the Congress 
be returned to Stephen Bull, Esqr., of Sheldon, Colonel of tne Granville 
County regiment of militia, for his important services in command of 
the Colony forces in Savannah ; and that he be desired to signify tlieir 
thanks to the officers and men then under his command.'" It is proper 
to state here tliat the cost of this relief expedition to Georgia paid by 
South Carolina amounted to £6.'2l;^.7s.6d.. 

The province then rested entirely in the keeping of Archibald Bul- 
loch as president and commander-in-chief, the military being under the 
immediate command of Col. Lachlan Mcintosh. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 199 

Wright Goes to England and Eeturns to Savannah 

Before his arrest Governor Wright had applied for and obtained 
leave of absence, and he acknowledged to the Earl of Dartmouth, in a 
letter dated December 11, 1775, the permission given him to return to 
England, in these words: "Two days ago I had the honor to receive 
the duplicate of your Lordship 's letter of the second of August concern- 
ing the leave of absence which his i\Iajesty has been most graciously 
pleased to give me, and of which I retain a grateful sense, and return 
your Lordship my best thanks." After his capture and the events thus 
far recorded in this chapter he availed himself of the consent to leave, 
and, after making the ship Scarborough practically his home until the 
end of IMarch, 1776, he sailed for Halifax which place he reached on the 
21st of April. From that place he proceeded to England where he 
remained until the early summer of 1779 when he was directed to return 
to Savannah, that place having been taken from the Americans by the 
British under command of Sir Archibald Campbell in December, 1778. 
Sir James Wright reached Savannah on the 14th of June, 1779. 

John Graham and Thunderbolt 

With the members of the council at this time this history is not 
particularly concerned, but a few words just here in connection with 
one of them, John Graham, may not be considered untimely. The date 
of his appointment nowhere appears, but, in a letter of November 3, 1775, 
he is mentioned as one of the number by Sir James Wright. During his 
confinement, on the Scarborough the royal governor fux'ther wrote of 
that councillor, that he had "suffered an excf.eding great loss" "by 
the burning of the ship Inverness by the rebels." John Graham had 
lived in Georgia many years, and we find that he made application to 
the council on the 5th of June, 1759, for a piece of marsh containing 
250 acres adjoining "two farm lots known by the numbers one and two 
at Thunderbolt purchased by the petitioner from Isaac Young, and 
surrounded by Thunderbolt Creek." He also secured a deed to a tract 
of land on the Savannah river afterwards known as Mulberry grove and 
confiscated by the state of Georgia at the end of the Revolutionary 
war and presented to Gen. Nathanael Greene. This matter we will treat 
of more at large later on in this history. The first time we find the 
place Thunderbolt mentioned is in a list of effects received from Georgia 
for the benefit of the colony, when, under date March 13, 1733, acknowl- 
edgment is made of the receipt of a gift "by Mr. Samuel Baker, mer- 
chant" of "a cask of Pot Ash made at Thunderbolt in Georgia." We 
next hear of it through General Oglethorpe when writing to the trustees 
on the 27th of February, 1735-6, he mentioned the purchase by himself 
from a sloop of a cargo of provisions "on condition that she should 
go up and deliver them on St. Simon, and the Capt. of these two ships 
went up in her to sound the Bar, and I went within land, and having 
passed by Skidaway and Thunderbolt both which are in a very good 
situation, I arrived at St. Simon the 18th. ' ' Elsewhere it is related that 
the place was so called "from the fall of a Thunderbolt and a spring 



200 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

thereixpon arose in that place which still smells of the bolt.*" It is 
doubtless true that a sulphur spring formerly sent forth its waters at 
that spot, and that the tradition thus mentioned had its origin in that 
fact. Artesian wells recently bored in that neighborhood produce a 
flow of water strongly impregnated with sulphur. 

From the time of the incident of the conflict opposite the city in 
connection with the shipping in the harbor, until the news of the formal 
withdrawal of the thirteen colonies from the control of the English 
government Avas received. Savannah Avas virtually without excitement 
or disturbance of any kind. The troops within the limits of the province 
were so stationed as to keep the people well-guarded against surprise 
or attack from any quarter. To prevent the stealing of cattle the line 
marking the Florida boundary was watched by a force of sixty mounted 
men, Avhile all danger from an onslaught by Avay of the west from the 
Indians Avas averted by the posting in that quarter of a troop of cavalry ; 
but it Avas not an easy matter to guard the sea-coast, and the people had 
to rely entirely upon the fighting qualities of the male inhabitants in 
a hand to hand fight with such of the enemy's troops as might at any 
time land on the soil. There was not a vessel in the harbor Avhich Avould 
serve as protection against an English fleet or even one armed ship of 
Avar. Truly it Avas fortunate that at that particular time no trouble 
in the nature of an invasion occurred to mar the serenity of the Geor- 
gians in a time Avhen they could not afford to make a A^ery stout resistance 
or to stand the loss from their little military force of even one man. An 
attack at that time Avould have resulted not only in disaster to their 
resources both of men and stores, but Avould have disheartened them at 
the very time Avhen their spirits should have been enthused over the 
rapturous ncAvs of the important action of the Continental Congress. 

Savannah's First "Fourth of July" (August 10th) 

It is doubtful Avhether the excitement over the signing of the Declara- 
tion of Independence of the United Colonies Avas anywhere Avithin the 
limits of those colonies as intense as it Avas in the tOAvn of Savannah. It 
Avas over a month after its formal confirmation that the neAvs Avas re- 
ceived here, towit, on the 10th of August, Avhen President Archibald 
Bulloch obtained by the hands of a special messenger a copy of that 
precious document, together Avith a letter from the Hon. John Han- 
cock, president of the Continental Congress. No less than four times 
Avas it read in public on that memorable day. First, it Avas read in the 
presence of the Provincial Congress, assembled for that purpose, and it 
Avas Avith unbounded delight that the representatives of the people 
listened to its Avords of patriotism, courage and determination. Again, 
to the assembled people in the public s<|uare, just in fi'ont of the public 
assembly hall, it Avas deliberately read to all Avho had received notice of 
its reception by the legal head of tlie new administration, and at its 

* Historical Collections of Georgia, by George AVliite, p. 336. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 201 

eonchisiou the grenadiers and light infantry fired a salute, and a pro- 
cession was formed in the following order : 

The Grenadiers in front ; the Provost Marshal on horseback, with his sword 
drawn; the Seeretaiy, bearing the Declaration; His Excellency, the President; the 
honorable, the Council, and gentlemen attending; the Light Infantry; the Militia of 
the town and district of Savannah; and lastly the citizens. 

Marching tints to the liberty pole, at Tondee's tavern, on the north- 
west corner of Broughton and Whitaker streets, they were joined by 
the Georgia battalion, and the document was listened to for the third 
time, after which the military under command of Colonel Mcintosh 
fired thirteen rounds both from the small arms and the cannon. Moving 
from that point the vast crowd made its way to the battery at the eastern 
end of tlie bay, where the trustees' garden also was located, when for the 
fourth and last time the declaration was read amid the greatest rejoicing, 
and the siege guns at that point fired a final sali;te. The festivities did 
not end even there, for the president, joined by the members of council. 
Colonel Mclntosli, the militia and many gentlemen dined under the 
cedar trees, the banquet concluding with the drinking of the toast "Pros- 
perity and perpetuity of the United, Free and Independent States of 
America." But the most imposing part of the celebration was still to 
come. At night fall the town was illuminated, and, in effigy, his majesty 
George the Third was solemnly interred in the presence of what was 
probably the largest procession ever before gathered within the town's 
limits, consisting of the grenadiers, light infantry, the Georgia battalion, 
the militia, and the citizens generally, preceded by drummers beating 
muffled drums, after marching to the place of burial, and the reading 
of this impressive burial service: "For as much as George the Third, 
of Great Britain, hath most flagrantly violated his Coronation Oath, and 
trampled upon the Constitution of our Country and the sacred rights of 
mankind : we, therefore, commit his political existence to the ground — 
corruption to corruption — tyranny to the grave — and oppression to 
eternal infamy ; in sure and certain hope that he will never obtaiji a 
resurrection to rule again over these United States of America. But, 
my friends and fellow citizens, let us not be sorry, as men without 
hope, for Tyrants that thus depart — rather let us remember that Amer- 
ica is free and independent ; that she is, and will be, with the blessings 
of the Almighty, Great among the nations of the earth. Let this en- 
courage us in well doing, to fight for our rights and privileges, for our 
wives and children, and for all that is near and dear unto us. May 
God give us His blessing, and let all the people say Amen." 

As in Christ Church parish, so in all the other parishes were the good 
tidings of the adoption of the act declaring freedom from British op- 
pression received with signal demonstrations of the hearty approval 
and exultation of the people ; and Georgia was classed as a free state, 
leagued with the other twelve for active measures in maintaining the 
new relation into which they had entered among the separate political 
bodies of the world. 



CHAPTER XIX 

SAA^ANNAH HELD BY BRITISH 

Capture op Savannah by British — Disposition op American Forces — 
The British Enter Savannah — Proclamation op Royalists — Com- 
ing op the French Fleet — D'Estaing. Demands Surrender op 
Savannah — British Defence op Savannah — Combined French- 
American Advance — Allied Forces Bombard Savannah — Human- 
ity and Obstinacy — Disaster to the Allies — Count Pulaski's 
Death Wound — The Siege prom a British Standpoint. 

Having passed from a province, subject to the laws and regulations 
adopted by a legislative body whose acts were enforced only after ap- 
proval by the royal authority of England, to a free and independent 
state, it became necessary that Georgia should have a constitution of her 
own, and,, to that end, President Bulloch issued a proclamation calling 
for a general election of representatives to meet in Savannah on the 
first Tuesday in October, 1776. Elections were held in the various 
parishes from the first to the 10th of September. 

True to the principles actuating the electors in choosing them, the 
delegates met at the appointed time in Savannah, and the importance 
of the matter committed to them was so apparent that their delibera- 
tions were well considered and carefully planned, so that a constitution 
entirely satisfactory to all was not completed until the 5th of February, 
1777, and at that time the instrument then adopted and promulgated 
met the hearty approval and indorsement of convention and the mass of 
the people. Under it Georgia acted and was sustained as a common- 
wealth for twelve successive years. 

President Archibald Bulloch did not live to see the independence of 
the state and the Union acknowledged by England, for before the end 
of the month in which the first state constitution in the adoption of 
which he had taken a leading part had been made public, he died literally 
"in harness," and the mourning of the people was genuine and unal- 
loyed. His successor, Button Guinnett, did not long hold office. Elected 
on the 4th of March, only to serve until the choosing of a governor under 
tlie terms of the new constitution, he sought the position of connnander 
under the resolution of the assembly in the formation of a brigade on 
the continental establishment, but was defeated by Col. Lachlan Mc- 
intosh with whom he sought a quarrel and by whom he was mortally 
wounded in a duel on the 16th of May following, dying from said wound 
twelve days afterwards. 

202 . 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 203 

Capture of Savannah by the British 

It is needless to recount the various historical incidents in the state 
prior to the taking of Savannah by Lieut-Col. Archibald Campbell, 
late in 1778. They do not form a part of the history of Savannah. 

The autumn of that year brought with it the alteration in the plan 
of Lord George Germain in the matter of conducting the warfare on 
the colonies. Active measures were employed in the effort to force back 
the allegiance of Georgia and South Carolina whereby Gen. Augustine 
Prevost w'as to invade the former by leading an expedition from East 
Florida, and at the same time Colonel Campbell, with a force proceeding 
from New York, was to make a direct attack upon Savannah. This plan, 
it was thought, would bring Georgia to an immediate surrender. The 
appearance of some vessels, the forerunners of Campbell's fleet, at Tybee 
at the opening of December was the first intimation of his proposed 
invasion. The weather was threatening, and the consecjuent return to 
deep water of those vessels, caused the fear of the Georgians to subside, 
and the impression that no danger confronted the city so possessed the 
mind of the governor that he even ordered the return of the public 
records which, for safety, had been removed; but before the order could 
be ol)eyed the fleet reappeared when Cajotain IMilton was despatched to 
Cliarleston with the precious arcliives. Colonel Campbell's report on 
this subject shows that he sailed from Sandy Hook November 27, 1778, 
and that his force consisted of the Seventy-first Regiment of foot, two 
battalions of Hessians, four battalions of provincials, and a detachment 
of the royal artillery, under escort of a squadron of the royal navy 
commanded by Commodore Parker. On the 23d of December all of the 
ships, except two horse sloops, were anchored off Tybee, and on the 
27th they were safely lying in the Savannah river. 

Sir James Baird was the commander of a light company of the 
Seventy-first Highlanders, and to his band one corps of the light infan- 
try of the provincial battalions was attached, while another corps of the 
provincials was added to the company of the Highland Regiment under 
Captain Cameron. Acting cautiously, in his ignorance of the strength 
of the Americans, Baird 's company, guided by Lieutenant Clarke of the 
navy, and manning two flatboats, proceeded to Wilmington river where 
two men were captured, and on their information it was decided that 
a landing of the troops should be made the next morning at the planta- 
tion of Mr. Girardeau, now knowai as Brewton Hill, less than two miles 
from the town, and the first solid ground available for the purpose be- 
tween Savannah and, Tybee. With the flow of the tide the man-of 
war Vigilant, galley Comet, armed brig Keppel and the armed sloop 
Greenwich, leading, and followed by the transports in three divisions, 
sailed up the river, and at four o'clock in the afternoon the Vigilant 
on approaching the Girardeau place was fired on by two galleys com- 
manded by the Americans which retreated when the war vessels opened 
on them with one shot. Delayed until the tide was too low, and dark- 
ness coming on, the troops could not be landed until the morning fol- 
lowing when the first division, under Lieutenant-Colonel Maitland, 
debarked at Girardeau's and made its way by a march of about eight 



204 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

hundred yards over a narrow causeway to the family residence, standing 
on a bluff. The first to reach shore and proceed towards the high ground 
Avas the light infantry under Captain Cameron; but at the point which 
he proposed to reach a force of forty men commanded by Capt. John 
C. Smith, of South Carolina, was stationed, and that body opened fire 
upon the British killing Cameron and two Highlanders, and wounding 
five others ; but the Americans were forced to retire in the direction of 
the main army, and the first division of the British troops with one of 
the companies of the second battalion of the Seventy-first Regiment, the 
first battalion of Delaneey, the Wellworth battalion, and part of Hessians 
of Wissenbaeh 's regiment occupied the bluff. Leaving a company of the 
second battalion of the Seventy-first Regiment, and the first battalion of 
Delaneey to guard the landing place. Colonel Campbell marched his 
forces towards Savannah, the light infantry in the lead, followed by the 
volunteers from New York, and then came the first battalion of the Sev- 
enty-first Regiment with two six-pounder guns, and the AVellworth bat- 
talion of Hessians with two three-pounders, the rear being brought up 
with part of the Wissenbaeh Hessian l^attalion. The main road, when 
reached, was guarded by the last named against any attack from the 
rear. A swamp, densely wooded, protected the left of the British line, 
while the open plantations on the right in a state of cultivation, were 
patroled by the light infantry. When Tattnall 's plantation was reached, 
a little before three o'clock in the afternoon, a stop was made in the 
progress of the march, and the light infantry was formed in line on the 
right, at a point about two hundred paces from the gate enclosing the 
grounds belonging to Governor Wright. 

Disposition of American Forces 

Informing himself of all the movements of the British, Gen. Robert 
Howe encamped his army of Americans at a point southeast of Savannah 
where he Avaited, anxiously expecting reinforcements from South Car- 
olina, both of continental troops and militia. His army was in no con- 
dition for the coming encounter, having just passed through the un- 
happy Florida campaign which lirought sickness and disease to about 
one-fourth of his troops, and left him at this time with only a numerical 
strength of 672, exclusive of the militia. The troops of Colonel Camp- 
bell, on the other hand, numbered more than two thousand. Notice of 
the fact that a conflict Avas imminent Avas given on the 28th of December, 
and on the next day this order Avas issued to the American forces : 

"Head Quarters, Savannah, December 29, ITfS. 

"Parole, Firmness. The first brigade is to be told oft' into sixteen 
platoons of an ecjual number of files ; the odd files to be formed into one 
platoon on the right Aving of the brigade to act as light infantry accord- 
ing to exigencies. 

"Taa'o field officers to be appointed to the command of the right 
Aving of both brigades. 

"The second brigade to be told oft' into eight platoons of an equal 
number of files to be formed on tlie left of the first brigade in order to 
act as light infantry as Avill be directed. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 205 

"Colonel Isaac Huger will command the right wing of the army 
composed of the first brigade and the light troops belonging to it. 

''The artillery of both brigades and the park to be posted before 
and during the action as shall l)e directed, and defend their ground 
until further orders. The artillery when ordered or forced to retreat 
are to fall into the road leading to the western defile where Colonel 
Roberts is to take as advantageous a post as possible to protect the re- 
treat of the line." 

At that date there were three highways leading into Savannah : the 
one from Thunderbolt and Brewton Hill ; that by which the Ogeechee 
and White Bluff population made their way into the town ; and one 
running from the west known as the Augusta road, leading through the 
swampy ground bordering on ^lusgrove creek. 

Col. Samuel Elbert called the attention of General Howe to the great 
importance of holding Brewton Hill, and offered his aid in gaining con- 
trol of that point, but Howe did not comprehend the importance of the 
suggestion, and most foolishly made his stand at a point not far from 
the southeastern limit of Savannah, proljably the most disadvantageous 
that could have been chosen. 

The most condensed account of the fall of Savannah, and, at the same 
time, probably as accurate as any we have, is given by Bishop W. B. 
Stevens whose narrative from this point follows : 

"Expecting the attack on the great road leading to Brewton 's Hill 
[Girardeau's plantation], General Howe had burnt down a little bridge 
that crossed a small rivulet, and about three hundred feet in the rear 
of this marshy rivulet, a trench was cut which soon filled with water, so 
that the trench, the stream and the marsh through which it flowed, of- 
fered serious embarrassment to the advance of the enemy. At this 
point General Howe had placed two cannon that flanked the causeway, 
and three that bore directly on its front. Thus stationed, the Americans 
awaited the onset. 

"Colonel Campbell had discovered their position, and having de- 
tailed a proper guard to cover the landing, pressed oA to the attack. 
The light infantry, under Sir James Baird, advanced first, supported 
by the New York volunteers, under De Lancey. These were followed 
by the first battalion of the 71st, with two six-pounders ; and part of 
Wissenbach's battalion of Hessians which formed the rear. By 3 P. ]\1. 
they had reached the open country near Tattnall's plantation, and halted 
awhile, as if preparing for the battle. 

"Advantageously posted as the Americans were, it would have been 
quite hazardous to have offered them battle in front, for they were too 
well protected by the intervening marsh and stream and ditch. The 
aim of Colonel Campbell, therefore, was to gain, if possible, their rear, 
or turn their extended flanks. In this desire he Avas fortunately aided 
by an old negro. Quash Dolly,* who informed him of a private path, 
leading through the wooded swamp, by which he could gain, unperceived, 
the rear of the Americans. This path had been pointed out to General 
Howe, in the morning, by Colonel Walton, as being a place necessary 

* Called by other writers Quamino Dolly. 



206 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

to guard and secure ; but it was culpably and, as the event proved, disas- 
trously neglected. Manoeuvering in front, as if about to attack the left 
flank of General Howe, the Americans opened their fire upon the enemy, 
who, however, received it in silence, not a gun being fired in return. 
Perceiving the Americans thus deceived by the feint, the British com- 
mander lost no time in directing Sir James Baird, with the light infan- 
try and the New York volunteers, to follow the guidance of the negro, 
and secure the rear of the Americans. They reached their destined 
point, unperceived by General Howe, and suddenly issuing from the 
swamp attacked a body of militia which had been posted on the great 
road leading to the Ogeechee. As soon as this firing gave notice to the 
commander that Major Baird had effected his purpose, he gave orders 
for the whole British column to advance at a rapid pace ; while the 
artillery, which had been previously formed behind a slight rising 
ground, to conceal it from view, Avas instantly run forward to the em- 
inence, and began to play upon the Americans. With a destructive fire 
thus unexpectedly pouring in upon them in front and rear our troops 
were thrown into confusion, and thus were compelled to make a hasty re- 
treat. The center of the American line, with the commanding general, 
were enabled, by the exertions of Col. Daniel Roberts — who had partially 
secured the road leading to the causeway over Musgrove's swamp — to 
pass in comparative safety ; the right flank, under Colonel Huger, at- 
tempting to go through the town, rushed between two fires, and many 
were bayoneted in the streets ; the left, under Colonel Elbert, finding 
it impracticable to pass the causeway, now in possession of the British, 
ca.st away their arms and accoutrements, and, throwing themselves 
into the swamps and ricefields, sought, by swimming the creek, then in 
full tide, to reach the Augusta road, though thirty men lost their lives 
in this perilous attempt. 

"While Colonel Campbell had been thus successful by land. Sir Hyde 
Parker had not remitted his vigilance in the fleet. As soon as he dis- 
covered that the troops had made an impression on the American line, 
he moved up the small armed vessels to the town, sending the 'Comet' 
galley as high up as the ebb-tide would permit, securing the shipping 
and commanding the town from all approaches on the Carolina side. 
This movement completely shi;t in Savannah from succor, and was 
effected with the loss of only one seaman killed and five wounded ; while 
the squadron captured one hundred and twenty-six prisoners and seized 
thi'ee ships, three brigs, and eight smaller vessels. 

The British Enter Savannah 

"The British entered Savannah without opposition, and, notwith- 
standing the assurance of Colonel Campbell in his official dispatches, 
'that little or no depredation took place, and that even less than had 
ever happened to a town under similar circumstances,' yet the soldiers 
and officers did commit atrocities and cruelties upon the inhabitants of 
a character more worthy of savages than of men.'' 

The loss to the Americans was, according to Colonel Campbell, in 
his report to Lord George Germain, eighty-three who were found dead 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 207 

upon the common, and eleven wounded. He also stated that through 
prisoners he had the information that thirty were drowned in the swamp 
while trying to escape. Besides the loss in killed and wounded, the 
Americans had thirty-eight officers and 415 non-commissioned officers 
and privates fall in to the hands of the enemy as prisoners, and the loss 
of property also was great, incliiding forty-eight pieces of cannon, 
twenty-three mortars, ninety-four barrels of powder, a fort, and all of 
the shipping in port. Numbered among the prisoners were the Rev. 
Moses Allen, chaplain of the Georgia brigade, and the Hon. Jon- 
athan Bryan whose patriotism was unbounded and Avhose example was 
such as many younger men would have done well to imitate. The 
former was captured in an attempt to escape capture by swimming to 
land. Others captured were Mordecai Sheftall, deputy commissary 
general of issues to the continental troops, his son, Sheftall Sheftall, 
Edward Davis, Dr. George Wells, David Moses Vallotton, and James 
Bryan, son of Jonathan Bryan. These were all sent on board prison- 
ships and they were submitted to the most cruel and inhuman treatment. 
The names of the ships were the "Nancy," Captain Samuel Tait; the 
"Whitby," Captain Lawson; the "Eleanor," Captain Rathbone, and 
the "Munificence." 

General Howe was on all sides censured and criticised for the man- 
ner in which he managed his side of that affair, and the general assembly 
of the state appointed a committee "to take into consideration the sit- 
uation of the state since the 29th of December, 1778," which reported 
as follows: "Your Committee are of opinion that the delegates of this. 
State should be directed to promote a trial of IMajor-General Howe who 
commanded on that day. They find that the good people of the state 
were still further discouraged by the said Major-General Howe crossing 
Savannah River the next day with the troops that escaped from Savan- 
nah, and ordering those at Sunbury and Augusta to do the same, leaving 
the state at the mercy of the enemy without any Continental troops, 
instead of retreating to the back countiy and gathering the inhabitants. 
The country, thus abandoned, became an easy prey to the British troops, 
they marching lap and taking post at Augusta and sending detachments 
to every part of the State." General Howe's conduct was investigated 
by a court of inquiry, but he was acquitted. 

Savannah having fallen into the control of the British, and Governor 
Wright being still in England, the command was given to a military 
officer, Colonel Innis, aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton. His military 
spirit was shown by an immediate proclamation ordering the citizens 
of the district, including the town, to surrender to the military store- 
keeper all their arms, ammunition, and accoutrements, as well as to 
make known where such articles were secreted, threatening them with 
severe punishment in case of failure to comply with the requirements. 

Proclamation op Royalists 

Combining their authority in one general order, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Campbell and Sir Hyde Parker, on the 4th of January, 1779, published 
the fact that a fleet and army were actually within the borders of 



208 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ' 

Georgia for the protection of the friends of the royal government, and 
pledging protection to all who would renounce their allegiance to the 
cause of liberty and to those "who reprobated the idea of supporting 
a French league, and wished to embrace the happy occasion of cementing 
a firm union with the Parent State free from the imposition of taxes 
by the Parliament of Great Britain, and secured in the irrevocable en- 
joyment of every privilege consistent with that union of force on which 
their material interests depended ' ' ; and such as should be willing to 
secure the rights promised by that document were expected to present 
themselves in person at Savannah and take the oath prepared for that 

purpose in these words : "I do solemnly swear that I will 

bear true and faithful allegiance to his Majesty, King George the Third, 
my lawful Sovereign, and that I will, at all risks, stand forth in support 
of his person and government. And I do solemnly disclaim and renounce 
that unlawful and iniquitous confederacy called the General Continental 
Congress, also the claim set up by them to independency, and all obedi- 
ence to them, and all subordinate jurisdictions assumed by or under 
their authority. All this I do sincerely promise without equivocation 
or mental reservation whatsoever. So help me God." 

This action was followed a week after by another proclamation offer- 
ing, "a reward of ten guineas for every committee and assemblyman 
taken Avithin the limits of Georgia," and a further offer of the amount 
of two guineas "for every lurking villain who might be sent from 
Carolina to molest the inhabitants. ' ' Various other matters, such as 
iixing the prices of merchandise, granting licenses, naming the amount 
of fines for disobedience to the regulations, etc., were attended to in the 
matter of local trade and the conduct of the people, until the return of 
Sir James Wright on the l-lth of July, 1779. Savannah, then, was dur- 
ing the remainder of the period covered by the Revolution, until its 
evacuation by the British on the 11th of July, 1782, the headquai'ters 
of the loyalist government, and the capital of the state was removed 
to Augusta. 

At the time of the disaster under General HoAve that officer was in 
command only in expectation of the early arrival of Gen. Benjamin 
Lincoln Avho, on the 26th of Septemlier, 1778. had been named liy the 
Continental Congress to take command of the army in the southern de- 
partment of the United States. Lincoln relieved Howe at Purysburg 
en the 3d of January, 1779, just five days after the loss of Savannah. 

Coming of the French Fleet 

France became the ally of the United States on the signing of the 
treaty at Versailles, February 6, 1778, and, in furtherance of that 
treaty a fleet of French vessels sailed from Toulon on the 12th of April. 
Twelve ships of the line and four frigates, all under the command of 
Count d'Estaing, comprised the fleet, and a delay in the passage caused 
the prime object of its sailing to be frustrated, bringing about a change 
in the plan whereby the ships after operating for a while along the 
northern coast sailed to the West Indies, capturing Gi'enada and St. 
A-'incent. Here d'Estaing i-eceived letters from the French minister, 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 209 

General Lincoln, and ]\I. Plombard, the French consul at Charleston, 
asking his co-operation with Lincoln in the capture of Savannah. That 
request met with his approval, and sailing from the Windward Islands, 
he reached tlie Georgia coast September 3, 1779. Not expecting the 
appearance of a formidable naval force, Sir James Wallace, in command 
of the British fleet oft' Tybee, was forced to surrender to the French some 
of his ships. Before the time appointed for his joining Lincoln, which 
was set for the 17th of September, d'Estaing landed on Tybee, causing 
the evacuation of that post hy the British, and proceeded to Ossabaw 
where Col. Joseph Habersham awaited him with instructions as to the 
landing of the troops. During that time General Lincoln was gathering 
together the militia and securing recruits for his army. In the evening 
of the 12th, soldiers amounting to twelve hundred, selected from the 
regiments, were landed at Beaulieu, formerly the residence of President 
William Stephens, where a detachment of the enemy with two field-pieces 
had been posted, but the approach of the fleet caused the immediate 
withdrawal of that force. Some difficulty having been encountered in 
the landing of the troops, it took all of three days, the 13th, 14th, and 
15th, to eft'ect that object. Meanwhile Count Pulaski had made a junc- 
tion with the French, and the march for Savannah beginning in the morn- 
ing of the 16th, the encampment that evening was made at Greenwich, 
about three miles from the town. The centre of this force was com- 
manded by d'Estaing, the right by Dillon, and the left by Noailles. The 
Georgia continentals, commanded by Gen. Laehlan Mcintosh, and on 
duty at Augusta, received orders from General Lincoln to take the 
British outposts and oi^en the way to the coast, and, having done so, 
retired to Miller 's plantation, there to join the troops under his command. 
General Lincoln was occupied on the 12th and 13th in transporting 
his forces across the Savannah at Zubly's Ferry, and that work was 
retarded by the want of boats, as the British had destroyed all they 
could find. A junction with the advance guard of General Lincoln's 
army was made by Mcintosh in the afternoon of the 13th, and those 
combined troops made camp at Cherokee Hill. 

D'Estaing Demands Surrender op Savannah 

Count d'Estaing, on the 16th, having with him the grenadiers of 
Auxerrois and the chasseurs of Champagne and Guadeloupe, and before 
the arrival of Lincoln with his American forces, thinking it time to 
take some definite step, sent a communication to Ma j. -Gen. Augustine 
Prevost, the ranking officer of the British army, demanding the surrender 
of the town of Savannah, doing this, as will be seen, in the name of 
the King of France. 

The demand was in the following words : ' ' Count d 'Estaing summons 
his Excellency General Prevost to surrender himself to the arms of his 
Majesty the King of France. He admonishes him that he will be per- 
sonally answerable for every event and misfortune attending a defence 
demonstrated to be absolutely impossible and useless from the superior- 
ity of the force which attacks him by land and sea. He also warns him 
that he will be nominally and personally answerable henceforward for 



210 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ' 

the burning, previous to or at the hour of attack, of any ships or vessels 
of war or merchant ships in the Savannah River, as well as of magazines 
in the town. 

"The situation of the Morne de I'Hopital in Grenada, the strength 
of the three redoubts which defended it, the disproportion bet'R'ixt the 
number of the French troops now before Savannah and the inconsider- 
able detachment which took Grenada by assault, should be a lesson for 
the future. Humanity requires that Count d'Estaing shoidd remind 
you of it. After this he can have nothing with which to reproach him- 
self. 

"Lord Macartney had the good fortune to escape in person on the 
first outset of troops forcing a town SAvord in hand, but having shut 
up his valuable effects in a fort deemed impregnable by all his officers 
and engineers, it was impossible for Count d'Estaing to be happy enough 
to prevent the whole from being pillaged." 

To the above summons General Prevost made this reply : 

"Savannah, September 16th, 1779 — Sir: I am just now honored 
with your Excellency's letter of this date, containing a summons for 
me to surrender this town to the arms of his Majesty the King of France, 
which I had just delayed to answer till I had shown it to the King's 
Civil Governor. 

"I hope your Excellency will have a better opinion of me and of 
British troops than to think either will surrender on general summons 
without any specific terms. 

"If you, Sir, have any to propose that may with honor be accepted 
of by me, you can mention them both with regard to civil and military, 
and I will give my answer. In the meantime I promise upon my honor 
that nothing with my consent or knowledge shall be destroyed in either 
this town or river." 

Count d'Estaing then promptly despatched this response to General 
Prevost : 

"Camp before Savannah, September 16th, 1779 — Sir: I have just 
received your Excellency's answer to the letter I had the honor of writ- 
ing to you this morning. You are sensible that it is the part of the 
Besieged to propose such terms as they may desire, and you can not 
doubt of the satisfaction I shall have in consenting to those which I can 
accept consistently with my duty. 

"I am informed that yon continue intrenching yourself. It is a 
matter of vei'y little importance to me. However, for form's sake, I 
must desire that you Avill desist during our conferences. 

"The different columns, which I had ordered to stop, will continue 
their march, but without approaching your posts or reconnoiteriug your 
situation. 

"P. S. I apprise your Excellency that I have not been able to refuse 
the Army of the United States uniting itself with that of the King. 
The junction will probably be effected this day. If I have not an answer 
therefoi-e innnediately, you must confer in the future with General 
Lincoln and me." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 211 

The correspondence was continued by this note jDromptly sent by 
General Prevost to Count d'Estaing: 

"Savannah, September, 16th, 1779 — Sir: I am honored with your 
Excellency's letter in reply to mine of this day. The business we have 
in hand being of importance, there being various interests to discuss, 
a just time is absolutely necessary to deliberate. I am therefor to pro- 
pose that a cessation of hostilities shall take place for twenty-foi;r hours 
from this date ; and to re(iuest that your Excellency will order your 
columns to fall back to a' greater distance and out of sight of our works 
or I shall think myself under the necessity to direct their being fired 
upon. If they did not reconnoiter anything afternoon, they were sure 
within the distance." 

Consenting to the cessation of hostilities, but probably making a 
mistake in not having the advice of others whose opinion should have 
been asked, the count returned the following: 

"Camp bepork Savannah, September 16, 1779 — Sir: I consent to 
the truce you ask. It shall continue till the signal for retreat to-morrow 
night, the 17th, which will serve also to announce the recommencement 
of hostilities. It is unnecessary to observe to your Excellency that this 
suspension of arms is entirely in your favor, since I can not be certain 
that you will not make use of it to fortify yourself, at the same time that 
the propositions you shall make may be inadmissable. 

"I must observe to you also how important it is that you should be 
fully aware of your own situation as well as that of the troops under 
your command. Be assured that I am thoroughly ac(iuainted with it. 
Your knowledge in military affairs will not suffer you to be ignorant 
that a diie examination of that circumstance always precedes the march 
of the columns, and that this preliminary is not carried into execution 
by the mere show of troops. 

"I have ordered them to withdraw before night comes on to prevent 
any cause of complaint on your part. I understand that my civility in 
this respect has been the occasion that the Chevalier de Chambis, a lieu- 
tenant in the Navy, has been made a prisoner of war. 

"I propose sending out some small advanced posts tomorrow morn- 
ing. They will place themselves in such a situation as to have in view 
the four entrances into the wood in order to prevent a similar mistake 
in future. I do not know whether two columns commanded by the 
Viscount de Noailles and the Count de Dillon have shown too much 
ardor, or whether your cannoniers have not paid a proper respect to 
the truce siibsisting between us ; but this I know, that what has hap- 
pened this night is a proof that matters will soon come to a decision 
between us one way or another." 

On the same day the foregoing communications were written the 
American forces commanded by General Lincoln and the French 
under Count d'Estaing formed a junction, and it was supposed by 
those two leaders that failure was impossible. The French camp which 



21-2 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

at first was located southeast of the towii, was moved to a position 
nearly south, with General Dillon in command of the right, Count 
d'Estaing the center, and Count de Noailles the left, the front of the 
line resting parallel with the streets of the town. To the southwest 
General Lincoln's command was stationed, while to his rear was the 
Springfield plantation swamp. Between Lincoln and the French stood 
Count Pulaski's cavalry camp facing to the north. It is admitted that 
d'Estaing made a mistake in consenting to a twenty-four hours' delay 
in commencing the conflict. 

British Defence op Savannah 

For this work of defending Savannah against the attack of the com- 
bined American and French troops, General Prevost had well fortified 
the place. In addition to the twenty-three cannon, all that were mounted 
just before the advance of the I'rench fleet, one hundred more were 
mounted. The military under Lieut. Col. Cruger at Sunbury had been 
sent from that point to aid in the defence, and from all the outposts 
troops were called in to strengthen the British army. Nearly five hun- 
dred negroes were set to work, and the batteries from the war vessels 
in' the river were transferred to the earthworks. When the attacking 
began they had erected thirteen redoubts together with fifteen gun 
batteries mounting eighty guns, and they were manned by sailors from 
the "Fowey, " the "Rose," and the "Keppel." The channel had been 
obstructed by the sinking of ships to prevent the sailing of American 
and French vessels up the river, and that work was accomplished by 
Captain ]\Ioncrieff. 

Colonel jMaitland was ordered from Beaufort with a troop of eight 
hundred men, and when he approached Daufuskie. finding the river 
in possession of the French fleet, and his advance thereby stopped, he 
became aware, through some negro flshermen, of the fact that there was 
a passage called Wall's Cut, through Scull creek, through which small 
boats could pass at high tide, and in that way, aided by a dense fog, he 
led his men through to Savannah, where he arrived in the afternoon of 
the 17th. Of that feat Hugh McCall says: ''The acquisition of this 
formidable reinforcement, headed by an experienced and l)rave officer, 
effected a complete change in the dispirited garrison. A signal was made, 
and three cheers were given, which rang from one end of the town to the 
other." On the arrival of Maitland, General Prevost replied to 
d'Estaing. as follows: 

"Savannah, September 17th, 1779 — Sir: In answer to the letter of 
your Excellency Avhich I had the honor to receive about twelve last 
night, I am to acquaint you that having laid the whole correspondence 
before the King's Civil Governor and the military officers of rank, as- 
semliled in Council of War, the unanimous determination has been that 
tliongh we can not look upon our post as absolutely inq")regnalile, yet 
that it may and ought to be defended ; therefore the evening gun to be 
fired this evening at the hour before sundown shall be the signal for 
recommencing hostilities agreeable to your Excellency's proposal." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 213 

In the mind of Connt d'Estaing there was not the slightest doubt 
as to the successful issue of the attack about to be made. So confident 
was he of the result that he did not wait for General Lincoln, and it was 
doulitless his ambition that victory would be achieved by the French 
unaided by the Americans. His desire might have been fulfilled had he 
not consented to the delay proposed. Finding that the demand for 
an immediate surrender met with a positive denial, and realizing that 
the enemy had made much of the time gained by his granting a respite, 
the count changed his plan, and, instead of making a quick assault, he 
planned for the capture of the town by besieging it, and promptly ad- 
vanced his own line to about twelve hundred yards of the English, 
showing a front of thirty-two hundred yards. On the left of the French 
was formed the American line, under Lincoln, resting on the swamp 
located at the western limit of Savannah. The division of de Noailles 
came next, and it was composed of the regiments of Champagne, Aux- 
errois, Foix, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, numbering nine hundred 
men. To the right of de Noailles the regiments of Cambresis, Hainault, 
volunteers of Berges, Agenois, Gatinois, the Cape, and Port au Prince, 
one thousand strong, forming the division of d'Estaing, together with 
the artillery, made the center of the French army. The right was made 
up of Dillon's division, nine hundred in all. including men of his own 
regiment with those of Armagnac and the volunteer gi-enadiers. A small 
field hospital, the cattle depot and the powder magazine were on Dil- 
lon's right, and slightly in advance of the depot were stationed fifty men 
of the dragoons of Conde and Belzume under M. Dejean. Furtber to 
the right came the dragoons of M. de Rouvrai and his volunteer chas- 
seurs, in all about 750. To the extreme right, but about two hundred 
yards in advance of M. de Rouvrai the grenadier volunteers, under M. 
des Framais, together with about two hundred troops, detached from 
the various regiments, held position. This arrangement, made on the 22d 
of September, closed the right of the army and completely invaded the 
town on the land side. 

In the river lay the frigate "La Truite" and two galleys, and they 
were within cannon shot of Savannah; and the frigate "La Chimere" 
and the armed store-ship "La Bricole" were placed in such a position 
as to prevent communication with the islands near the mouth of the river. 

Thunderbolt became the point of communication with the French 
fleet, and at that place a large house was used as a hospital. 

The river channel had been obstructed by the sinking of the ships 
"Rose" and "Savannah," and four transports, and so the armed ves- 
sels of the French could not approach near enough to render aid in the 
siege. Above the town small boats had been used for the purpose of 
preventing the passing of galleys up North river around Hutchinson's 
island and attacking at that point. Added to these precautions the 
British had guns mounted on the bluff as a protection on the north side. 

We have given in detail the numerical strength of the French allies ; 
to that number must be added the American forces engaged in the siege, 
under General Lincoln, amounting to twenty-one hundred, all told. It 
is estimated that the British numbered twenty-five hundred inside the 



214 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

lines for the defense of Savannah, including Colonel Maitland's troops. 

"We now give in full,' in order to a clear understanding of the situa- 
tion, the orders of General Prevost, issued September 9th, as to the 
disposition of his army : ' ' The regiment of Wissenbaeh to take their 
ground of encampment; likewise the 2d battalion of General Delancey's. 
In case of an alarm, which will be known by the beating to arms both 
at the Barracks and main guard, the troops are to repair to their several 
posts without confusion or tumult. 

"Captain Stuart of the British Legion will take post with his men 
in the work on the right near the river. The main guard to be relieved 
by convalescents from the Hessians. 

"Major Wright's corps to send their convalescents in the old fort. 
Twenty-four men in the small redoubt, and seventy men in the left flank 
redoubt above the road to Tattnall's. 

"The militia to assemble in rear of the Barracks. 

"The Light Infantry, the Dragoons, and Carolina Light-Horse as 
a reserve, two hundred yards behind the Barracks. 

"The King's Rangers, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Brown, 
in the small redoubt on the right, with fifty men ; the remainder extend- 
ing towards the larger redoubt on the right. 
. "The Carolinians divided equally in the two large redoubts. 

' ' The Battalion men of the 60th Regiment in the right redoubt. The 
Grenadiers on the left, extending along the abatis towards the Barracks ; 
the Hessians on the left, so as to fill up the space to the Barracks. 

' ' On the left of the Barracks, the 3rd Battalion of Skinner 's, General 
Delancey's, and the New York Volunteers, and on the left the 71st 
Regiment lining the abatis to the left flank redoubt on the road to 
Tattnall's. 

' ' If all orders are silently and punctually obeyed, the General makes 
no doubt that, if the enemy should attempt to make an attack, the}' will 
be repulsed and the troops maintain their former well acquired reputa- 
tion ; nor will it be the first time that British and Hessian troops have 
beat a greater superiority of both French and Americans than it is 
probable they will have to encounter on this occasion. The General 
repeats his firm reliance on the spirit and steady coolness of the ti'oops 
he has the honor to command." 

So wrote Prevost on the 9th of September, and when Colonel j\Iait- 
land, with his substantial addition to the defenders of the British cause 
against the attack of the Americans and their French supporters, was 
safe in the town and the time to show their mettle was near at hand, he 
supplemented those instnictions with the following general order : 

"Camp before Savannah, 17th September, 1779 — Parole, Maitlaud. 
Countersign, St. George, Field oflicers for tomorrow, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Cruger and Major Graham. 

"The troops to be under arms this afternoon at four o'clock. As 
the enemy is now very near, an attack may be hourly expected. The 
General therefore desires that the whole may be in instant readiness. 
By tlie known steadiness and spirit of the troops he has the most x;n- 
limited dependence, doubting nothing of a glorious victory should the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 215 

enemy try their strength. What is it that may not, by the blessings of 
God, be expected from the united efforts of British sailors and soldiers 
and valiant Hessians against an enemy that they have often beaten 
before ? 

"In case of a night attack, the General earnestly requests the utmost 
silence to be observed, and attention to the officers, who "vvill be careful 
that the men do not throw away their fire at random, and warn them 
earnestly not to fire until ordered." 

Combined French-American Advance 

In preparation for the attack guns were landed at Thunderbolt from 
the French fleet, and thence taken for use on the lines outside of the 
town. 

The first advance was made on Wednesday the 22d, by the small 
company of fifty picked men from Noailles's division, led by M. de 
Guillaume in an effort to take an advanced post of the British; but he 
met with a sharp return of artillery and small arms, and was repulsed. 

The besieging force on the next afternoon (the 23d), at 3 o'clock 
opened a trench at a distance of three hundred yards from the enemy's 
works, guarded by six companies to protect them while at work. This 
act which was begun while a heavy fog enveloped the posts, was dis- 
covered in the morning by the British who at once attacked the eager 
workers, and they have asserted that this assault on the part of Major 
Graham with three companies of light infantry was simply for the pur- 
pose of driving the French out of their lines to gain information as to 
their strength. Be this as it may, the Major was forced to retreat with 
a loss of twenty-one killed and wounded. 

As early as 7 o'clock in the morning of September 25th a battery 
under the direction of M. de Sauce began to fire upon the town with the 
full force of its two eighteen pounders; but the Count d'Estaing, not 
satisfied, ordered a reinforcement of this battery making it consist of 
twelve eighteen and twelve pounders, and the construction of another 
battery on the right of the trench, comprising thirteen eighteen pound- 
ers. Besides, he caused the placing at a point two hundred yards to the 
left and rear of the trench of nine mortars, by the side of which he 
ordered that six sixteen pounders, to be manned by Americans, be put 
in position; and then he commanded that there be no firing until all 
that work should be completed. 

We have an account of a sortie made on the 27th by Maj. Archibald 
McArthur with a detachment of the Seventy-first Regiment, in an en- 
deavor to force the allies to abandon the construction of their batteries 
which was unsuccessful; and the moving up the river on the 28th of 
the frigate La Truite and entering the north channel of the river, 
making an useless attempt to bombard the town. 

The family of General Mcintosh was left in Savannah, and, on the 
29th of September, by his request General Lincoln consented to send a 
flag of truce with a letter to General Prevost to obtain, if possible, per- 
mission for Mrs. INIcIntosh and the children to leave the town. General 
Mcintosh's aid, Maj. John Jones, was the bearer of the flag of truce, 
and, cruel as it may seem, General Prevost refused to grant the request. 



216 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Concerning Avhat happened in the town we have these words of ]\Iajor 
Jones in a letter written from the camp before Savannah on the 7th 
of October, eight days after : 

"The poor women and children have suffered beyond description. 
A number of them in Savannah have already been put to death by our 
bombs and cannon. A deserter has this moment come out who gives an 
account that many of them were killed in their beds, and amongst others 
a poor woman, with her infant in her arms, was destroyed by a cannon 
ball. They have all gone into cellars ; but even there they do not escape 
the fury of our bombs, several having been mangled in that supposed 
place of security. I pity General Mcintosh ; his situation is peculiar. 
The whole of his family is there." 

In connection with this most important event in the history of Savan- 
nah, the following incident, written by the Rev. George White and 
printed in his ' ' Statistics of the State of Georgia, ' '* well deserves a place 
here : 

"During the siege of Savannah, one of the most extraordinary cap- 
tures took place that the annals of Avarfare ever recorded. When General 
Prevost called in his detachments he ordered the commandant at Sun- 
bury, on the Georgia coast, upon evacuating that post, to put the in- 
valids on board of the small armed vessels, and to send them by the 
inland navigation to Savannah under the care of Captain Trench, of 
the British Regulars. In consequence of head Avinds Captain Trench 
and his command were detained until some of d'Estaing's fleet were in 
possession of the pass, and he Avas induced to sail up the Ogeechee river 
until he reached a point about 25 miles from the city of Savannah. 
Having arrived here, he learned that the passage OA'er land Avas also 
blocked up by the allied force, and he therefore made a descent upon 
the shore, and finally took post Avith his party about 15 or 20 miles from 
Savannah. Col. John White, of the Georgia line, having ascertained 
that Captain Trench's force consisted of 111 soldiers possessing 130 
stand of arms, and that he also had under his charge, in the river Ogee- 
chee adjacent to his camp, five vessels, four of them fully armed, and 
one of them mounting 14 guns and manned by 40 seamen, formed the 
resolution of capturing the detachment. He disclosed his plan to those 
who were with him. McCall, in his Historj- of Georgia, says that the 
party consisted of Colonel AVhite, Capts. Geo. Melvin and A. E. Elholm, 
a sergeant and three privates, seven in all. Other histories make no 
mention of Captain Melvin, or of a sergeant, but give the AA'hole praise 
to White, Elholm, and three soldiers, reducing the number to five. White 
built many Avatch-fires around the camp, placing them in such a posi- 
tion, and at such intervals, as to induce Captain Trench and his soldiers 
to believe that he Avas absolutely siirrounded by a large force. The 
deception Avas kept up through the night by White and his companions 
marching from fire to fire Avith the measured tread and the loud chal- 
lenge of sentinels, noAV hailing from the east of the British camp, and 
then shifting rapidly their position and challenging from the extreme 
Avest. Nor Avas this the only stratagem ; each mounted a horse and rode 

* Pages 163-165. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 217 

with haste in divers directions, imitating the manner of the staff, and 
giving orders with a loud voice. The delusion was complete. Captain 
Trench suffered himself to he completely trapped. White carried his 
daring plan forward by dashing boldly and alone to the camp of the 
British, and demanding a conference with Trench. 'I am the com- 
mander, Sir,' he said, 'of the American soldiers in your vicinity. If 
you will surrender at once to my force, I will see to it that no injury is 
done to you or your command. If you decline to do this, I must candidly 
inform you that the feelings of my troops are highly incensed against 
you, and I can by no means be responsible for any consequences that 
may ensue.' Trench thanked him for his humanity, and said, despond- 
ingly, that it was useless to contend with fate or with the large force 
that he saw was around him, and announced his ^WUingness to sur- 
render his vessels, his men and himself to Colonel White. At this instant 
Captain Elholm came suddenly dashing up at full speed, and, saluting 
White, inquired of him where he should place the artillery. 'Keep them 
back, Keep them back. Sir,' answered White, 'the British have sur- 
rendered. Move your men off, and send me three guides to conduct them 
to the American post at Sunbury.' The three guides arrived. The 
five vessels were burned, and the British, urged by White to keep clear 
of his men, and to hasten their departure from the enraged and formid- 
able Americans, pushed on with great celerity, whilst White retired with 
one or two of his associates, stating that he would go to his troops in 
the rear and restrain them. He now employed himself in collecting the 
neighborhood militia, with which he overtook his guides, and conducted 
them in safety to the Sunbury post. This took place on the first of 
October, 1779."" 

The besieged were, on the 2d of October, forced by a heavy fire from 
the frigate La Truite lying in the north channel, to strengthen their 
position by the erection of a new battery and otherwise. 

Allied Forces Bombard Savannah 

Everything being in readiness, the allied forces began the bombard- 
ment of the town at midnight on the 3d of October, but kept it up for 
only about two hours, the wild aim of the missiles showing, as it is said, 
that the use of rum had been too free on the part of the gunners. 

The real bombardment began the next morning, and the story of the 
operations is told thus by a French officer : ' ' October 4th, Monday. At 
four o'clock in the morning, the enemy's beat of drum at daybreak fur- 
nishes the signal for unmasking our batteries on the right and left of 
the trench, and that of the Americans to the left of the mortar battery, 
and we begin to cannonade and bombard the town and the enemy's 
works with more vivacity than precision. The cannoneers being still 
under the influence of rum, their excitement did not allow them to direct 
their pieces with proper care. Besides, our projectiles did little damage 
to works which were low and constructed of sand, the effect of this very 
violent fire was fatal only to the houses and some women who occupied 
them. 



218 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"Protected by their entreneliments, the enemy could not have lost 
many men, if we may judge from the effect of their fire upon our works 
which had been hastily constructed and with far less skill and care than 
theirs. 

"All our batteries ceased firing at eight o'clock in the morning 
that we might repair our left battery which had been shaken to pieces 
by its own fire. A dense fog favors our workmen. We open fire again 
at ten o'clock in the morning and continue it with little intermission 
until four o'clock after midnight." 

According to the diary inclosed in a letter from Governor Wright 
to Lord G. Germain on the 5th of November the firing on the 4th of 
October did some damage in the town. There is a difi^erence of opinion 
expressed by writers as to the way in which the bombardment opened. 
Doctor Ramsey and Hugh McCall assert that the allied forces began by 
firing from nine mortars and thirty-seven cannon from the land side 
and sixteen cannon from the water, while Stedman says the pieces used 
were fifty-three heavy cannon and fourteen mortars. The British officer 
speaks of three batteries mounting thirty-two guns of eighteen, twelve, 
nine and six pounds, besides two guns, twenty-four pounders, from the 
galleys, and a bombardment of shells. Dr. Abiel Holmes, in his "Amer- 
ean Annals"* says: "On the morning of the 4th October, the batteries 
of the besiegers were opened with nine mortars, thirty-seven pieces of 
cannon, from the land side, and fifteen from the water." 

There is authority for the statement that both Governor Wright and 
Lieut-Gov. John Graham took refuge from the fire of the allies in a 
tent next to Colonel Maitland, on the British right, outside of the town.t 

Humanity and Obstinacy 

The bombardment continued on the 6th, but only occasionally, and 
at 11 o'clock General Prevost sent the following letter to the commander 
of the French : 

"Camp Savannah, 6th October, 1779 — Sir: I am persuaded your 
Excellency will do me the justice to believe that I conceive in defending 
this place and the army committed to my charge I fulfill what is due to 
Honor and Duty to my Prince. Sentiments of a different kind occasion 
the liberty of now addressing myself to your Excellency. They are 
those of Humanity. The houses of Savannah are occupied solely by 
women and children. Several of them have applied to me that I might 
request the favour you would allow them to embark on board a ship 
or ships and go do\Mi the river under the protection of yours until this 
business is decided. If this re((uisition you are so good as to grant, my 
Wife and Children, with a few servants, shall be the first to profit by the 
indulgence. ' ' 

* Vol. II, p. 416. Cambridge, 1805. 

t Jones, History of Georgia, Vol. 11, p. 391. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 219 

A prompt reply to this was returned in these words: 

' ' Camp before Savannah, October 6th, 1779 — Sir : We are persuaded 
that your Excellency knows all that your duty prescribes. Perhaps your 
zeal has already interfered with your judgment. 

"The Count d'Estaing in his own name notified you that you alone 
would be personally responsible for the consequences of your obstinacy. 
The time which you informed him in the commencement of the siege 
would be necessary for the arrangement of articles, including different 
orders of men in your town, had no other object than that of receiving 
succor. Such conduct. Sir, is sufficient, to forbid every intercourse 
between us which might occasion the least loss of time. Besides, in the 
present application latent reasons might again exist. There are military 
ones which, in frequent instances, have prevented the indulgence you 
request. It is with regret we yield to the austerity of our functions, and 
we deplore the fate of those persons who will be victims of your conduct, 
and the delusion which appears to prevail in your mind. 
"We are with respect, Sir, 
"Your Excellency's most obedient Servants, 

"B. Lincoln, 
"d'Estaing. 

"His Excellency, Major General Prevost." 

The action thus taken by those two commanders was just what Prevost 
might have expected after his refusal to grant the request made in 
behalf of the family of General Mcintosh in the month of September. 
The following account of what was done on the 7th, written from the 
standpoint of the allies, a French officer, agrees with the statement 
made by the British : ' ' 7th, Thursday — A very lively cannonade. We 
bombard and throw carcasses into Savannah, which set the tovni on 
fire for the third time. We construct a new trench in advance of our 
battery to persuade the enemy that we do not yet contemplate an assault, 
but that our intention is to push our approaches up to his works. 

"8th, Friday — We cannonade and bombard feebly. The enemy does 
little more. He seems to be husbanding his strength for the anticipated 
attack. Informed of all that transpires in our army, he is cognizant 
of the trifling effect produced by his fire upon us in our trenches. Every- 
thing forces us to the conclusion that we must, on the morrow, make 
a general assault upon the city. The length of time requisite for the 
operations of a siege, the exhaustion of the supplies of the fleet, and 
the pressing dangers resulting from our insecure anchorage decide the 
general to take this step." 

On the morning of the 8th Major I'Enfant attempted to fire the 
abatis in advance of the British lines, but the effort failed because of 
the dampness of the weather which prevented the general explosion of 
the powder, but the British acknowledged that much damage was done 
to the houses by the cannonade. 

Disaster to the Allies 

Saturday, the 9th, was a day of disaster to the allied troops when 
they made a most strenuous attempt in the way of an assault, beginning 



220 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ' 

at 4 o'clock in the morning, which time was agreed upon at a conference 
of the highest officers ; but the plan was overheard by one James Curry, 
sergeant-major of the Charleston grenadiers who deserted to the enemy, 
and diAOilged the fact that the approaches of the allied forces had been 
advanced to within pistol shot of the enemy's works, and the determina- 
tion to make an aggressive move that morning. This prepared General 
Prevost for what was attempted, and, knowing that the chief point of 
attack would be the Spring Hill redoubt, the threatened action on the 
left guarded by Huger being only a feint, he assigned his best officer, 
Colonel Maitland, to the protection of his lines at the Spring Hili posi- 
tion with a superior force of the best of his fighting men. Not anticipat- 
ing the resistance prepared by the enemy on the strength of the informa- 
tion given by the deserter, General Lincoln issued the following orders : 

"Watchword Lewis. 

"The soldiers will be inunediately supplied with forty rounds of 
cartridges, a spare flint, and their arms in good order. 

"The infantry destined for the attack of Savannah will be divided 
into two bodies ; the first composing the light troops under the command 
of Colonel Laurens ; the second of the Continental battalions and the 
first battalion of Charlestown militia, except the grenadiers who are 
to join the light troops. The whole ^^^ll parade at one o'clock near the 
left of the line and march by the right of platoons. 

"The guards of the camp will be formed by the invalids and be 
charged to keep up the fire as usual in the camp. 

"The cavalry under the command of Count Pulaski will parade at 
the same time with the infantry and follow the left column of the French 
troops and precede the column of the American light troops. They 
will endeavor to penetrate the enemy's lines between the battery on the 
left of the Spring Hill redoubt and the next toward the river. Having 
effected this, they will pass to the left toward Yamacraw and secure 
such parties of the enemy as may be lodged in that quarter. 

"The artillery will parade at the same time; follow the French 
artillery, and remain with the corps de reserve until they receive further 
orders. 

"The whole will be ready by the time appointed with the utmost 
silence and punctuality, and be ready to march the instant Count d'Es- 
taing and General Lincoln shall order. 

"The Light troops, who are to follow the cavalry, will attempt to 
enter the redoubt on the left of the Spring Hill by escalade if possible ; 
if not, by entrance into it. The.y are to be supported, if necessary, by 
the First South Carolina Regiment. In the meantime the column will 
proceed with the lines to the left of the Spring Hill battery. 

"The Light troops having succeeded against the redoubt will pro- 
ceed to the left and attempt the several works between that and the 
river. 

"The column will move to the left of the French troops, taking care 
not to interfere with them. 

"The Light troops having carried the works towards the river will 
form on the left of the column. 

"It is expressly forbid to fire a single gun before the redoubts are 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 221 

carried, or for any soldier to quit liis ranks to plunder without an order 
for that purpose ; any who shall presume to transgress in either of 
these respects shall be reputed a disobeyer of military orders, which is 
punishable with death. 

"The militia of the first and second brigades, General Williamson's, 
and the first and second battalions of Charlestown militia will parade 
iunnediately under the command of General Isaac Huger. After draft- 
ing five hundred of them, the remainder will go into the trenches and put 
themselves under the command of the commanding officer there. 

' ' With the five hundred he will march to the left of the enemy 's lines 
and remain as near them as he possibly can, without being discovered, 
until four o 'clock in the morning, at which time the troops in the trenches 
will begin the attack upon the enemy. He will then advance and make 
his attack as near the river as possible. Though this is only meant as a 
feint, yet, should a favorable opportunity offer, he will improve it and 
push into the town. 

"In case of a repulse, after having taken the Spring-Hill redoubt, 
the troops will return and rally in the rear of the redoubt. If it cannot 
be effected in that way, it must be attempted by the same route at which 
they entered. 

"The second place of rallying, or the first, if the redoubt should not 
be carried, will be at the Jews' burying ground, where the reserve will 
be placed. If these two halts should not be effectual, they will retire 
toward camp. 

"The troojjs will carry on their hats a piece of white paper by which 
they will be distinguished." 

The details of the history of the siege of Savannah from this point 
have been given by so many vsrriters that it is not deemed necessary to 
go into all the particulars in this history. The French were to be di- 
vided into three columns, of which two were for assault and the other 
was to act as a reserve corps to be used as required ; wliile the Americans 
were formed into two columns, both for assault. The cavalry, under 
Count Pulaski, was to move in advance of the Americans under Colonel 
Laurens, and the assault was to be made on the right of the British lines. 
A French officer, who wrote a journal containing his experiences at the 
time, thus describes the assault as made by the French troops. 

"By three o'clock in the morning all our dispositions had been per- 
fected. * * * We commence marching by the left to attack the city 
on its right, where its western side, as we have before intimated, is forti- 
fied by three redoubts located triangularly. The colunnis marched by- 
divisions (each column had been divided into three battalions), with 
easy gait and leisurely, that they might arrive at the point of attack at 
the designated hour. 

"At five o'clock in the morning, the three columns, which had ob- 
served a similar order of march, arrived within eighty toises (160 yards) 
of the edge of the wood which borders upon Savannah. Here the head 
of column was halted and we were ordered to form into platoons. Day 
begins to dawn and we grow impatient. This movement is scarcely 
commenced when we are directed to march forward, quick time, 
the vanguard inclining a little to the right, the column of M. de Steding 



222 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH CJEORGIA 

to the left and the column of tlie General [d'Estaing] moving straight 
to the front. M. de Noailles, with his reserve corps, proceeds to a small 
eminence from which he could ohserve all our movements and repair to 
any point where the exigencies might demand his presence. 

"At half past five o'clock we hear on our right and on the enemy's 
left a very lively fire of musketry and of cannon upon our troops from the 
trenches who had commenced the false attack. A few minutes after- 
wards we are discovered hy the enemy's sentinels who lire a few shots. 
The General now orders an advance at douhle (juick, to shout Vive 
le Roy, and to heat the charge. The enemy opens upon us a very hrisk 
fire of artillery and musketry, which, however, does not prevent the van- 
guard from advancing upon the redouht, and the right column upon the 
entrenchments. The ardor of our troops and the difficulties offered hy 
the ground do not permit us long to preserve our ranks. Disorder begins 
to prevail. The head of the column penetrates within the entrenchments, 
but, having marched too (juickly, it is not supported by the rest of the 
column which, arriving in confusion, is cut down by discharges of grape 
shot from the redoubts and batteries and by the musketry fire from 
the entrenchments. We are violently repulsed at this point. Instead 
of moving to the right, this [Dillon's] column and the vangiiard fall 
back toward the left. Coiint d'Estaing receives a musket shot almost 
within the redoubt, and M. Betizi is here wounded several times. 

"The column of M. de Steding, which moved to the left, while travers- 
ing a muddy swamp full of brambles, loses its formation and no longer 
preserves any order. This swamp, upon which the enemy's entrench- 
ments rested, formed a slope which served as a glacis to them. The fir- 
ing is very lively; and although this column is here most seriously in- 
jured, it crosses the road to Augusta that it may advance to the enemy's 
right which it was ordered to attack. On this spot nearly all the volun- 
teers are killed. The Baron de Steding is here wounded. 

"The column of M. d'Estaing and the rei)ulsed vanguard which had 
retreated to the left arrived here as soon as the column of ]\I. de Steding, 
and threw it into uttei' confusion. At this moment everything is in siu-h 
disorder that tlie formations are no longer pi'eserved. The road to Au- 
gusta is choked up. ft here, between two impractical)le morasses, con- 
sists of an artificial causeway upon which all our soldiers who had dis- 
engaged themselves from the swamps collected. We are crowded to- 
gether and badly pressed. Two 18-i)ounder guns, upon field carriages, 
charged with canister and ))laee(l at the head of the road, cause terrible 
slaughter. The nnisketry fire fi-om the entrenclicinnts is concentrated 
upon this spot arul upon the swamj)s. Two English galleys and one 
frigate sweep this point with theii* broadsides, and the redoul)ts and 
batteries use only graj)e shot which they shower down upon this locality. 
Notwitlistanding all this our officers eiuleavor to form into columns this 
mass which does not retreat, and the soldiers themselves strive to regain 
their ranks. Scarcely have they connnenced to do this when the General 
orders the charge to be l)eaten. Three times do our troops advance oh 
mas.sf. up to the entrenchmenis which cannot be carried. An attempt is 
made to peneti'at(i through tiie swamp on our left to gain the enemy's 
right. More than half of those who enter are either killed or renmin 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 223 

stuck fast in the mud. * * * Standing in the road leading to Au- 
gusta, and at a most exposed point, the General, with perfect self-posses- 
sion, surveys this slaughter, demands constant renewals of the assault, 
and, although sure of tlie bravery of his troops, determines upon a retreat 
only when he sees that success is impossible. 

"We beat a retreat, which is mainly effected aci'oss the swamp lying 
to the right of the Augusta road ; our forces lieing entirely, and at short 
range, exposed to the concentrated fire of the entrenchments which con- 
stantly increases in vehemence. At this juncture the enemy show them- 
selves openly upon the parapets and deliver their fire with their mus- 
kets almost touching our troops. The General here receives a second shot. 

"About four hundred men, more judiciously led by the Baron de 
Steding, retreated without loss by following the road to Augusta and 
turning the swamp by a long detour. M. de Noailles, anxious to preserve 
his command for the moment when it could be used to best advantage, 
orders liis reserve corps to fall back rapidly. Unless he had done this 
it would liave suffered a loss almost as severe as that encountered by the 
assaulting columns, the effect of the grape shot being more dangerous at 
the remove where it was posted than at the foot of the entrenchments. 
Accompanied only by his adjutant, he ascends an elevation fifteen paces 
in advance of his corps that he miglit with certainty observe all the 
movements of the army. His adjutant, M. Calignon, is mortally wounded 
by his side. When the Viscount de Noailles perceives the disorder reign- 
ing in the columns, he brings his reserve corps up to charge the 
enemy ; and when he hears the retreat sounded advances in silence at a 
slow step, and in perfect order, to afford an opportunity to the repulsed 
troops to reform themselves in his rear. He makes a demonstration to 
penetrate within the entrenchments in case the enemy should leave 
them, and prepares to cut them off in that event. Under these circum- 
stances he encounters some loss, but the anticipated sortie would have 
caused the total destruction of our army. Tliat the enemy did not make 
this apprehended sortie is to be attributed to the excellent disposition 
of his forces and the prompt manoeuvre on tlie part of the Viscount de 
Noailles. 

"The fragments of the army hastily form in single column beliiud the 
reserve corps and begin marching to our camp. M. de Noailles constitutes 
the rear guard, and retires slowly and in perfect order. Towards eight 
o'clock in the morning the army was again in camp, and a cessation of 
hostilities for the purpose of burying the dead and removing the wounded 
was proposed and allowed." 

We come now to the movement on the part of the Americans whose 
right column, commanded by Colonel Laurens, and having in advance 
Count Pulaski, made a spirited assault on the Spring-Hill redoubt. Pass- 
ing the ditch, the colors of the second South Carolina regiment were 
planted upon its outside incline, but the parapet being too high to be 
scaled, and the firing received in the bold attempt to do so being too hot 
to be resisted, they liad to fall back Avhen disorder reigned and the 
cavalry and lancers bearing in confusion to the left cut through the in- 
fantry and carried a jx^rtion of them into tlie swamp. 

General Mcintosh, leading the second column of Americans, reached 



224 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

the vicinity of Spring-Hill redoubt in the confusion Avhich then occurred, 
and when Count d'Estaing, wounded in the arm, was vainly endeavoring 
to rally his troops. Then it was, as IMajor Thomas Pinckney relates, 
"General Mcintosh did not speak French, but desired me to infonn the 
commander-in-chief that his column was fresh, and that he wished his 
directions where, under present circumstances, he should make the attack. 
The Count ordered that we should move more to the left, and by no 
means to interfere with the troops he was endeavoring to rally. In pur- 
suing this direction we were thrown too much to the left, and, before 
we could reach Spring-Hill redoubt, we had to pass through Yamaeraw 
Swamp, then wet and boggy, with the galley at the mouth annoying 
our left with grape shot. While struggling through this morass, the 
firing slacked, and it was reported that the whole army had retired. 
I was sent by General Mcintosh to look out from the Spring-Hill, where 
I found not an assailant standing. On reporting this to the General, 
he ordered a retreat, which was effected without much loss, notwithstand- 
ing the heavy fire of grape-shot with which we were followed. ' ' 

When the column under Laurens passed the ditch and stood at the 
foot of the parapet, the flag of the Second South Carolina was, as we have 
seen, planted as near the top as could be reached. That act was per- 
formed by Lieutenants Hume and Bush who both were killed, when 
Lieutenant Grey hastened to their assistance, Init he received a mortal 
wound, and Sergt. William Jasper, having himself been mortally 
wounded, with his characteristic gallantry rushed forward, seized the 
standard and bore it away. The colors had been presented to the regi- 
ment by Mrs. Elliott, of Charleston, and, after the retreat of the day, 
Ma.jor Hoag called to see him when he remarked: "I have got my fur- 
lough. That sword was presented to me by Governor Rutledge for my 
services in the defence of Fort Moultrie. Give it to my father, and tell 
him [ have won it with honor. If he should weep, tell him his sou died 
in the hope of a better life. Tell Mrs. Elliott that I lost my life sup- 
porting the colors which she presented to our regiment. If you should 
ever see Jones, his wife, and son, tell them that Jasper is gone, but that 
the remembrance of the battle which he fought for them In-ought a secret 
joy to his heart when it was about to stop its motion forever."" His 
death occurred only a few minutes after he spoke those words. 

Count Pulaski's Death Wound 

Count Pulaski, in attempting to rally the disorganized troops, as well 
as to charge through the enemy's line and enter tlie city, when the ter- 
rific engagement at Si:)ring-Hill was at its heiglit, was struck by a grape- 
shot fired from tlie last gun of the bastion, and, unliorsed, was taken, 
wounded unto death, from tlie field by his officers. His last command 
was: "Follow my Lancers to whom I have given the order of attack.'" 
After the retreat, he was taken on board the United States brig Wasp 
to be conveyed to Charleston. On the voyage he had the attention of 
the best surgeons of the French fleet, but his wound was too severe to 
yield to treatment, and gangi-ene set in, causing his deatli wliile tlie Wasp 
was not ja^t out of the Savannah river. The corpse becoming offensive 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 225 

his attending officer, Colonel Bentalou, "was compelled, though reluc- 
tantly, to consign to a watery grave all that was now left upon earth of 
his beloved and honored commander." 

The Siege From a British Standpoint 

The accounts of the siege of Savannah by the allied American and 
French troops most commonly known are those representing the matter 
from the American standpoint. The following statement showing how 
Governor Wright saw it, together with the description given by a British 
officer, and adopted by Wright as truthful, will enable the reader to see 
both sides and aid him to draw his own conclusions : 

"No. 8. * * * Savannah in Georgia, the 5th of Nov. 1779.— 
My Lord : Since I had the honor of writing to Your Lordship last by the 
Cork Victuallers we have met with a very unexpected alarming and 
serious scene. Especially in this part of the world, for no Man could have 
thought or believed that a French Fleet of 25 Sail of the Line with at 
least 9 Frigates and a number of other Vessells would have come on the 
Coast of Georgia in the month of September and Landed from 4 to 5000 
Troops to besiege the Town of Savannah, but My Lord amazing as this 
is, it is certainly Fact, for on the 3d of September an account came to 
Savannah that 5 Large ships were in the offing and the next morning 
advice came that they were French Ships, and I concluded that they had 
been drove here by distress, however on the 7th a letter was wTote by 
Captain Henry Commander of His Majesty's Ship Fowey that 42 sail 
of French Ships appeared off Tybee Bar and on the 8th 5 of them very 
Large Ships came in over the Bar, on which the Fowey and Rose Ships 
of War were obliged to retreat and come up the River, and on the 12th 
several of the French Fleet went in at Ossabaw and at Night began to 
land their Troops at Bewlie and on the 15th the Count D'Estaing sent a 
Summons to General Prevost to Surrender the Town and Province to 
the King of France on which some Messages & Letters passed, and on 
the 17th the Truce ended in Declaring that it was the Unanimous opin- 
ion and Resolution of the Civil and Military that the Town should be 
Defended. This my Lord made me very happy as I had some strong 
Reasons to apprehend and fear the Contrary. The particulars of the 
Negotiation Yovir Lordship will receive from General Prevost, and from 
this time Hostilities began and both sides were very active in raising 
Redoubts and Batteries and Opening Trenches etc., etc. and now my 
Lord give me leave to mention the great ability and Exertions of Captain 
Moncrief the Chief Engineer who was Indefatigable day and Night and 
whose Eminent Services contributed vastly to our defence and safety, 
and on the 3d of October at half after 11 at Night the French began to 
Bombard the Town and at the Firing of the ^Morning Gun on INIonday 
the 4th they began a most Furious Cannonade which continued more or 
less till Saturday the 9th when just before Break of day an attack was. 
made by the united Armys of the French and Rebels, and we have it 
from very good authority that the flower of both armys to the amount of 
2500 French and 1500 Rebels, came against us. The Conflict was sharp, 

Vol 1—15 



226 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

and lasted for about an hour and a half and we were well informed by 
French Officers who were wounded and taken, and also by some who came 
with Flags and by deserters and others, that they lost 700 killed & 
wounded, and some accounts mentioned 1000 among which are 63 of- 
ficers — D'Estaing wounded in the thigh and arm Polaski on the Hip 
with a grape shot and since dead and the Rebels its said had killed 
and wounded 500, amongst them Charles Price. Astonishing to think 
we had only 7 killed and 14 wounded but for a more Circumstantial 
Account of the Siege, Attack etc., etc., I beg leave to refer Your 
Lordship to the Inclosed diary, and which altho not in the Militaiy 
Language or Style, I will be answerable is as Just and True an account 
of the whole matter as will be transmitted from any hand whatever, and 
I have it my Lord from some of my Friends who had an opportunity of 
Knowing the condition of the French Fleet when they were ready to 
depart from our coast, that the Ships were much out of repair and the 
Men exceedingly sickly on Board the Sagittaire the Crew of which 
amounted to 500, they Buried with the Scurvy and other disorders biit 
chiefly the Scurvy at least 2, 3 and 4 every day one day with another, and 
this for a month, and several officers who came there from the other ships 
said it was the same throughout and I was Informed from the same 
Authority that D'Estaing was return to Brest immediately with 11 ships, 
4 to go to Chesapeake for provisions and from thence to the Cape, 2 
Frigates and the Cape Troops, say 1200 Men to go to Charles Town & 
the rest with La Motte Piquet to Martinique this Destination was learnt 
yet possibly may not be the fact, 

' ' I have the Honor to be with Perfect Esteem 
"My Lord Your Lordships 

' ' Most obliged & Obed 't Serv 't 

Ja. Wright." 

The Right Hon'ble Lord George Germain 

His Maj. Principal Secretary of State &c. &c. &c. 

[Indorsed] 

R Dec'r 21. By Capt. Shaw. 

Duplicate — Orig'l not received. 

[Inclosed in Gov. Sir Jas. Wright's Letter of 5 Nov. 1779.] 

"On Friday the 3rd Sept. Capt. Henry of His Maj'tys Ship Fowey 
call 'd on me and told me he had heard from Tybee, that they were 5 large 
ships in the Offing which were imagin 'd might be the Roebuck with some 
Cork Victuallers. 

"On Saturday the 4th he call'd on me again & Shew'd a letter from 
Capt. Brown of the Rose, who wrote that he had sent a Lieut, to recon- 
noitre the Ships, who reported them to be French & we then suppos'd 
they might have been drove this way by a Gale of Wind — which seem'd 
in some measure to be confirmed — because on jMonday the 6th Accounts 
were bro't up that the Ships had disappeared. 

"But at daybreak on Wednesday the 8th I received a letter from 
Gen'l Prevost acquainting mo that at 4 'Clock that jMorning, he had 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 227 

received a letter from Capt. Henry informing him that there were 
42 Sail of French Ships of War in Sight, most of which appeared to be 
large Ships, on which we concluded that a serious Attack was intended 
against this Province ; We had been repairing the Old Redoubts and 
raising New Works— Expecting an Attack by the Rebels, but on these 
Accounts of a French Fleet being on the Coast, the greatest Exertions 
were made by Capt. Moncrief Chief Engineer and 400 to 500 Negroes 
were immediately ordered in by the Gov'r and Council and set to work — 
And in the whole there were 13 good redoubts raised round the Town in 
different places and 15 Gun Batteries were raised also in different places 
between the Redoubts — the whole of these Batteries contain 'd 80 Pieces 
of Canon, 18, 9 & 6 pounders — The Batteries were mann'd by the Sailors 
of the Fowey, Rose and Keppel & by Sailors & Volunteers belonging to 
Transports and other Ships in the River. 

"Besides which there were several 6 and 4 Pounders properly placed 
without Batteries, also five field pieces. We soon received an Account 
from Capt. Henry that the French Fleet consisted of 25 sail of the Line 
and 9 Frigates besides other Vessels. 

"On the 8th Sept. Five Frigates got over Tybee Bar, and soon after 
the Fowey, Rose, Keppel, Savannah & the Galleys were obliged to retire 
up the River. 

"On Sunday the 12th at night the French began to land Troops at 
Bewley, 14 miles from Town And on Wednesday the 15th a letter came 
from Count De Estaing containing a General Summons to surrender the 
Town and Province to the King of France, he boasted in this letter of 
his forraidable Armament by Sea and Land What he had done with 
them at Granada &e. mentioned how much Ld Macartney had suffered 
by not Capitulating, and that it was totally in vain to think of opposing 
or resisting his Force— And warn'd General Prevost of the Conse- 
quences attending a Storm, hinting that he shou'd consider him as per- 
sonally answerable for the lives of the people &c. 

"The Answer to this was that the General he had a better opinion of 
him & of the British Army which he had the honour to command, than 
to expect they wou'd surrender the Town &c. on a General Summons, 
without knowing on what terms or conditions. That he had communi- 
cated the above letter to the Civil Governor — And if the Count had any 
terms to offer, desired they might be made. 

"To which the Count replied, that it was the part of the Besieged 
to propose Terms and not that of the Besiegers. 

"The Answer to this was that it was a matter of great Consequence 
and there were many different Interests to be adjusted and settled, and 
therefore desired 24 hours to consider of it. 

"This went on Thursday the 16th and the Count agreed to w^ait for 
an Answer till the firing of the Evening Gun on Friday the 17th. 

"In the Afternoon a Council of War was held in the General Tent, 
consisting of the field Officers (the Gov'r and Lieut Gov. being present) 
to consider of an Answer to be sent to the Count De Estaing when it 
was the unanimous opinion of the whole that the Town should be de- 
fended & that this Answer or Notice should be returned to Count De 
Estaing. On which Hostilities commenced — 



228 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"On the 17th 18th & 19th Col. Llaithmd and all the Troops from 
Beaufort got here but with the greatest difficulty and risque, Excepting 
the Artillery Men of the Hessian Corps, Hessian Convalescents and 
about 170 of the 71st. The Vigilant Man of War, three Galleys and 3 
Transports with all the Artillery Stores Baggage &c. were left at 
Callibogie. 

"The whole of the Troops which arrived with Col. Maitland amounted 
to about 800 Men. 

"Two of the French Frigates with two Galleys advanced up the River 
to 4 Mile Point and on the 29th Sept. one of them got up to & Anchored 
at the Mouth of the Back River and the two Galleys at the point of 
Yonges Island of March and at different times they tired many Shot 
into the Town 24 & 12 Pounders. 

"The French were employed in bringing Canon &c. &c. &c. from 
Bewley till the 24th,, In the night of which, they began to break ground, 
near our lines and next day we saw 2 i^ieees of Canon mounted. 

"A party of light Infantry were Order 'd out under the Command of 
Major Graham consisting of about 90 men in Order to draw the French 
out of their Lines, who to the number of 300 came out & were drove from 
their Works but were then Supported by a Column of French Troops 
from 500 to 600 from the Woods behind their Works which Obliged the 
light Infantry to return. The french were much Galled by our Canon 
and the fire of the Musquetry & lost as we were informed 84 Killed & 
about 100 Wounded. 

"The light Infantry lost Lieut. McPherson & 7 private Killed & 13 
wounded. 

"From the 24th the french were extending their lines & Works 
& raised three large Batteries and were bringing Canon & Moi'tars &c. 
from Bewley, Thunderbolt & Caston Bluff. 

"On the 2d of Oetr. The Frigate & Rebel Galleys Kept a constant tire 
on the Town & Camp from 11 a. m. to 1 P. M. many shot reach 'd thro' 
the Town to Zubley's Meeting from the Galleys & from the Frigate 
went quite across the Camp to the Barracks. 

"Sunday 3d Octr. At half after 11 at Nigiit the French open'd a 
Bomb Battery of 9 Mortars & continued throwing Shells till One 
O'clock in the Morning — 123 Shells were thrown into every part of the 
Town, but without doing any Material Damage. 

"Monday 4th Octr. Just as the ]\Iorning Gun was fired — the Enemy 
began a most furious and incessade Canonade from three Batteries 
mounting in tl:e whole 32 Guns of 18, 12, 9 & 6 Pounders, liesides a Con- 
stant fire from the Frigate of 14 Guns 12 pounders. And of 2 Guns 
24 Pounders from the two Rebel Galleys — as also a Bombardment of 
Shells — however only the Daur. of a I\Irs. Thomson, and a ]\Ir. Pollard 
Assistt. Barrack Master were kill'd, during which a constant Fire was 
Kept up, by our Batteries, on the Enemy's works & Shells tlirown from 
5 small Cohorns. Tuesday 5th Canonading & Bombardment continued — 
Day & Night. 

"Wednesday 6tli the same — Tliis niglit a Woman her IMother & 
Child & a Niece were killed by a Sliell in the IMiddle of the Town, also 
three Negroes — Mrs Lloyds liouse was set on fire by a Carcase which 
they now began to throw. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 229 

"Thursday 7th The Canonade & Bombardment continued — several 
Carcases were thrown — Another House was burnt, most of the Houses 
in Town were much damaged by the Shot but nobody kill'd either in 
Town or Camp. 

"Friday 8th Bombardment & Canonade Continued much damage 
continued to be done to the Houses — Capt. Simpson killed by a Grape 
Shot in IMajor Wrights Redoubt at the Trustees Gardens — In the 
Course of this Night a very heavy Canonade from the enemy. 

"Saturday 9th Especially from 12 at night also a Bombardment 
which continued till the firing of the Morning Gun at Day break & 
immediately an Attack was made ])y the French & Rebels on the Eben- 
ezer redoubt & Battery by the Spring and on the redoubt by Col. Mait- 
land is Tent, on the Right at our line, commanded by Col. Maitland; 
the Eenemy that made the Attack were the Hower of the French Troops 
Virginia & So. Carolina Continentals & So. Carolina ^Militia — Supposed 
to be 25U0 freneh & 1500 Rebels. 

"Count De Estaing Commanded himself and Geul. Lincoln as second 
in Command. 

The Attack was made with great Spirit on the part of the French — 
The ]\lorning was favouralile for them being Dark & Foggy. The At- 
tack continued li/^ hour when the Enemy were beat back & retreated 
with great precipitation Our Troops who alone opposed them were 30 
Dragoons. 

"64 So. Carolina Loyalists commanded by Tawes of the Dragoons 
who bravely fell in defending it. In the Ebenezer Redoubt. 

"90 of Col. Hamilton's No. Carolina Loyalists & 56 Georgia Militia 
In the Redoubt where Col. Maitland was & 70 Granadiers of the Royal 
Americans who were Ordered to support the Redoubts, and bravely 
charg'd the Enemy with their Bayonets. 

"Exclusive of the above the Spring Battery of 6 Guns mann'd by 
31 Sailers Connnanded by Mr. Manly & Steel did very great execution 
& much contributed to the repulse of the Enemy — None of the other 
Troops on the right of our line were at all engaged, or had occasion to 
fire a single musquet — these consisted of the 1st Battalion of 71st the 
Hessian regt Wezenbeckens & Browns Rangers. 

"On the left of our Line a Feint was made by the Rebel Troops — 
500 under Command of Genl. Williamson — on jMajor Wrights redoubt by 
the Trustees Gardens & 700 under Command of Col. Sleyer on Col. 
Crugers Redoubt in Tatnels Road — The Rebels were l)eat otf & lost 50 
kill'd & wounded at this end of our line — Amongst the first Charles Pryce. 

"After the retreat of the French & Rebels on the right of our line 
270 men chiefly Freneh were found dead — 31 of whom were in the Ditch 
and on the parapet of the Ebenezer Redoubt & 93 more within the 
Abattis — A French & Rebel Standard were once fixed on the parapet 
of this redoubt, the French carried off theirs, but the Rebel Standard 
was taken by us. Since the Attack we find l)y Deserters, French Officers 
and others that the French lost in kill'd & Wounded not less than 700 
some say 1000 & of the first 63 Otficers by their own Aceot. Amongst 
the Wounded Count De Estaing Received a Musquet Shot in his Arm & 
another in his Thigh, Count Polaski a Wound in the Hip by a Grape 
Shot & since dead — And the Rebels by the best information we cou'd 



230 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

get had kill'd & wounded about 500 & it is astonishing to think that in 
this attack We had only Capt. Tawes & 7 privates Kill'd and 14 wounded. 

"N B. Our whole force, Regulars, Militia, Sailers & Volunteers did 
not amount to above 2350 men fit for Duty. 

"A flag was soon sent by the French & Rebels desiring a Truce for 
the Burial of the Dead, & receiving the AVounded, which was agreed 
to till 2 o'clock & then extended till Dark. During this Night a slight 
Oanonading on both sides & many french & Rebel Deserters came in. 

"Sunday 10th Several Flags passed and Truces agreed to, for the 
above and other purposes, a Slight Oanonading during the night & 
many Deserters come in. 

"Monday 11th No Oanonading or Bombardment on the part of the 
Enemy. Deserters coming in who Inform 'd that they were sending 
their Sick & Wounded & heavy Canon on board their Ships — The Rebel 
Militia were daily going off in Numbers. 

"Tuesday 12th Slight Oanonading on each side in the night, but not 
a Gun fired in the day — the Enemy seem'd now to fire from two pieces 
of Oanon only. 

"Wednesday 13th The same. 

"Thursday 14th The same. 

"Friday 15th The same and We were now Inform 'd that all the 
Carolina Militia were gone. 

"Saturday 16th The same The Enemy had removed all their Cannon 
but two. 

"Sunday 17th The same and We were Inform 'd that the french 
black & Mullatoe Brigade had March 'd to Col. Mullrynes— to Embark. 

"Monday 18th This Evening & Night all the French & Rebel Troops 
left their Camps & lines which were next day & a few days following 
all destroyed. 

"Tuesday 19th Were inform 'd the French had taken post 2 
miles from Town at the Cross Roads leading to Brewtons & that the 
Rebels were crossing the River with all Expedition, at the two Sisters 
and Zubly's Ferry. 

"20th & 21st Learn 'd that all the French had Embark 'd at Caston's 
Bluff in about 100 Boats & had gone to Tybee to embark in their Men 
of War lying there. 

"From the 21st the Winds hanging to the Eastward, the French 
Frigate cou'd not move from five fathom hole Cartels during this time 
coming up with prisoners. 

"Ja. Wright." 

During the siege the headquarters of the English were on the north 
side of Broughton street, between Bull and Drayton, now known as 
number twenty-four Broughton street east. The guard-house was where 
the Citizens and Southern Bank now stands, on the lot facing Johnson 
square, and bounded by Bull, Bryan, Drayton and St. Julian streets. 
Governor Wright's residence was on tlie lot now occupied by the Telfair 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, bounded by Barnard, State, Jefferson 
and President streets. The council house faced Reynolds square, with 
Abercorn street on the west, St. Julian street on the north, and Congress 
street on the south. 



CHAPTER XX 

SAVANNAH AGAIN AMERICAN 

Royal Civil Government Feeble — Affairs Managed by Wright and 
Council — Augusta Surrendered to the Americans — Royal Cause 
Getting Dark — Wright's Pitiable IMental Condition — American 
Troops at Gates op Savannah — Wayne's Terms for British 
Evacuation — Nathaniel Greene and His Services — Confiscated 
British Estates — ^" Mulberry Grove" Made Over to Greene — 
Anthony Wayne and His Services — Greene Visits "Mulberry 
Grove" — Death and Funeral of General Greene — Wayne's 
Georgia Residence Also Short. 

From the time of the capture of Savannah by Archibald Campbell, 
on the 29th of December, 1778, Augusta became the capital of Georgia, 
and there the meetings of the Republican assembly were held, vi^hile 
Savannah continued to be the seat of the royal legislature. 

Royal Civil Government Feeble 

After the successful resistance of the combined attack on the part of 
the Americans and their French allies in October, 1779, Sir James 
Wright found it difficult to get a quorum to attend a meeting of his 
legislative assembly. He ordered an election of delegates returnable on 
the 9th of May, 1780, but of the twenty-six legal members only fifteen 
actually appeared, which was three less than the fixed constitutional 
quorum ; but, with the advice of his council, he assented to an organiza- 
tion of the commons house with a reduced number of representatives 
under the circumstances. On the 6th of November of the year 1779, he 
wrote to Secretary Lord George Germain : "In my former letters I very 
particularly mentioned the reason why it was impossible to call an 
assembly at that time and how far this Province had been suffered to 
relapse into rebellion again. * * * I am now, my Lord, taking every 
step in the power of the civil department to check the spirit of rebellion 
by compelling all those who I think might or ought to have come in and 
joined in the defense of the town but did not to (sic) give a very circum- 
stantial account of their conduct during the siege, and have directed that 
those of the lower class who do not appear materially culpable shall be 
obliged to give security for their good behaviour for 12 months them- 
selves in £100 sterling and 2 securities in £50 each, also to take the oaths 
of allegiance, &c., &e., and to subscribe the test, a copy whereof is in- 

231 



232 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

closed, and any who appear to have offended capitally I have ordered 
to be committed, and if sufficient evidence can be had against them I am 
determined they shall be prosecuted for high treason ; but my Lord in 
the situation we are now the civil government, your Lordship will see, 
must be very feeble, and will remain so till I can call an assembly. This 
is a point I have considered, and hope it may be done, and that the 
time is not very distant when I may issue writs for that purpose." 

Again, in a letter to the same person, on the 9th of November fol- 
lowing, he wrote: "AVhen I can call an assembly which I hope will be 
as soon as the reinforcement comes to enter Carolina, then Government 
will soon strengthen and raise its head." He waited more than two 
months without finding it within his power to obtain the necessary ma- 
terial for a law making organization and even then his hopes fled. On 
the 20th of January, 1780, he once more said to Lord Germain: "As 
soon as the troops begin their operations I shall issue Avrits of election, 
and hope when I can get an assembly I shall be able to execute his ^laj- 
esty's commands, and my instructions to accomplish which, and every 
matter that I may judge to be for his Majesty's service, I shall exert 
to the utmost of my power." The power to grant the writs was finally 
sanctioned by the council in the month of March, as will be seen by 
the following extract from a letter written to Lord Germain on the 24th : 
"We had happily and most providentially escaped a danger and force 
almost sufficient to have swallowed us up, and on the arrival of his 
Majesty's troops from New York I then look'd upon peace and good 
order and government in this province as certain and at hand but how 
was I mistaken '? The first drop av as the alteration on the route of the 
army which had been clearly settled here should be from hence to 
Augusta, but the change left the province so much exposed and discon- 
certed me to that degree that with the advice of his Majesty's council 
I postponed using the writs of election for some time. I do not mean 
to censure the measure of altering the route, for it might be very 
proper and right. I will not say otherwise. But immediately on the 
back of this comes the proclamation, without any restriction or limita- 
tion and without any exception of any persons whatever, and under 
which it is my fear that every rebel who has fled this province and 
committed crimes of the blackest dye may come back and claim pardon 
and protection, and if that is the ease, my Lord, it will be scarce possible 
for any King's officer to remain here with any tolerable satisfaction. 
The moment I received it I ordered the council to be summoned and laid 
the proclamation before them, and, my Lord, it was then determined to 
issue the writs of election, for if these people return many of them will 
have influence enough to get themselves elected members of Assembly. 
And what, then, my Lord, is to be expected? So that I have at all 
events, and at all hazards, ordered the writs to be prepared and shall 
sign them tomorrow." On the 6th of April he gave the result of the 
election in the town as follows: "The election for the town of Savan- 
nah began yesterday and I believe will end agreeably, and that the 
four inenibers will be ]\L-. Robertson the Attorney General. I\Ir. Simp- 
son the Clerk of the Court, IMr. IMossman a planter, and Mr. Farley an 
attorney. ' ' 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 233 

The assembly met, as we have already stated, on the 9th of May, 
with a questionable legal quorum. On that point we have only these 
few words from Governor Wright in a report to Lord Germain on the 
20th : "I have the satisfaction to acquaint your Lordship that notwith- 
standing the wretched state the Province is just now in, and parties of 
rebels coming from Carolina plundering and carrying off the inhabitants 
within 5 or 6 miles of the town, yet we managed so as to get all the 
writs of election executed in every parish and district except in St. 
Paul's where Augusta is, and on the 9th instant we met and opened the 
session, and now inclose your Lordship copies of what was passed on 
that occasion and which I hope may be approved of. 

"I think, my Lord, there is a good Assembly, and I hope I may be 
able to carry into execution some matters which I presume it is wished 
may be done. But, my Lord, much still depends on the restriction of 
South Carolina, after which all proper exertions will be used. 

"We are now waiting with the utmost anxiety to hear of that event. 
8 months and a half since the troops left Savannah, and Charles Town 
(for aught we know) still in the hands of the rebels." 

It seems strange that although Charleston was surrendered to the 
British eight days before (May 12th, 1780) Sir James Wright had not 
then received the news. 

We hear no more of the proceedings of the assembly luitil the 17th 
of July, at which time a letter from Wright to Lord Germain informed 
the latter of eight acts passed by that body and approved by the former 
— two on the 1st of July, and six on the 10th. Of these we will only 
mention two — those approved on the 1st. They were important meas- 
ures as viewed from a British standpoint, and the governor thus men- 
tioned them : 

"On the 1st instant I assented to a bill entitled an Act to disqualify 
and render incapable the several persons thereinafter named from hold- 
ing or exercising any office of trust, honor, or profit in the Province of 
Georgia for a certain time and for other purposes therein mentioned. 
This bill, my Lord, I judged very necessary for his Majesty's service, 
as some kind of punishment to delinquents and check to rebellion, and 
indeed for the support of government and the peace and quiet of the 
inhabitants. For by it they were not only disabled as in the title, but 
they were disqualified from serving on juries, from sitting as members 
of the Assembly, and are disarmed and obliged to take the state oaths 
and a new test, also to find security for their good behavior, &c., and I 
am hopeful it will answer many good purposes, and when such a strong 
disposition appeared to general pardon, forgiveness and oblivion, I 
thought it the more necessary that something of this kind should be 
done, and doubt not but his Majesty will be graciously pleased to ap- 
prove it. 

"At the same time I assented to a bill entitled an Act for the relief 
of such of his Majesty's loyal subjects as are inhabitants of the Province 
of Georgia, or have any property or intercourse therein. It was thought 
very necessary, my Lord, to pass a law of this kind, for altho' all the 
pretended laws and proceedings of the rebels were absolutely null and 
void, yet it will very much quiet and satisfy the minds of the people to 



234 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

declare them by law to be so, and we had an exceeding good precedent 
and example in the statute of the 1st William and Mary session 2d Chap. 
9 after the Rebellion in Ireland." 

Those two measures were adopted as acts of retaliation for the passing 
by the republican legislature on the 1st of March, 1778, of an act attaint- 
ing of high treason all of the prominent loyalists, property owners, who 
decided to support the British government, and confiscating their real 
and personal property, and appointing commissioners to sell such con- 
fiscated estates. 

Affairs Managed by Wright and Council 

The legislature at this period of Savannah's history appears to have 
had little business to attend to, and the affairs of the town and province 
were managed by Governor Wright and his council. Sir James wrote 
again to the principal secretary of state on the 19th of July : "In 
my letter of the 17th instant, No. 24, I have given your Lordship an 
account of the several bills assented to by me during the session of the 
Assembly. There were one or two more which I had in view, but the 
weather was excessively hot, and the gentlemen grew tired of attending 
to business, and I thought it most prudent to let 'em alone till our 
next meeting." The town and district of Savannah did not present 
to him a very pleasing picture in the way of being able to withstand 
a sudden attack. On the 20th of August he wrote: "The troops at 
Savannah, my Lord, are in all about 500, and at Augusta now only about 
240, and which I believe are the whole of his IMajesty's forces at present 
in the Province of Georgia. But your Lordship will be precisely in- 
formed by the returns, and when any of these or any others may be sent 
either to Sunbury or Dartmouth I can't say, but I understand that if 
there should be reason to apprehend an attack upon East Florida, in 
such case the garrison at St. Augustine is to be re-inforced from hence, 
and I must say that I think this Province is already too soon and too 
much weakened. 

"I find we have only 15 nine pounders, 4 six pounders and 1 four 
pounder, all mounted on ship carriages, late the guns of his Majesty's 
ship Rose- — 2 pieces of brass six pound ordnance 5 four pounders and 

2 three pounders, two of which are only fit to take the field — and 3 
twenty-four pounders not mounted." 

Realizing tlie situation in which, through the failure of those respon- 
sible to help him, he found the province, he assented to the passage 
of a bill on the 30th of October by which he was authorized to put 
upwards of four hundred negroes to work upon the fortifieations, and, 
on the 1st of December, he wrote to Lord Germain: "We are making 
five redoubts and batteries, and there is to be a parapet made of 
fascines and earth from the river at each end and on the back of the 
town. This parapet is 10 foot wide and 7 foot high, with a ditch on 
the outside 15 foot wide at top, 10 foot deep, and sloping to the bottom 

3 foot. I think the redoubts will lie finished and each parapet about half 
done, or say the whole 4 foot high, by Christmas, and I expect the work 
will be entirelv finished in all Januarv. " i 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 235 

Still he saw that without considerable help he could not expect to 
make headway against any real attempt to capture the town. On the 
20th of December he again wrote : ' ' The parties of militia which were 
employed under the authority given by Sir Henry Clinton * * * 
were very soon at an end, I being given to understand that they could 
not be paid and subsisted any longer, and I have no power to oblige the 
militia to do military duty without pay & subsistence. * * * Not a 
man has been sent here, and all my applications hitherto taken very little 
notice of and this province too much weakened and left almost destitute. ' ' 
In a letter written on the 26th of January, 1781, he among other things, 
asserted that "I cannot think this province and So. Carolina in a state 
of security, and if Lord Coi-nwallis penetrates far into No. Carolina I 
shall expect a rebel army will come in behind him and throw us into the 
utmost confusion and danger — for this province is still left in a defence- 
less state." 

That the patriots, at this time, could easily have recaptured the 
town is evident from the statements quoted from the letters of Sir 
James Wright, but unfortunately for them their condition was almost 
as deplorable as was that of the enemy. They were not only weak in 
regard to numbers but they were in a condition of absolute want not 
only of supplies, but of provisions ; and at the same time many of them 
were then on duty serving the cause in other parts of the country. 

Augusta Surrendered to the Americans 

On the 5th of June, 1781, Augusta was surrendered by the British, 
and the cause of the Americans in Georgia became brighter while Gov- 
ernor Wright's spirits in a corresponding degree began to fall. He 
wrote to Lieutenant-Colonel Balfour, on the 11th, "It gives me the 
greatest concern to acquaint you of the loss of Augusta. # # * j 
must observe that if this Province is not recovered from the rebels with- 
out the least delay I conceive it may be too late to prevent the whole 
from being laid waste and totally destroyed and the people ruined. We 
are now in a most wretched condition. I should not reflect on the causes. 
* * * I can only represent facts which it is my indispensable duty to 
do, and which I have hitherto from time to time done. Our distresses 
are many, and how to furnish the militia on actual duty with rations 
I can't tell, for there is not a single barrel of beef or pork to be pur- 
chased here, even if I had the money to buy it." 

Royal Cause Getting Dark 

The time was surely coming when England's hold on the American 
colonies must be let loose, and Sir James Wright clearly saw that, unless 
Bomething was done speedily and materially for the protection of British 
interests in Georgia the royal cause there was doomed. It was not long 
before the republicans saw their opportunity and set to work to take 
advantage of the same. News of such activity reached the ears of 
Wright, and we find him writing in this doleful strain to Lord G. G«r- 



236 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

main from Savannah on the 18th of December, 1781: "We are at this 
moment in the utmost danger and distress and expect every day to 
have a formidable force against us, for a few days ago we received 
accounts from General Leslie who now commands in Charles Town that 
General Green is on his way to the southward and had crossed Edisto 
river, and that Generals St. Clair and Wayne were at Santee rive)- with 
2,500 Continentals mounted, and were to join General Green, who was 
said to have about the same number, and we have also intelligence that 
the Marquess De la Fayette is on his way here (but this is rebel intelli- 
gence), and we have received accounts many different ways of a very 
serious and formidable attack being preparing and intending against 
us, and by a gentleman of undoubted credit who is come to Savannah 
a few days ago, from the Creek nation, we are informed that letters 
passed through that country some time ago from General Green to the 
Spanish officer commanding at Pensacola acquainting him that they 
should be ready to act against this Province by the middle of this month, 
and we have many rebel accounts that they expect a French and Span- 
ish fleet here every day. This gentleman (Mr. Taitt) was a prisoner in 
West Florida for some time, and says they avowed an intention to take 
East Florida and Georgia ; and the garrison in Charles Town being dwin- 
dled away one half, we cannot depend on much assistance, if any, from 
hence. And thus your Lordship sees the consequences of not protecting 
and holding these two provinces. I always dreaded it from the -moment 
Lord Cornwallis went into Virginia, and the cruel 10th article in his 
Lordship's. capitulation I fear has ruined the King's cause in America, 
and I need not comment upon it. God knows what will become of us, 
but without immediate assistance I think we shall not be able to stand 
it, and if we fall I much fear that St. Augustine and Charles Town will 
soon follow." 

His fears were well-founded, and the events immediately following 
did not tend towards allaying them as he showed in writing one month 
iater, January 18, 1782: "Yesterday I received advice from Charles- 
town that Wayne and St. Clair have joined Green, and that the last 
party, with their artillery, &c., are not far off, and that they are ad- 
vancing towards us, but with what force we cannot certainly learn, 
tho' it is said about 3,000 Continentals, horse and foot together, and I 
presume the Soutli Carolina militia will join them in great numliers, and 
many here, some from principle and some from necessity, seeing they 
can get no protection from government. Surely, surely, my Lord, the 
commanders of the King's forces in America ought to have supported 
these southern provinces, and happy would it have been for the King's 
cause and friends, and a most valuable footing secured in America, if 
they had, or may yet be, for if they fall I fear New York will be of 
little consequence." And, as that letter was not promptly sent off, he 
added this postscript on tho 23d: "A pai*ty of Continental horse have 
showed themselves at dift'erent times and places for 2 or 3 days past 
within 8 or 10 miles of Savannah, and now all our outposts are broke up 
and called in, and we exi)ect every day to hear of the main body of the 
rebel army, &c., having crossed tlie Savannah river. The horse come are 
said to be about 200, which we presume are an advance part}'." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 237 

Wright's Pitiable Mental Condition 

The mental condition of tlie royal governor in Savannah at this 
time, judged by his communications to the home government, must 
have been well-nigh unbearable. He wrote on the 12th of February, 
1782. a short letter to Under Secretary William Knox, beginning with 
the statement that he was so hurried he had not time to write to Secre- 
tary Lord Germain, and continuing: "General Leslie, after promising 
a re-inforcement, altered his mind, and countermanded it — and this 
Provincg will be totally lost, unless very soon relieved. I know what 
I wrote long ago, tho' not regarded, and, as I find it's in vain to write, 
I shall trouble none of your generals any more — a strange kind of 
conduct or infatuation seems to have lost every thing. * * * It's said 
Green recommends it strongly to the people here to pass an act of oblivion 
and to receive all with open arms who will join them, and they are doing 
all they can to cajole the negroes and get them over. John Martin, a 
northward man who used to go by the name of Black Jack, is now chosen 
Governor. But I will stop, for, as I can tell you nothing pleasant, I 
shall say no more;" and he added this: "P. S. At night. I have this 
moment rec'd a letter from Sir H. C. * a trifling answer that a man 
might l)e ashamed to write; and thus do the King's Generals conduct 
everything. ' ' 

He wrote again to William Knox on the 23d of February, and these 
are some of his words: "Appearances are very gloomy * * *_ j am 
informed beyond a doubt that my life is threatened, and that offers have 
been made to General Wayne to assassinate me, or carry me off, which 
he chooses, and in this situation I am at present, and ought to have been 
in England long ago, and sure T am it would have been for the King's 
service. * * * p. g. 4tli March. * * * ^ party of rebels came 
here last Tuesday night and burnt me anotlier barn, almost within 
musket shot of the town. This is the tenth barn they have burnt of 
mine. Fine ample protection to civil government, even within musket 
shot of our lines i * * * 5th March. The rebel Governor IMartin, now 
at Ebenezer, has issued 3 proclamations, one to the King's troops, one 
to the Hessians, and another to the militia, inviting them all to revolt and 
join the virtuous Americans against the tyranny of the British govern- 
ment, for which each man is to have 200 acres of land and a cow, &c." 

American Troops at Gates of Savannah 

With the American army almost at the gates of the town, having 
their headcjuarters, as we have seen, at Ebenezei', Wright was practically 
at the mercy of his enemies. Savannah then had about 240 houses occu- 
pied by some 750 white inhabitants and the officers and soldiers of whom 
we have no definite count. His real danger will be apparent when we 
consider the words of one of his military officers who described the town 
as "so closely blockaded by the rebel army that it was dangerous to go 
without our lines." This condition of affairs is partly shown by the 

* Sir Henry Clinton. 



238 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

extracts we have given from Sir James Wright's letters. General Na- 
thanael Greene, after his successful operations in South Carolina, was 
prepared to give that attention to the situation in Georgia which he so 
ardently desired. 

General Anthony Wayne was sent "to reinstate as far as might be 
possible the authority of the Union within the limits of Georgia." In 
this he was assisted by Col. Anthony Walton while in command of one 
hundred of Colonel Moylan's dragoons and a battery of artillery. Cross- 
ing the Savannah river on the 12th of January, 1782, with his cavalry, 
and leaving his artillery for a more favorable time to cross, he was re- 
inforced by Colonel Hampton with three hundred cavalrymen from 
General Sumter's brigade. Lieut. -Col. James Jackson, under Colonel 
Twiggs, had previously moved towards Savannah, and was in readi- 
ness to aid in the work to be performed. When the headquarters of 
General Wayne were settled at Ebenezer, Governor Martin made that 
place the capital of republican Georgia. Skirmishes between the Amer- 
ican troops and the loyalists and Indians occurred from time to time, 
and one decided victory was gained in the defeat of the chief Gurister- 
sigo who, at the head of three hundred men, struck out with the inten- 
tion to relieve General Alured Clarke in the town of Savannah. 

Wayne's Terms for British Evacuation 

Governor Wright had received information of the action of parlia- 
ment — looking to a settlement with the colonies, and believing, as we 
may conclude from his letters so freely quoted, that England's cause 
was hopeless, proposed to General Wayne a suspension of hostilities ; but 
matters were brought to a conclusion by the receipt of an order from 
Sir Guy Carlton to Wright, dated at New York, May 23d, 1782, author- 
izing the evacuation of Savannah and the whole province of Georgia, and 
advising Wright that vessels would be sent for the transportation of 
troops, stores, and all British subjects who cared to leave. General 
Wayne was appealed to by the subjects of Great Britain to define their 
rights particularly in regard to their property, and to know upon what 
terms they would be allowed to remain in Savannah should they so 
wish. Governor Martin was consulted on the subject, and it was decided 
■ " 10 offer assurances of safety for the persons and property of such in- 
habitants as chose to remain in Savannah after it should be evacuated 
by the British troops, and that a reasonable time would be allowed 
them to dispose of their property and settle their pecuniary concerns in 
the state." Other conditions relating to offenders against the cause 
mentioned in the agreement are here omitted as not strictly belonging 
to this history ; but it is well to reproduce here the words of General 
Wayne covering his view of tlie subject. He said: "In offering these 
terms I have in view not only the interest of the United States but also 
that of Georgia : by retaining as many inhabitants and merchants as cir- 
eum*stances would admit, aiid with them a considerable quantity of 
goods much wanted for public and private use, but (what was yet of 
greater consequence) to complete your quota of troops without any ex- 
pense to the public, and thus reclaim a number of men who, at another 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 239 

day, will become vahiahle members of society. This also appeared to 
me an act of justice tempered with mercy : justice to oblige those who 
have joined or remained with the enemy to expiate their crime by mili- 
tary service ; and mercy to admit the repentant sinner to citizenship after 
a reasonable quarantine. By these means those worthy citizens who 
have so long endured every vicissitude of fortune with more than 
Roman virtue, will be relieved from that duty." 

No mistake was to be made as to the true intent of the terms of sur- 
render, and they were given to Major John Habersham to be put in 
writing, and, in view of the almost immediate evacuation of the town, 
Gen. Anthony Wayne issued orders regulating the behavior of the 
troops on that occasion, while he was in camp at Gibbons' plantation, 
a few miles west of Savannah, which were in the following words: 

"Head Quarters, Camp at Gibbons, July 10, 1782. — As the enemy 
may be expected daily to evacuate the town, the troops will take care to 
be provided with a clean shift of linen, and to make themselves as re- 
spectable as possible for the occasion. The officers are particularly 
called upon to attend to this order and see it executed in their respective 
corps. No followers of the army are to be permitted to enter the town 
until the main body has marched in. Lieut. Col. Jackson, in considera- 
tion of his severe and fatiguing service in the advance, is to receive the 
keys of Savannah, and is allowed to enter at the western gate, keeping a 
patrole in towai to apprehend stragglers who may steal in with the hopes 
of plunder. Marauders may assure themselves of the most severe and 
exemplary punishment." 

It was just one day after the date of the foregoing order that the 
British departed, and the occupation of the town by the American forces 
followed that afternoon, July 11, 1782, when the second order from 
General Wayne was published in the following form : 

"Head Quarters, Savannah, 11th July, 1782 — The light infantry 
company under Captain Parker to take post in the centre work in front 
of the town, placing sentries at the respective gateways and sally ports to 
prevent any person or persons going from or entering the lines without 
written permits until further orders. 

■'No insults or depredations to be committed upon the persons or 
property of the inhabitants on any pretext whatever. The civil author- 
ity only will take cognizance of the criminals or defaulters belonging to 
the State, if any there be. The merchants and traders are immediately 
to make out an exact and triae invoice of all goods, wares, or merchan- 
dise of every species, dry, wet, or hard, respectively belonging to them or 
in their possession, with the original invoices, to the Commissary, who 
will select such articles as may be necessary for the army and for the 
public uses of the State, for which a reasonable profit will be allowed. 
No goods or merchandise of any kind whatever are to be removed, se- 
creted or sold, or disposed of, until the public and army are first served, 
which will be as soon as possible after the receipt of the invoices, &c. 

"N. B. Orders will be left with Captain Parker for the immediate 



240 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

admission of the Honorable the Executive Council, and the Honorable 
the Members of the Legislature, with their officers and attendants. ' ' 

General Wayne wisely appointed Col. James Jackson to receive the sur- 
render of the town, and historians have delighted in recounting the fact 
that to him "were the keys of the town delivered at its principal gate." 
Of the exact procedure on the part of the persons acting on both sides 
of this solemn transaction we have no definite account, but that its im- 
portance was fully realized we cannot for one moment doubt. When 
Savannah was evacuated by the British, July 11, 1782, as we have shown, 
the capital of the state was at Ebenezer, but the legislature met there 
only on the 3d of July (having adjourned at Augusta on the 4th of May 
"to meet at Ebenezer on the 3d of July," both place and time being 
named in the motion to adjourn), and the day following, the 4th, when, 
by motion, it "adjourned to meet in Savannah" on the 13th, when its 
sessions were held in Christ church. At that time John Martin was 
governor, and his term lasted from January 8, 1782, to January 9, 1783, 
at v/hich last named time Gov. Lyman Hall, who had been elected 
two days before, took his seat. Just how long the assembly met in the 
church is not known, but during Governor Hall's administration, 
probably at its very beginning, it met and continued to meet in the 
house now known as 110 Oglethorpe avenue east (then South Broad 
street) and that is said to be the oldest brick house in Savannah. After 
that time it was used as a public house, and was known as "Eppinger's 
Ball Room." The first meeting of the legislature in Savannah is thus 
mentioned in the record book of the clei'k : ' ' The following members met 
in Savannah, at the church, agreeable to the adjournment at Ebenezer. ' ' 
There were forty-one members present — -7 from Chatham Coimty, 6 
from Richmond, 6 from Burke, 6 from Effingham, 5 from Wilkes, and 11 
from Liberty. The first business transacted was the election of a speaker, 
and James Habersham was the unanimous choice. The seat of Nathan 
Brownson, a representative at the time from Glynn County, was declared 
vacant, and it was "ordered that a writ of election do issue for a mem- 
ber" to fill the place. It was "resolved that the Governor be requested 
to order the public filature to be immediately filled up and put in order 
for the use of the General Assembly. ' ' 

There was another Eppinger house, built on the northeast corner 
of South Broad (now Oglethorpe avenue) and Jefferson streets, and it 
was undoubtedly an old structure wlien it was removed some years since 
to make place for a more modern edifice. ]\Iany persons have mistaken 
that old house for the historic Legislative Hall; but the onl.y fact con- 
necting it with the latter is that it was owned by one of the family of the 
Eppingers. 

Other measures were adopted looking to the welfare of the state and 
the people. Among others were the plans for the remuneration of officers 
of high rank whose efforts in ridding Georgia of the presence of the 
enemy were successful. To Col. James Jackson, l\v resohition, "the house 
which heretofore belonged to IMr. Tattnall in Savannah" was granted 
because of his "great and useful services to his country for which he is 
entitled to the notice and attachment of the Legislature." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 241 

Nathaniel Greene and His Services 

More important were the services of Generals Greene and Wayne 
considered, and consequently more legislation was required to befittingly 
repay them for what they had done. This was especially true of the 
former, and, as action in his behalf was in an important respect connected 
with Savannah's subsequent history we will here give in full the pro- 
ceedings in his case. 

Extracts from House Journals of 1782 and 1783 in regards to Genl. 
Nathaniel Greene. — 

"Augusta, January 1st, 1782: Being the time appointed by the con- 
stitution of this State for the meeting of the General Assembly * * • 

"January 4th, 1782 : The House met according to adjournment * * • 

"Ordered, That the Speaker be requested to write to his Excellency 
General Nathaniel Greene, informing him of the Honorable John Martin, 
Esquire, being elected Governor of this State, which was as follows: 
House of Assembly, 4th January, 1782. — Sir : I have the honor to inform 
you that the Honorable John Martin, Esquire, has been elected Governor 
of this State for the ensuing year, agreeable to the Constitution. I have 
the Honor to be Your Excellency's 

"Most obedient, humble Servant. 
To His Excellency, 

"Majr. General Greene." 

"Wednesday, May; 1st, 1782. The House met according to adjourn- 
ment. # * * 

' ' Whereas, the Honorable Ma jor-General Nathaniel Greene hath since 
his taking the Command of the Southern Army rendered high important 
services to these Southern States by wresting them from the hands of 
British oppression, and establishing the foundation of their independence 
and prosperity 

"And Whereas, services so glorious and honorable to the United 
States in general and this State in particular, services which at once 
characterize the able and judicious General as well as the intrepid asser- 
tion of American freedom, call for the distinguished approbation of the 
Legislature of this State, 

"Be it therefore Resolved, That the sum of Five Thousand guineas 
be granted to three Commissioners to be appointed by this House for the 
purpose of purchasing an Estate for Major-General Nathaniel Greene, 
in such part or parts of this State as he shall appoint. 

"Resolved, That the said Commissioners be empowered and author- 
ized to draw on and receive the said sum of five thousand guineas from 
the public treasury of this State. 

"Ordered, That a committee be appointed to write to Major-General 
Greene, and Brigadier-General Wayne, on the substance of the Resolve 
in their favour. And that Mr. Howly, Mr. Clay, and Mr. Baker be that 
Committee. ' ' 

"Saturday, May 4th, 1782. — The House met according to adjourn- 
ment * * * 

Vol. I— IG 



242 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"Ordered, That Mr. Howley, Mr. Clay, and Mr. 'Bryan be a com- 
mittee to purchase Estates for Generals Greene and Wayne." * * • 

"Wednesday, July 31st, 1782. — The House met according to adjourn- 
ment. * * * 

"The Committee appointed to purcha.se lands for the Generals 
Wayne and Greene, agreeable to the Resolve of this House of the 1st day 
of May last, report. * * * * That they have purchased another tract 
of land for the Honorable Major-General Greene, formerly the property 
of Graham, Esqr., supposed to contain two thousand one hundred seven- 
ty-one acres. Amount of purchase, seven thousand Ninety-seven pounds, 
nineteen Shillings. The Committee request if the House approves of 
the same that this House will give directions to the Commissioners for 
the forfeited estates to execute titles for the above tracts of land to Gen- 
erals Greene and Wayne. " * * * 

"Monday, January 13th, 1783. — The House met according to ad- 
journment * * * 

"Motion being made and seconded that a committee be appointed to 
prepare and report an address, to be printed, to the Honorable Major- 
General Greene, Commander-in-Chief in the Southern Department. 

"Ordered, that Mr. William Houstoun, Mr. Telfair, and Mr. Jack- 
.son be that Committee. 

"To the Honorable Nathaniel Greene, Esquire, Major-General, and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Southern Department, etc., etc. : The ad- 
dress of the Representatives of the Freemen of the State of Georgia — 
The Legislature of the State of Georgia wish to assure you of the real 
happiness your presence in their Capital has- given them — words are too 
inexpressible to convey their sentiments of the difficulties you have 
surmounted during your command in the Southern Department, not 
only your well directed exertions, and the virtuous struggles of your 
victorious army, but your views of ease to the Citizens, in drawing your 
resources through a Scattered Country, wiU be ever gi'atefully remem- 
bered by a State which has felt so particularly the happy consequences 
of them. 

"They congratulate you. Sir, on the Signal success wherewith the 
arms of the United States under your Command with the blessings of 
Divine Providence has been crowned by the total expulsion of the enemy 
from the southern States — an annal in the history of our Country which 
must endear the name of Greene as long as the remembrance of British 
tyranny shall be handed to posterity. 

"They beg you to accept their unfeigned thanks for your decided and 
intrepid conduct and to believe their ardent desire your fxiture days 
may meet that care and happiness a glorious and serviceable life through 
this grand revolution most deservedly entitle you to. 

"By order, etc., * * * 

"Tuesday, January 14th, 1783 — The House met according to ad- 
journment. • * * 

"A letter from the Hon'rable Major-General Greene was read. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 243 

''Ordered, that the said letter be inserted in the minutes: and is 
as follows : ' Sir : — Your polite and obliging address to welcome me to this 
State afford me the most singular satisfaction : Nor are your liberal 
acknowledgments for my small services and generous wishes for my 
future care less pleasing. It affords me the most agreeable sensations 
to Contemplate the happy change in the affairs of this Country, and it is 
among the first of my wishes that you may long, long enjoy the blessings 
of freedom and independence — free from further alarms : But should it 
be your misfortune to have the flame of war rekindled in this quarter, 
my early endeavors shall not be wanting to check its progress — and I can 
not but hope by the smiles of Providence the virtue and spirit of the 
Army, joined by the genious of the Country we shall triumph over our 
enemies. I beg the Legislature to believe I am highly Sensible of the 
honor they have done me, and take the liberty to assure you of my ready 
disposition to serve them. 

" 'I have the honor to be, etc' " 

"Saturday, January 18th, 1783 — Resolved, that the persons ap- 
pointed to purchase lands for the Honorable ]\Iajor-General Greene be 
desired to report a full state of their proceedings thereon and in what 
stage the business stands. * * * 

"The Committee having received Satisfactory information that 
Major-Geueral Greene had declined the purchase made by the Commis- 
sioners appointed by the State to purchase certain lands on the condi- 
tions therein contained, therefore 

'^ Resolved, That the Commissioners appointed to sell and dispose 
of the Confiscated property do make titles to Major-General Greene, for 
a tract or tracts of land formerly the property of John Graham, Esquire 
— containing, as it is said, Two Thousand, one hundred and Seventy-one 
acres — Known by the name of Mulberry Grove, and the New [Place] 
in lieu of a grant of five thousand [guineas as passed in his favor by the 
Legislature]* of this State of the thirteenth day of April, one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-two, if the same be agreeable to him." 

Confiscated British Estates 

On the 4th of May, 1782, the legislature passed an act entitled "An 
Act for Inflicting Penalties on, and Confiscating the Estates of such 
Persons as are Therein Declared Guilty of Treason, and for other Pur- 
poses Therein Mentioned." Naturally Sir James Wright's was the 
first named on the list of persons against whom the legislation was in- 
voked, and his lieutenant-governor, John Graham was the second. Gra- 
ham's property was to be used in the remuneration of General Greene. 
The third name was Alexander Wright whose property was specially 
set aside for the benefit of General Wayne ; and Josiah Tattnall 's name 
came sixth, and his house, as we have seen, was appropriated to the use 

* The words here inserted in brackets are not now legible in the original, and 
have consequently been left out of copies made for use in the several histories bear- 
ing on this subject ; but the missing words are fortunately preserved in the deed 
from the Commissioners of Confiscated Estates to General Greene, hereinafter tran- 
scribed, and are now supplied from that document. 



244 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



of Col. James Jackson. Under said act the house of assembly appointed 
a commission composed of two persons from each county, except Camden 
and Glynn which should each have only one, to take possession of and sell 
the property of the loyalists, and the commission so appointed began 
the work assigned to them on the 13th of June. From an imperfect 
record of that body we take the following, from its first transaction, 
and before it was decided to make titles to Generals Greene and Wayne 
of the lands confiscated : 

"At a Board of Commissioners held at the town of Ebenezer in the 
County of Effingham, for the Sales of Confiscated Estates in the County 
of Chatham on the 13th of June, 1782. 

' ' Present : 



'John Baker, 

'JosiAH Powell, 
'Charles Odingsell's, 
' Thomas Washington, 

'John McLean, 

* * * 



Thomas Lewis, 
Peter Paris, 
James Martin, 
Daniel Coleman." 



"Mulberry Grove" Made over to Greene 
"Messrs. Clay, O'Bryen & Howley for Generals Greene & Wayne. 



Dr. £ s 

1782, June 13th— To 

1,000 Acres of Land 

late the property of 
Alexander Wright 

on Savannah River 

@ £3 8/ pr. Acre..£ 3,400 

To 1,224 Acres of 
Land late the prop- 
erty of John Gra- 
ham known by the 
name of Mulberry 
Grove @ £3 11/ pr. 
Acre 4,345 4 



Dr. 

To 847 Acres Land 
late the property of 
John Graham and 
known by the Name 
of New Settlement 
@ £3 5/ pr. Acre. . 

To 300 Acres of Land 
late the property of 
Sir James Wright 
on Great Ogeechee 
known by the Name 
of Mulberry Grove 
£15 1/ pr. Acre. . 



2,752 15 



4,515 



*£15.512 19 



Per Contra Cr. £ 

1782 — By a resolve 

of the House of 

Assembly General 

Greene was voted 

£5,000 and Gen'l 

Wayne £4,000 £ 9,000 







£15,012.19.0 i.s the correct ainouut, lint the aliove is given in the record. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 245 

At last, to give General Greene absolute title to the Mulberry Grove 
place, the Commissioners of Confiscation made the following deed of 
conveyance : 

"State of Georgia — This Indenture, made the fifth day of March 
in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five 
and in the ninth year of the independence of the United States of Amer- 
ica, Between Hugh Lawson, Hepworth Carter and Abraham Ravot, 
Esquires, Commissioners of Confiscated Estates in the said State, of the 
one part, and the Honorable Nathanael Greene, Esquire, Major-General 
of the army of the said United States, of the other part. Whereas in 
and by a certain Act of Assembly, made and passed at Augusta in the 
said State, on the fourth day of May which was in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, entitled: 'An Act for 
inflicting Penalties on and Confiscating the Estates of such persons as 
were therein declared guilty of treason,' and for other purposes therein 
mentioned, John Graham, late of the County of Chatham, Esquire, being 
named in the said Act, was and is thereby declared guilty of treason 
and banished from the State forever, and all his estate, both real and 
personal, confiscated to and for the use of the said State ; and whereas 
the said John Graham was, at the time of the passing of the said Act, 
or on the nineteenth day of April which was in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, seized in fee simple of, 
in, and to all and singular the lands and hereditaments herein after par- 
ticularly mentioned and described, which said lands and hereditaments 
being forfeited and confiscated by the said Act, the same thereby became 
vested in the good people of the said State ; and whereas the Honorable 
the General Assembly of the said State did, on the eighteenth day of 
January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-three, resolve as followeth (that is to say) 'That the Commis- 
sioners appointed to sell and dispose of the confiscated property do 
make titles to Major-General Greene for a tract or tracts of land for- 
merly the property of John Graham, Esquire, containing, as it is said, 
two thousand one hundred and seventy-one acres known by the name of 
Mulberry Grove and the New Place, in lieu of a grant of five thousand 
guineas as passed in his favor by the Legislature of this State of the 
thirteenth day of April one thousand seven hundred and eiglity-two, 
if the same be agreeable to him'; and whereas the said Hugh Lawson, 
Hepworth Carter and Abraham Ravot, parties to these presents, are 
three of the Commissioners authorized and appointed by the Honorable 
the General Assembly of the said State for carrying into execution the 
Act aforesaid : Now Therefore, This Indenture Witnesseth that the said 
Hugh Lawson, Hepworth Carter and Abraham Ravot, parties to these 
presents and three of the Commissioners authorized and appointed by 
the Honorable General Assembly of the said State for carrying into 
execution the Act aforesaid — as Commissioners as aforesaid, in pursu- 
ance and execution of the said Act of attainder and confiscation and 
of the above recited resolve of the General Assembly and by virtue of 
the power and authority to them thereby given, and for and in con- 
sideration of the sum of ten shillings to them in hand well and truly 



246 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

paid by the said Nathanael Greene at or before the sealing and delivery 
of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, they, 
the said Hugh Lawsou, Hepworth Carter and Abraham Ravot, as Com- 
missioners aforesaid, have granted, bargained, sold, conveyed and con- 
firmed, and, by these presents, do grant, bargain, sell, convey and con- 
firm into the said Nathanael Greene, his heirs and assigns forever, all 
that tract of land known by the name of ^Inlberry Grove Plantation, 
situated and being in the County of Chatham at Joseph's Town on 
the River Savannah, containing by re-survey eight hundred and thirty- 
three acres to the same more or less originally granted to Ann Graham, 
widow, bounded on the east by the said River Savannah, on the north 
by land then of Patrick Mackay, and south by land formerly of David 
Cuthbert, and west on land latelj" vacant ; and also that other tract of 
land containing two hundred and seventy-four acres by resurveying ad- 
joining the above tract, bounded eastwardly partly on the land before 
mentioned and partly on land formerly of Henry Kennan and lately of 
James Parsons, southerlj^ by land late of John Joachim Zulily. 
westerly by land of Joseph Wood and John Dodd, and northerly 
on land heretofore of John Ross; and also all that other tract of 
land containing one hundred and seventeen acres, part and parcel of 
a tract adjoining the above mentioned tract of eight hundred and thirty- 
three acres originally granted to Patrick ]\Iackay, easterly by the River 
Savannah, southerly by the first mentioned tract of eight hundred and 
thirty-three acres, northerly by the remainder of the tract, and westerly 
by Andrew Lord's tract which he purchased of John Joachim Zubly : 
and also all that other tract of land called and kno^^^l by the name of 
New Settlement adjoining Mulberry Grove tract containing six hundred 
acres, bounded on the northeast by the River Savannah, northerly on 
land formerly of Patrick Mackay and sold by him to David Douglass, 
and on the south by land formerly of Ann Graham, ^\-idow, with the 
surplus contained in the said tract, the same having been re-surveyed by 
John Douglass and including River Savannah, part of Morton Hall 
tract, making together eight hundred and forty-seven acres, more or 
less, which said several tracts of land above mentioned were late the 
absolute property of the said John Graham, named in the said act of 
attainder and confiscation, and contain in the whole two thousand and 
seventy-one acres, and are the same tracts mentioned and intended by 
the resolve aforesaid to be granted to the said Nathanael Greene : To- 
gether with all and singular the houses, out-houses, edifices, buildings, 
improvements, trees, woods, underwoods, ways, paths, passages, waters, 
water courses, lights, easements, profits, commodities, privileges, advan- 
tages, emoluments, hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever on the 
said several tracts of land standing and being, or thereunto in any \nse 
belonging or appei'taining, and the reversion and reversions, remainder 
and remainders, rent, issues and profits thereof and of every part and 
parcel thereof; and all the estate, right, title interest, inheritance, prop- 
erty, profits, benefit, claim and demand whatsoever either at law or in 
equity of the said John Graham, his heirs and assigns, of, in and to the 
said several tracts of land and every part and parcel thereof; and also 
all the estate, right, title and interest of the people of the State of 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 247 

Georgia and of them the said Hugh Lawson, Hepworth Carter and 
Abraham Ravot, as commissioners as aforesaid, and their successors 
in office, of in and to the same and every part and parcel thereof: To 
Have and To Hold the said several tracts of land and all and singular 
other the premises above mentioned and hereby intended to be bargained 
and sold with their and every of their rights, members and appurte- 
nances unto the said Nathanael Greene, his heirs and assigns, to the only 
proper use and behoof of the said Nathanael Greene, his heirs and 
assigns forever for such estate as the said John Graham had or which he, 
his heirs or assigns, might or could have had, held, or enjoyed in the 
same, had he the said John Graham not been attained as aforesaid and 
these presents not been made. And the said Hugh Lawson, Hepworth 
Carter and Abraham Ravot and their successors in office the said several 
tracts of land above mentioned hereby bargained and sold, or intended 
so to be, with their and every of their appurtenances unto the said 
Nathanael Greene his heirs and assigns against the said John Graham 
his heirs and assigns and all and every other person and persons claim- 
ing or to claim by, from or under him, them, or any of them, and against 
the good people of the State of Georgia under the Act and resolve afore- 
said shall and will warrant and forever defend by these presents. 

•'In Witness Whereof the said Hugh Lawson, Hepworth Carter, and 
Abraham Ravot, commissioners aforesaid, have hereunto set their hands 
and seals the day and year tirst above written. 

"Hugh Lawson, [L. S.] 

"Hepworth Carter, [L. S.] 

"Sealed and delivered in presence of Peter Taarling, Sam'l Stirk. " 

Anthony Wayne and His Services 

Having shown how highly esteemed were the services of General 
Greene, we will turn our attention to the similar action in the case of 
Anthony Wayne. 

On Wednesday, May 1, 1782, the Georgia House of Assembly, in addi- 
tion to the action appropriating 5,000 guineas to General Greene, passed 
the following: "Whereas Brigadier General Wayne hath, since his com- 
manding the force of the United States within this state, rendered great 
and meritorious services to the country by driving in the posts of the 
enemy, and with a very inferior force keeping them confined to Savannah ; 
and whereas the gallant and judicious conduct of the said General highly 
merits the generous attention and approbation of the Legislature of this 
state : 

"Resolved that a high sense of the great merits and services rendered 
by the Honorable Brigadier General Anthony Wayne is entertained by 
this House, and that the same be acknowledged in a letter from the 
speaker to the said General. 

"Resolved that the sum of four thousand guineas be granted to three 
Commissioners to be appointed by this House for the purpose of pur- 
chasing an estate for Brigadier General Anthony Wayne, in such part or 
parts of the State as he shall appoint. 

"And be it further resolved that the said commissioners be em- 



248 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

powered and authorized to draw on and receive the said sum of four 
thousand guineas from the public treasury of this State." 

On the fourth of May : "Ordered that Mr. Howley, Mr. Clay and Mr. 
'Bryan be a Committee to purchase estates for Generals Greene and 
Wayne" July 13. "A letter from the Hon'rable Brigadier General 
Wayne was read. 

"Ordered that a committee be appointed to take the same into con- 
sideration and that Mr. Clay, Mr. Wereat, and Mr. McNeil be that com- 
mittee to report on Monday next." 

July 22d. "The Committee appointed to take into consideration Gren- 
eral "Wayne's letter of the thirteenth July reported. 

"That it is their opinion that the terms offered by Gen'l Wayne to 
said persons as were within the British lines at the time they were made 
were proper and for the interest of this State, and ought to be confined 
to all such whose names are not mentioned in the Act for inflicting penal- 
ties in and confiscating the estates of such persons as are therein declared 
guilty of treason, and for other purposes therein mentioned, and shall 
faithfully and strictly comply with the conditions required. That is to 
say, who shall l>ona fide enlist in the Georgia Regiment of Infantry, and 
there for the term of two years, or during the war, faithfully serve and 
discharge their duty, and no other. 

"And that all offenses committed by any of the persons under the 
above description before the time of their enlistment as aforesaid 
(murder excepted) ought to be buried in oblivion. 

"Nothing in this resolve is intended to interfere with the right of 
individuals to civil actions who may suppose themselves aggrieved by 
persons under the above description." 

July 31. "The Committee appointed to purchase lands for the Gen- 
erals Greiene and Wayne, agreeable to a resolve of this House of the first 
day of May last, report. 

"That they have purchased another tract of land for the Hon'orable 
Brigadier Gen'l Wayne formerly the property of Alexander Wright, 
Esq., supposed to contain eight hundred forty seven acres. Amount of 
purchase three thousand nine hundred pounds. * * * . 

"The Committee request if the House approve of the same that this 
House will give directions to the Commissioners for the Forfeited Estates 
to execute titles for the above." 

When the house adjourned on Saturday, August 3, 1782. it was to 
meet the next day, (Sunday) the Itli, when "The Committee to wliom 
was referred the letter and several enclosures from General Wayne 
report. 

"That they recommend a committee be appointed to wait on General 
Wayne, and express the high sense this House entertains of his important 
services already rendered the State ; and the full assurance they have 
that all his plans and operations will have for their object the welfare of 
this and the other confederated States. And that the said Committee do 
further inform the General that no exertions on their part have been 
spared, or shall in future be spared, to complete their quota of troops. 
That the House have already ordered two galleys and two gun boats to be 
built for the protection of the rivers in the State, and that their best 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 249 

endeavour shall be exerted to complete this very necessary piece of 
business. 

"Ordered that Mr. Le Conte and Mr. Houstoun be that Committee." 

Greene Visits Mulberry Grove 

The deed to General Greene was executed on the 5th of March, 1785 ; 
but it is to be presumed that he had looked over the place before that 
time. A news item in the Georgia Gazette of August 12, 1784, copied 
from a Charleston, South Carolina, paper of the 4th, said that "last Sun- 
day evening the sloop Charleston Parker, William Cornell, master, 
arrived here from Rhode Island, with whom came passengers the Honor- 
able Major General Greene, Sir Pej'ton Skipwith, and several others." 
General Greene's daughter Cornelia married Peyton Skipwith who was 
the second son of this gentleman. * Doubtless the General visited Savan- 
nah while on that southern trip and saw the place which even at that 
early date had been selected as his future home. Again on the 28th of 
January, 1785, according to a statement of the Savannah newspaper, on 
the authority of a Charleston paper, the general arrived at the latter 
place in the evening, and from Charleston he proceeded to Savannah, as 
the Georgia Gazette of Thursday, February 24th, said: "The Honorable 
Major General Greene arrived here on Saturday from Charleston." He 
probably went to his plantation then and spent some time there, as he 
did not hasten his departvare from Savannah, from which place Governor 
Samuel Elbert wrote on the 8th of March. 

"To his Excellency, the Governor of East Florida: — Sir: — I was 
honored by the receipt of your Excellency's letter * * * The Hon- 
orable ]\Iajor General Greene, who does me the honour to be the bearer 
of this letter, I beg leave to introduce to your Excellency. This gen- 
tleman 's character is so well known to you that it is unnecessai'y for me 
to say anything to induce your excellency to pay that attention to him 
which would be done to a person of his distingiaishcd mind. 

"The General has a valuable estate on the Island of Cumberland 
which he goes to take a view of, and intends visiting your province before 
his return. 

"S. Elbert." 

The general undoubtedly visited Savannah first "to take a view of" 
Mulberry Grove, of which place he seems to have taken possession in the 
latter part of 1785, as the Georgia Gazette of November 3d said: "Last 
Sunday the Honorable Major General Greene and his lady arrived here 
from Rhode Island." Of this trip to east Florida in March the following 
account is preserved. 

From the Gazette of the state of Georgia, Savannah, Thursdav, April 
7, 1785: "On the 10th ult. Gen. Green and Col. Hawkins 'set out 
from this town to take a view of the islands and inland navigation of this 
state, and to visit his Excellency Don Vincent Emanuel De Zespedes, 
Governor of East Florida, and returned on Saturday last. They were 
received at St. Augustine with every mark of politeness and attention, 

* Burke 's Peerage and Baronetage. 



250 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

and every military honour was paid to the General worthy so great a 
character. A Captain and 50 men were sent to his quarters as his guard, 
which the General modestly refused accepting as being no longer in a 
military character. Sentinels were placed at his quarters, and the dif- 
ferent guards of the garrison paid him the same honours as they do a 
Lieutenant-General of their own nation. They were entertained during 
their residence by the Governor in a most splendid and elegant manner. 
The Commandant, The Treasurer, the Secretary, and every other officer 
of his Catholick Majesty in East Florida seemed to vie with each other in 
those marks of unaffected friendship which so justly characterizes 
the Spanish nation. The General was escorted to St. John's by 
the Colonel Commandant of horse and a party of dragoons ; he was 
received by the Officer commanding at that post with hospitality and 
politeness, and from thence he was attended by the Colonel Commandant 
through the inland navigation to the river St. Mary's where the Commo- 
dore commanding his Catholic Majesty's ships on that station received 
him with the flag of Spain displayed at his fore top, and saluted by the 
discharge of 13 cannon. After partaking of an elegant entertainment 
which the Commodore had provided for the occasion, he was attended 
by the Commodore in his barge and again saluted by 13 cannon to 
Cumberland Island in this state, where the Colonel Commandant of horse 
and the Commodore took their leave of the General and Colonel Hawkins. 
— Such attention and respect as has been paid by the Governor and Offi- 
cers at East Florida to a gTcat and beloved General must impress the 
minds of the Citizens of the United States with like sentiments to every 
oificer of his Catholic Majesty who may come amongst them." 

Death and Funeral of General Greene 

General Greene did not live to enjoy the easy and quiet life which 
a residence at the beautiful and comfortable home provided for him was 
calculated to afford him. He was stniek down suddenly at the very time 
when he seemed to be ready and anxious to lay oft' the cares and troubles 
of an active military life, after having most successfully fought the 
battles which so materiully aided in the achievement of the independence 
of this great republic, and when he was probably looking forward to the 
enjoyment of a long rest in the midst of his growing and happy family, 
surrounded with all the comforts of life in a home prepared by its former 
owner for just such pleasure and freedoni from worry and anxiety as 
might be looked for under such conditions.* 

Presuming that he took actual possession of ]\Iulberry Grove at the 
time he brought Mrs. Greene to Savanuali, late in October, 1785, his life 

* On his arrival at Mulberry Grove he wrote : ' ' We found the house, situation, 
and ont-buildings more convenient and pleasing than we expected. The prospect is 
delightful, and the house magnificent. * * * '' In April, two mmiths before his 
death, he wrote: "The garden is delightful. The pine-trees and flowering shruba 
form a pleasing variety. * » » The mocking birds surround us evening and 
morning. * * * We have in the same orchard apples, pears, peaches, apricots, 
nectarines, plums of different kinds, figs, pomegranates and oranges. And we have 
strawberries which measure three inches round. All these are clever, but the want of 
our friends to enjoy them with us renders them less interesting." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 251 

there came to an end in somewhat less than eight months. Business 
in Savannah on Monday, the 12th of June, 1786, compelled him to leave 
home, and he took Mrs. Greene with him. In the town they stopped at 
the home of Maj. Nathaniel Pendleton who had been one of his aids dur- 
ing the war, and they spent the night there. The Pendleton home was on 
the south side of Bay street, next to the western corner of Barnard, and 
to that home General Greene's body was taken on Tuesday, June 20, 
1786, the day after his death, and thence escorted to the burial place. 
On the morning of the 13th, General and Mrs. Greene started back to 
Mulberry Grove, and stopped at the house of Mr. William Gibbons where 
they breakfasted, after which the gentlemen of the party went to the 
rice-field to view Mr. Gibbons 's crop. It was observed that the sum was 
very hot, but at the time no complaint was made of its effect on any of 
them ; but, in the evening, on his was home, the general complained of 
intense pain in the head, as he did also on Wednesday, the 14th. The 
pain increased on Thursday, and was very severe over the eyes, the fore- 
head becoming swollen and inflamed. At that period Major Pendleton 
arrived on a visit, and becoming alarmed, a physician was sent for, and 
Doctor Brickel arrived in the morning of Friday, and bled the patient, 
at the same time giving some medicine ; but the symptoms becoming more 
alarming, Doctor M 'Cloud was called in, when blistering the temples was 
resorted to, and more blood was taken. All efforts to save the life of the 
distinguished patient were unavailing, and he sank into a stupor in 
which he died early in the morning of Monday, the 19th. His neighbor. 
Gen. Anthony Wayne, hearing of his illness, went to him, and reached 
his bedside before he died. His account of the scene we will presently 
quote. The following is copied from the Georgia Gazette of Thursday, 
June 22, 1786 : "On Monday last, the 19th day of June, died, at his seat 
near Savannah, Nathanael Greene, Esq., late Major-General in the Army 
of the United States; and on Tuesday morning his remains were brought 
to town to be interred. The melancholy account of his death was made 
known by the discharge of minute guns from Fort Wayne ; the shipping 
in the harbour had their colours half-masted ; the shops and stores in the 
to^^^l were shut ; and every class of citizens, suspending their ordinary 
occupations, united in giving testimonies of the deepest sorrow. 

"The several military corps of the town, and a great part of the mili- 
tia of Chatham county, attended the funeral, and moved in the following 
procession : 

"The Corps of Artillery, 

"The Light Infantry, 

"The Militia of Chatham County, 

"Clergy and Physicians, 

"Band of Music, 

"The Corpse and Pall Bearers, 

' ' Escorted on each side by a Company of Dragoons, 

"The Principal Mourners, 

"The Members of the Cincinnati as Mourners, 

"The Speaker of the Assembly, 

"And other Civil Officers of the State, 

"Citizens and Strangers. 



252 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEOEGIA 

"About five o'clock the whole proceeded, the Music playing the Dead 
March in Saul, and the Artillery firing minute guns as it advanced. 
When the Military reached the vault in which the body was to be en- 
tombed they opened to the right and left and, resting on reversed arms, 
let it pass through. The funeral .service being performed, and the 
remains deposited, thirteen discharges from the artillery, and three from 
the musquetry, closed the scene. The whole was conducted with a 
solemnity suitable to the occasion. 

"With respect to the public character of this great man, it is so 
well known, by the distinguished services he has rendered his country, 
that it requires, and indeed can receive no addition from what might be 
said here. As to his private virtues, they will live in the remembrance 
of all his fellow citizens. 

'General Greene left behind him a wife and five children, the eldest 
of whom is about eleven years. The loss of such a man, to such a family, 
must be truly afflicting ! 

' ' ' Thy darts, death : that fiy promise 'ous round. 
In such a victim many others wound. ' 

"Immediately after the interment of the General the members of 
the Cincinnati retired to the coffee house, and came to the following reso- 
lution : ' On motion, That, as a token of the high respect and venera- 
tion in which this Society hold the memory of their late illustrious 
Brother, Major-General Greene, deceased, George Washington Greene, 
his eldest son, be admitted a member of this Society, to take his seat on 
his arriving at the age of eighteen years : 

" ^Resolved, therefore, unanimously, That he be admitted a Member 
of the Cincinnati ; and that he may take his seat in the Society on his 
arriving at the age of eighteen : 

" 'That this resolve be piiblished in the Georgia Gazette, and that the 
secretary transmit a copy of the same to the several state societies, and 
to the guardian of the said George Washington Greene.' " 

"Regimental Orders, 20th June, 1786. — The Honorable Major-Gen- 
eral Greene (whose memory ought to be sacredly dear to every citizen of 
America, and respected by every lover of the rights of mankind) having 
departed this life, the Colonel, from a sense suflfieient honor can not be 
paid his remains, but what is in the power of the regiment ought to be 
done, requests the regiment to exert themselves on the occasion. 

"The regiment will parade in the Church Square, the Infantry equally 
divided into eight platoons, and marched oft: with shouldered arms to 
the front of Major Pendleton's house on the Bay, from whence the 
procession will take place: The dragoons and Ai'tillery will proceed in 
front of the regiment : When the procession begins the Light Infantry 
will conduct the Corpse, with reversed arms, to the left of the regiment, 
it being received, they file off to the right and left, and take their foi'mer 
post in front of the battalion : Tlie whole will then march off with 
reversed arms, the Artillery advancing firing minute guns, till they 
arrive at the place of interment. The Dragoons will flank the corpse 
on the right and left: Music playing a solemn dirge. Tlie procession 
being arrived at the place of burial, the regiment will file off to the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 253 

right and left, face inwards, and rest on their arms, so as to let the 
corpse, pall-bearers, mourners, citizens, etc., pass through. The corpse 
being deposited, and funeral rites executed, the regiment will close 
their files, march up on the right of the vault, and give three general 
discliarges, the Artillery at the same time firing thirteen rounds in 
honor of this truly great and good man. The regiment will then march 
off with trailed arms to the place of parade, shoulder, and be discharged. 

"Ben Fishbourn, 
"Major C. CM." 

Although no statement was made of the precise spot where the body 
of General Greene was buried, it is now known that, as the estate of 
Lieutenant-Governor John Graham was confiscated and given as a 
present to General Greene, the family vault belonging to that man, 
in the Savannah cemetery, was considered a part of said estate, and 
there the general's remains were deposited. In later years, when the 
subject of building a monument to his memory was discussed, efforts 
were made to find the body which resulted in a complete failui-e and 
the mystery connected with the locating of the same remained unsolved 
for a long period of years to be finally settled in 1901, when, on the 
4th of I\Iareh it was found just where it had been interred nearly one 
hundred and fifteen years before. We leave the subject here, but will 
return to it again. 

Wayne's Georgia Residence Also Short 

It is a singular fact that the residence in Georgia of Gen. Anthony 
Wayne, like that of General Greene, was of short duration, and it is 
also singular that writers heretofore have been sc uncertain as to the 
time of his taking possession of his plantation as well as to the time of 
his departure. Unlike Greene, he lived some time after the grant was 
signed, but he sold out his possessions in Georgia and lived elsewhere. 

In "The Life of Major General James Jackson," by Thomas U. P. 
Charlton, the statement is made (page 119 of the reprint by James F. 
Meegan) "like General Greene he [Gen. Anthony Wayne] was led to 
make Georgia his home. The precise time of his- coming I have no 
means of fixing, but it was certainly later than the year 1787, for we 
find him in the hist months of that year still a citizen of Pennsylvania, 
and serving as a delegate in her convention called to ratify the new 
Federal Constitution.'" Notwithstanding that assertion, the same 
author shows that General Wayne was residing at the plantation given 
him by the state of Georgia, near that of General Greene, in June, 1786, 
and that he witnessed the death of the latter as shown in the same volume, 
page 13-1, where Wayne's letter to Jackson is given in these words: 
"My dear Sir: — I have often wrote you, but never on so distressing 
an occasion. My dear friend General Greene is no more. He departed 
this morning, six o'clock A. M. He was great as a soklier, greater as a 
citizen, — immaculate as a friend. His corpse will be at Major Pendle- 
ton's this night; the funeral from thence in the evening. The honors — 
the greatest honors of war are due his remains. You, as a soldier, will 



254 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

take the proper order on this melancholy affair. Pardon this scrawl, 
my feelings are but too much affected, because I have seen a great and 
good man die." If this is not conclusive evidence of the fact that 
General Wayne was living in Georgia on the 19th of June, 1786, when 
General Greene died, surely no one will deny that fact on learning that 
the Georgia, Gazette, on Thursday, April 20, 1786, mentioned the 
drowning on the 17th of a white man, "groom to General Wayne." 

By deeds dated April 1 and 2, 1791, Anthony Wayne transferred 
all of his property in Georgia, both real and personal, including a num- 
ber of slaves, to John Penman. 



CHAPTER XXI 

AS A CHARTERED CORPORATION 

Regular Municipal. Administration — Samuel Elbert and Jonathan 
Bryan — Oldest Artillery Company in Georgia — Washington's 
Visit to Savannah — Washington's Account of His Southern 
Tour — ^Municipal Government Continued — Disastrolts Fire op 
1796 — Chatham Ac-ujemy — The Georgia Hussars — The Old Ex- 
change — ]\IuNiciPAL Affairs, 1797-1802 — Visit op Aaron Burr — 
Terrific Storm op 1804 — Preparations for the War of 1812. 

Having brought our readers to that point where Savannah was 
finally set free from the government which had been set up under Ogle- 
thorpe's administration and kept up as the capital of the British colony 
and province under its peculiar form, we will now relate the circum- 
stances under which it became a city, governed like other cities by a 
regular municipal administration known as mayor and aldermen. 

Regular Municipal Administration 

Not until more than three years after the treaty of Paris had been 
ratified by the congress of the United States did the legislature of 
Georgia take action in the matter of changing the old for the new plan, 
and on the 19th of February, 1787, by an act it divided the town into 
seven wards, adding to the six already existing (Anson, Decker, Derby, 
Heathcote, Percival and Reynolds) another to be called Oglethorpe, 
and constituting the hamlets of Yamacraw and Ewensburg. The 
second section declared "that on the first Monday in March annually, 
and every year, the proprietors of lots or houses within the said wards, 
who shall be of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, shall meet at 
the court house of the said town, and under the direction of two or 
more magistrates proceed to ballot for a warden for each ward, who 
shall also be a proprietor of a house or lot within the limits of the town 
or hamlets as aforesaid ; and the wardens so chosen, or a majority of 
them, shall meet on the Monday next following, and choose by ballot 
out of their own body a person to act as president of the board, and 
they shall also appoint a clerk and such other officers as may be deemed 
necessary to carry this act into execution." It is needless to say anything 
here about the other provisions of that act. Under its authority the town 

255 



256 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

was governed until December 23, 1789, when a charter was granted, 
which, after the preamble, reads as follows: "Now be it enacted. That 
the said town of Savannah shall be hereafter known and called by the 
style and name of the City of Savannah; and that on the first Monday 
in March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety, and thereafter 
annually, the owner or ocupiers of any lot or house in the said City or 
hamlets shall, under the direction of any two or more justices in the said 
City elect an alderman for each ward mentioned in the said act [of Feb. 
19, 1787] from among the said citizens generally, who shall, on the 
Monday following after the election of such aldermen, choose from 
their own body a mayor ; and that from and after the election of said 
aldermen and mayor their style shall be the Mayor and Aldermen of 
the City of Savannah and the trustees thereof; and are hereby empow- 
ered to carry into execution the power intended by the said act [of 
Feb. 19, 1787], and shall be a body politic and corporate, to have and 
to use a common seal, with power to sue and to be sued, plead or be 
impleaded, and may require, have, hold and enjoy real and personal 
property for the use and benefits of the said city and hamlets. 

"And be it further enacted. That so much of the said recited act 
as is repugnant to the principles of this act be, and the same is hereby 
repealed. ' ' 

It is remarkable that the legislature was so late in granting a charter 
to the city of Savannah, when it is recalled that the matter had been 
previously considered. Indeed, as early as October 6, 1785, the grand 
jurors of the October term of the superior court of Chatham county, in 
their general presentments made this special presentment in that matter : 
"We present, as a grievance, that the town of Savannah is not incor- 
porated, and most seriously ask for the attention of the Legislature to 
this very important matter. To show that we are pointed in presenting 
this as a grievance, we beg to offer, by way of observation, that the 
shattered and dirty situation of the town, and the neglected condition 
of our public buildings make the most unhappy impression on foreign- 
ers, and injure materially the credit and consequence of this country." 

The impression seemed to have been made on the minds of some per- 
sons that Savannah was not to be considered a place designed to grow, on 
account of its unhealthy situation. A correspondent of the Georgia 
Gazette, to correct that impression, wrote thus to that journal m its 
columns of Thursday, June 14, 1787 : 

"Mr. Johnston: The general . although illfoimded prejudice against 
the healthiness of the lower part of the state of Georgia induced a citizen 
of Savannah to take the following account of the inhabitants now living 
in the town, and within ten miles thereof, being the first settlement of 
Georgia 5-4 years ago, wherein there is perhaps as great a proportion of 
aged persons as in anv other country. There are now living 10 persons 
between 80 and 90—33 between 70 and 80—69 between 60 and 70—80 
between 60 and 50 ; and, from the best information that can be had, 
the whole number of residents in the above district amounts to 2,290. 
It is well known tliat within the last two years several persons have died 
in Georgia from 90 to 100 years of age." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 257 

Samuel Elbert and Jonathan Bryan 

On the 1st of November, 1788, occurred the death of a man who, as 
a good citizen, faithful officer with a proud record of service well per- 
formed in l)oth civil and military life, was highly esteemed by the people 
of Savannah and the state of Georgia. That man was Samuel Elbert. 
One of the two brigadier-generals in the continental line from Georgia, 
his conduct during the War of the Revolution honorable and fearless ; 
as governor of the state from January 14, 1785, to January 9, 1786, he 
was a chief executive of ability and sound judgment ; and as sheriff of 
Chatham county in the discharge of the duties pertaining to said office 
at the time of his death, his record was clean and marked with the 
strictest integrity. Besides the last mentioned office he held at the last 
moment of his life the offices of major-general of the state militia and 
vice-president of the Georgia Society of the Cincinnati. His funeral 
was attended by the military of Savannah and the Cincinnati Society, 
together with the Masonic lodges. A funeral sermon was preached by 
the Rev. Mr. Benjamin Lindsay, rector of Christ church, and minute 
guns were fired by the artillery. He was buried at Rae's Hall, about 
three miles above the city on the Savannah river. 

Another venerable and most highly respected citizen died on the 
9th of March, 1788, of whom we have already given some words of 
praise, too feeble, however, to do one-half the honor due the memory of 
the man who shall now be mentioned. Let the following; therefore, taken 
from the Georgia Gazette of Thursday, March 13, 1788, suffice at this 
time: 

"On Sunday last died at his plantation near Savannah, in the 80th 
year of hi& age, the Hon. Jonathan Bryan, Esq., who had been for nearly 
50 years an inhabitant of this State, during which time, both under 
the former and present governments, he tilled several very important 
stations. The many virtues which this gentleman possessed, both of a 
social and private nature, will not readily be forgotten. Having at an 
early day removed into this State, he acquired an accurate and thorough 
knowledge of the country. This enabled him, and his benevolent heart 
always inclined him, to render that aid to new settlers that he may justly 
be styled one of the principal Founders and Fathers of Georgia. Zealous 
in the cause of Christianity, he considered modes of worship but as 
secondary, whilst a great first principle with him in all true religion 
was universal charity. Being in the late war taken prisoner, he was 
made to undergo a series of persecution and hardship scarcely to be 
paralleled, and never to be justified ; but the strength of his constitution 
and the unshaken firmness of his mind, even at the advanced period of 
70 years, rose superior to all difficulties and at length brought him to 
die in the arms of peace." 

Oldest Artillery Company in Georgia 

Turning backward just for the space of about two years, we will take 
this opportunity to mention briefly the facts connected with the organ- 
ization of the oldest artillery company in the state of Georgia — a com- 

Vol. I— 17 



258 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

pany with a record that should be preserved reverentially and with 
pride. On the 1st of May, 1786, through the efforts of Edward Lloyd, 
an officer of the Revolution, the Chatham Artillery became a regularly 
officered and equipped military force, beginning its distinguished career 
which has lasted unbroken down to this day, with a parade as escort of 
honor on an occasion of the most solemn and imposing character. Before 
the close of two full months of its history, with its chief organizer in 
command, the corps made its first public appearance at the funeral of 
Maj.-Gen. Nathanael Greene on the 20th of June, 1786. 

Under the terms of the charter the aldermen elected in 1790 were 
John Houstoun, Joseph Habersham, Samuel Stirk, ]\Iatthew ]\IcAllister, 
Edv/ard Lloyd, Joseph Clay, Jr., and Justus H. Scheuber, and they 
chose the first named as mayor. The following year, 1791, Mr. Scheuber 
was the only member of the board of aldermen who was re-elected, the 
others being Thomas Gibbons, who was the choice of the body for mayor, 
with associates Jacob Waldburgh, Wm. Lewden, Richard Wayne, John 
Berrien and Joseph Welscher. 

Washington's Visit to Savannah 

Early in this year Gen. George Washington, president of the United 
States, began his southern tour, reaching Savannah on the 12th of May, 
on which day, anticipating his arrival, the Georgia Gazette said: "The 
President of the United States, it is expected, Avill honor the city of 
Savannah with his presence this afternoon. A boat elegantly fitted 
out, set off yesterday forenoon, having on board five of the principal 
gentlemen of this place who are to receive him at Purysburgh, from 
whence he is to be rowed by nine captains of vessels, neatly dressed in 
blue silk jackets and round hats, with black ribbon, having the words 
'Long Live the President' wrought in gold. The Mayor and Aldermen 
have requested the citizens to illuminate their houses, and every prepa- 
ration is making to welcome this truly illustrious character to the 
metropolis of Georgia." 

That morning he arrived at Purysburgh to which point he had been 
escorted by Gen. William Moultrie and others from Charleston, South 
Carolina. There a committee of citizens of Savannah met him and con- 
ducted him to this city by boat leaving Puryslnu-gh between 10 and 11 
o'clock. Nine American captains rowed the boat. Those men were 
Captains Putnam, Courter, Rice, Fisher, Huntington, Kershaw, Swain, 
]\lclntire, and Morrison. Ten miles up the river a number of gentlemen 
in boats, accompanied with a band of music, met the party, the band 
playing "He Comes, the Hero Comes," in which song many voices 
united. We quote the following at this point : 

"On his approach to the city, the concourse on tlie bluff', and the 
crowds which had pressed into the vessels, evinced tlie general joy 
which had been inspii'ed by the visit of this most lieloved of men, and 
the ardent desire of all ranks and conditions of people to be gratified by 
his presence. Upon arriving at the upper part of the harlior he was 
saluted from the wharves, and by the shipping, and particwlarly by the 
ship Thomas Wilson, Captain ^\niite, which was beautifully decorated 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 259 

with the i'oU)i's of various nations. At tlie foot of the stairs wliere 
the president landed, he was received by Colonel Gunn and General 
Jackson, who introduced him to the mayor and aldermen of the city. 
The artillery comjjany saluted him with twenty-six discharges from 
their field pieces, and he was then conducted to a house prepared by 
the corporation for his accommodation, in St. James' Square, in the 
following- order of procession: 

"Light Infantry Company. 

"Field Officers and other Officers of the Militia. 

"Marshal of the City. 

"Treasurer, Clerk and Recorder. 

"Aldermen, the Mayor. 

"President and Suite. 

"Committee of Citizens. 

"Members of the Cincinnati. 

"Citizens, two and two. 

"Artillery Company." 

' ' The following address by the Mayor and Aldermen was delivered : 
'To the President of the United States — Sir: The Mayor and Aldermen 
of the City of Savannah, do imanimously concur in presenting their 
most affectionate congratulations to you on your arrival in this city. 
Impressed with a just sense of your great and eminent services to Amer- 
ica, permit us, the representatives of the city, to assure you of the high 
opinion the citizens entertain of your elevated virtues. 

" 'We respect you as one of the richest and most vahaable blessings 
divine goodness has bestowed on the -leople of these United States; your 
presence is an evidence of the watchful care you have for every part 
of the extended empire over which you preside. If we can not, by 
external show, demonstrate that respect for you which is in the power 
of the more wealthy of our sister States to display, yet none estimate 
your merits higher than the people of Georgia. The historic page bears 
record of our sufferings in the late revolution, and the vestiges of war 
remain within view^ of our Capital, and although peace was, in 1783, 
restored to America, yet Georgia continued to suffer under the destruc- 
tive ravages of an Indian war, and it has been reserved for the efficacy 
of the present government to give peace to our State. 

" 'May the blessings of the government long continue under your 
administration, and may it please the Great Riiler of Events, to grant 
you long residence on earth, and to length of days add the blessings of 
uninterrupted health, that the advantages of the present government 
may be permanently established.' " 

To the foregoing address the president made the following response : 
"To the IMayor and Aldermen of the City of Savannah — Gentlemen: 
Your affectionate congratulations on my arrival in this city, and the 
very favorable sentiments you express towards me, are received with 
gratit\ide and thanks, with sincerity. Estimating favors by the cordial- 
ity with which they are bestowed, I confess, with real pleasure, my 
obligations to the corporation of Savannah, and I can never cease to 
entertain a grateful sense of their goodness. 



260 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

" 'While the virtuous conduct of j'our citizens, whose patriotism 
braved all the hardships of the late war, engaged my esteem, the distress 
peculiar to the State of Georgia, after the peace, excited my deepest 
regret. 

" 'It was with singular satisfaction I perceived that the efficacy of 
the general government could interpose effectual relief, and restore 
tranquilit}''; to so deserving a member of the Union. Your sentiments on 
this event are worthy of citizens, who, placing a due value on the bless- 
ings of peace, desire to maintain it on the immutable principles of justice 
and good faith. ' 

" 'May the harmony of your city be consequent on your administra- 
I'ion, and may you individually be happy.' " 

At six o'clock in the afternoon the president and his suite by invitation 
of the mayor and aldermen dined with the latter at Brown's Coffee 
House, Gen. Anthony Wayne, president of the Society of the Cincinnati, 
also being an invited guest. Toasts were drunk and the Chatham Artil- 
lery fired three guns. The city was brilliantly illuminated. The next 
day the Cincinnati entertained Washington at the same place, and a 
ball was given in the evening in the long room of the filature where, 
at 8.30 Washington made his appearance and was introduced to ninety- 
six elegantly dressed ladies, "some of w-hom displayed infinite taste in 
the emblems and devices on their sashes and headdresses out of respect 
to this happy occasion. ' ' The Georgia Gazette said : ' ' The room Avhich 
had been lately handsomely fitted up and was well lighted, afforded 
the President and excellent opportunity of viewing the Fair Sex of our 
City and vicinity, and the Ladies the gratification of paying their 
respects to our Federal Chief. After a few Minuets were moved, and 
one Country Dance led down, the President and his Suit retired about 
11 o'clock. At 12 o'clock the supper-room was opened, and the ladies 
partook of a repast, after which dances continued until 3 o'clock. The 
company retired with the happy satisfaction of having generally con- 
tributed towards the hilarity and gaiety of the evening." 

On Saturday, Gen. Lachlan IMcIntosli, who had taken part in the 
siege of Savannah in October, 1779, took the president and others on a 
tour to inspect the lines made at that time by the British as well as 
the works of the Americans and their French allies in which Washing- 
ton showed a deep interest. 

The Georgia Gazette furnishes the foUo^ving information as to the 
remainder of the time spent by the president in Savannah: '"In the 
afternoon the President honored the Citizens with his company at a 
dinner prepared for him under a beautiful arbor supported by three 
rows of pillars entirely covered with laurel and bay leaves so as to 
exhibit uniform green columns. The pillars were higher than the arbor, 
and ornamented above it by festoons, and connected below by arches 
covered in the same manner. The place on which it stood was judiciously 
chosen, presenting at once a view of the city and of the shipping in the 
harbor, with an extensive prospect of the river and rice lands both 
al)ove and below tlie town. But the principal advantage which resulted 
from its situation and structure was the opportunity which it afforded 
to a great body of people to have a distinct and uninterrupted view of 
that object to which all eyes and hearts appeared to be attracted. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 261 

"A company of nearly 200 citizens and strangers dined under it, 
and the satisfaction which each one enjoyed in paying this personal 
tribute to the merit of a man who is, if possible, more beloved for his 
goodness than admired for his greatness, produced a degree of convivial 
and harmonious mirth rarely experienced. Every one beheld with de- 
light, in the person of our President, the able General, the virtuous 
Patriot, the profound Politician — in a Avord, one of the most shining 
ornaments that ever dignified human nature. 

"The Artillery Company dined under another arbor erected at a 
small distance, and received merited applause for the gi-eat dexterity 
which they displayed in firing at each toast. Their fires were returned 
by Fort Wayne, and the ship Thomas Wilson which was moored op- 
posite the arbor. Her decorations through the day, and illuminations 
at night, had a fine effect. 

' ' The following toasts were given : — 

"The United States of America. 

"Prosperity to the Citizens of Savannah and its vicinity. [By the 
President.] 

"The Fair of America. 

"The Vice-president of the United States. 

"The Memorable Era of Independence. 

"The Count d'Staing. 

"The Memory of General Greene. 

"The Arts and Sciences. 

' ' The Memory of those Brave Men who fell before the Lines of Savan- 
nah on the 9th of October, 1779. 

"The Friends to Free and Equal Government throughout the Globe. 

"All foreign Powers in Friendship with the United States. 

"May Religion and Philosophy always triumph over Superstition 
and Prejudice in America. 

"The present dexterous Corps of Artillery. [The President's toast.] 

" [After the President retired.] The President of the United States. 

"The construction of the arbor and the manner in which the enter- 
tainment was provided and conducted did great honor to the gentlemen 
to whose direction the whole was committed. 

"In the evening there was a handsome exhibition of fireworks, and 
the amusements of this day of joy and festivity were concluded by a 
concert. 

"On Sunday morning the President attended Divine Service in 
Christ Church, and soon after set out on his way to Augusta. On taking 
his leave of the mayor and committee of the citizens he politely expressed 
his sense of the attention shown him by the Corporation and every 
denomination of people during his stay in Savannah. He was attended 
out of the city by a number of gentlemen, and escorted by a detachment 
of Augusta dragoons commanded by Maj. Ambrose Gordon. At the 
Spring Hill the President was received by General Jackson, where the 
Artillery and Light Infantry Companies were drawn up, and was there 
saluted by 39 discharges from the field pieces, and 13 vollies of platoons. 
After which he proceeded to Mulberry Grove, the seat of the late Major- 
General Greene, where he dined, and then resumed his tour." 



262 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

The account we have given of "Washington's visit to Savannah, the 
only one he ever made, discloses the second service of very great im- 
portance rendered by the Chatham Artillerj^ within the space of five 
years after the organization of the company, and the fact that a special 
toast was given in its honor by that great man who characterized it as 
"the present dexterous Corps of Artillery." He still frrther showed his 
appreciation of the services rendered by it on that notable occasion and 
his pleasant memories of the same by presenting it, shortly after ^is re- 
turn, with two field pieces of bronze which had been captured at York- 
town ; and these guns are still held by the company which values them be- 
yond anything that the world can estimate by any conceivable pecuniary 
measurement. 

Washington's Account of His Southern Tour 

The southern tour of General Washington began on ^louday, the 
21st of March, 1791, when he left Philadelphia, as he said "about 11 
o'clock, to make a tour through the Southern States." He thus men- 
tioned his approach to and experiences at Savannah : ' ' Thursday, 12th 
[May]. By five we set out from Judge Heyward's, and road to Puris- 
burgh 22 miles to breakfast. 

"At that place I was met by Messrs. Jones, Col. Habersham, Mr. 
Jno. Houston, Genl. Mcintosh and Mr. Clay, a committee from the City 
of Savannah to conduct me thither. Boats also were ordered there by 
them for my accommodation ; among which a handsome 8-oared barge 
rowed by 8 American Captains attended. In my way down the River 
I call upon Mrs. Green the Widow of the deceased Genl. Green, (at 
a place called Mulberry Grove) and asked her how she did. At this 
place (2 miles from Purisburgh) my horses and carriages were landed, 
and had 12 miles further by land to Savannah. The wind and tide 
being both against us, it was 6 o'clock before we reached the City where 
we were received under every demonstration that could be given of 
joy and respect. We were seven hours making the passage which is 
often performed in 4, tho' the computed distance is 25 miles — lUuminns 
at night. 

"I was conducted by the Mayor and Wardens to a very good lodging 
which had been provided for the occasion, and partook of a good dinner 
by the Citizens at the Coffee Room. At Purisburgh I parted with Genl. 
Moultree. Friday 13th. Dined with the members of the Cincinnati at 
a public dinner given at the same place — and in the evening went to a 
dancing Assembly at which there was about 100 well dressed and hand- 
some ladies. Saturday 14th. A little after 6 o'clock, in company with 
Genl. ]\IcIntosh, Genl. Wayne, the ]\Iajor and many others (principal 
Gentlemen of the City,) I visited the City, and the attack and defense 
of it in the year 1779. under the combined forces of Prance and the 
United States, commanded hy the Count d'Estaing and Genl. Lincoln. 
To form an opinion of the attack at this distance of time, and the change 
which has taken place in the appearance of the ground by the cutting 
away of the woods, &c., is liardly to be done with justice to the subject; 
especially as there is remaining scarcely any of the defences. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



263 



"Dined today with a number of the Citizens (not less than 200) in 
an elegant Bower erected for the occasion on the Bank of the River 
below the Town. In the evening there was a tolerable good display of 
fireworks. Sunday, 15th. After morning Service, and receiving a 
number of visits from the most respectable ladies of the place (as was 
the case yesterday) I set out for Augusta, Escorted beyond the limits 
of the City by most of the Gentlemen in it, and dining at Mulberry 
Grove the seat of Mrs. Green, — lodged at one Spencers — distant 15 
miles. ' ' 

In the honors shown the illustrious visitor the Society of the Cincin- 
nati took a large part. At that time its officers were : President, Gen. 
Anthony Wayne; vice-president, Maj. "William Pierce; secretary, Maj- 




MiDWAY Church, Erected in 1792 

John Habersham ; treasurer. Col. Richard Wylly ; assistant secretary, 
John Peter Ward ; and assistant treasurer, Edward Lloyd. 



Municipal Government Continued 

In 1792 Joseph Habersham succeeded Thomas Gibbons as mayor, 
and Messrs. Scheuber, Lewden, Waldburger, Berrien and Wayne were 
retained as aldermen while Joseph Clay, Jr., was chosen in the place 
of Welscher. William Stephens became mayor in 1793, and John Cun- 
ningham, Andrew McCredie and George Jones stepped into the places 
of Scheuber, Waldburger and Wayne. Again in 1794 Thomas Gibbons 
Took his seat as chief magistrate, and Messrs. Clay and McCredie retired 
in favor of George Throop and Ulrick Tobler. After a year of rest 
from the conduct of municipal affairs Wm. Stephens took the head of 
government in 1795, during which year he had as fellow members of 
the board Messrs. John JMoore, Balthasar Schaffer, George Throop, James 



264 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Box Young, George Faries, Ulrick Tobler, Andrew McCredie, Richard 
Wayne and Thomas Gibbons. One of Savannah's noted lawyers became 
mayor in 1796, and he afterwards served the city as alderman several 
times and twice again as mayor. John Y. Noel was the man, and he 
had on his aldermanie board Ulrick Tobler, Richard Wayne, Thomas 
Gibbons, and John Moore, whose experience on former occasions aided 
them in their work, while Owen Owens, John ]\Iiller, John ]\IcCall and 
Thomas Norton were newly elected to office in that year 1796. 

Disastrous Fire of 1796 

On the 26th of November of the last mentioned year a fire occurred 
in Savannah which was most disastrous in its effects. It is so well 
described in an editorial article in the Columbian Museum and Savannah 
Advertiser of the 29th, just three days after, that we quote it here in 
full: 

"On Saturday the 26th instant this City exhibited a scene of deso- 
lation and distress, probably more awfully calamitous than any pre- 
viously experienced in America. 

"Between six and seven o'clock in the evening a small Bakehouse 
belonging to a Mr. Gromet, in Market Square, was discovered to be on 
fire. The citizens, together with the officers and crews of the vessels in 
the harbor, were soon convened ; but, unfortunately, no immediate and 
decisive measures were adopted by which the fire could be stopped at 
its beginning. The fortunate escape from the destructive element which 
the City for many years past experienced had greatly lulled the vigil- 
ance of its inhabitants, and prevented suitable preparations for such 
a calamity. 

"The period when such prevention and the united efforts of actual 
exertion could have been useful was, however, of very short duration. 

"The season for two months previous to this incident had been dry; 
the night was cold, and a light breeze from N. N. W. was soon increased 
by the effect of the fire. The covering of the buildings being of wood, 
were, from the above circumstances, rendered highly combustible. Sev- 
eral of the adjoining houses were soon affected, and then almost instantly 
in Hames. The wind now became strong, and whirled into the air, with 
agitated violence large flakes of burning shingles, boards and othep 
light substances which, alighting at a distance, added confusion to the 
other terrors of the conflagration. 

"The use of water was now rendered totally vain, its common extin- 
guishing power seemed to be lost. Torrents of flames rolled from house 
to house with a destructive rapidity which bid defiance to all human 
control, and individual exertions were from this time principally pointed 
towards the securing of private property. 

"The direction of the fire being now connnitted to the wind its rav- 
ages were abated only when, by its extending to the common, it found 
no further object wherewith to feed its fury. 

"On the north side of Market S(iuare. and thence in a southeasterly 
direction, the inliabitants were enabled, by favor of the wind, to save 
their houses and limit the conflagration. On the other hand, b}' the 



SAA^ANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 265 

time it had extended on the Bay, nearly to Abercorn street, the pro- 
digious quantity of heat already produced in the centre of the city began 
to draw in a current of air from the east, and enabled some of the most 
active inhabitants and seamen to save a few houses in that quarter, after 
having been in imminent danger. 

"Between twelve and one the rage of the fire abated, and few other 
houses from this time took fire. The exhausted sufferers of both sexes 
had now to remain exposed to the inclemency of a cold frosty night, 
and to witness the distressing spectacle of their numerous dwellings, 
covered with smoke and flames, tumbling in ruins. 

"Thus was the little City, soon after emerging from the ravages of 
a revolutionary war, and which had lately promised a considerable 
figure among the commercial cities of our sister States, almost destroyed 
in a single night. The number of houses (exclusive of other buildings) 
which are burned is said to be nearly three hundred, but of this (to- 
gether with an estimate of property destroyed) a more particular state- 
ment than we can now furnish is expected shortly to be offered to the 
public. We can now only say that two-thirds of the city appears in 
ruins, in a direction from the corner of Market Square along the Bay 
to Abercorn street, thence in a southeast direction, taking the whole 
centre of the city to the south and east commons, a few houses quite in 
the southeast part only excepted. 'Tis said that three or four white 
men and two or three negroes lost their lives in rendering assistance 
during the fire, and whether any more is not yet ascertained. 

"The following statement is just handed, as this paper is going to 
press : 

"During the conflagration on Saturday night last in four hours 229 
houses, besides out-houses, &c., were burnt, amounting to One Million 
Dollars, exclusive of loose property. Three hundred and seventy-five 
chimneys are standing bare, and form a dismal appearance — one hun- 
dred and seventy-one houses only of the compact part of the city are 
standing — upwards of four hundred families are destitute of houses. 
Charities are solicited." 

Chatham Academy 

The people of Savannah and the surrounding territory had become 
impressed with the necessity for a building suitable for the education 
of children farther advanced than those in the primary grade, and to 
that end a plan was inaugurated for the chartering of trustees for 
building and maintaining a schoolhouse to accommodate for a long time 
the children of Chatham county seeking an education from the infant 
class to the high school. The charter was obtained long before the build- 
ing was erected, and we are in the dark as to what was done from 1788 
to the opening of the new Iniilding called the Chatham Academy in 
1813, outside of the negotiations between the trustees and the Union 
Society. 

The legislature of Georgia, in session at Augusta, passed an act, 
dated February 1, 1788, incorporating Chatham Academy. The act is 
too long to be quoted in this place, but the original trustees named in 



266 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

it were John Houstoiin, John Habersham, William Gibbons, Sr., William 
Stephens, Richard Wylly, James Houstoun, Samuel Elbert, Seth John 
Cuthbert, and Joseph Clay, Jr. It is needless to give piartieulars in rela- 
tion to the arrangement by which the property of the Bethesda Orphan 
House managed by the Union Society and the newly created board of 
trustees was used in common to erect the building, known always as Chat- 
ham Academy but used for a time jointly by the two corporations, but an 
act was passed on the 22nd of December, 1808, by the terms of which cer- 
tain money was set aside for the use of the commissioners of the Chatham 
Academy, said commissioners being required to "support and educate 
at least five orphan children from its funds as soon as they shall receive 
the property herein vested in said institution." We learn from a state- 
ment in the Republican and Savannah Evening Ledger of Tuesday, Janu- 
ary 21, 1812, that: "At a meeting of the Union Society, Savannah, 6th 
January, 1812, it being represented to this Society that John Bolton, Esq., 
one of the building committee from the Academy of Chatham County, is 
now four thousand dollars in advance towards the erection of the joint 
building to be completed for the benefit of the two institutions, and that 
the workmen were now idle for the want of funds. 

''Resolved, That the President be directed to place in suit every 
bond or evidence of debt due the Society," etc. 

The same paper of December 12, 1812, contained a notice signed by 
John Bolton, R. M. Stites and John Lawson, the first paragraph of which 
was in these words: "The undersigned committee of the trustees of the 
Chatham Academy are happy to announce to their fellow citizens and 
the public that the academy will be opened in the elegant and convenient 
edifice, lately erected in this City, for the reception of pupils in the 
various branches of literature proposed to be taught in the institution, 
on the first Monday in January next." This was followed by the an- 
nouncement on Friday, January 1, 1813, in the same paper, of this 
invitation : ' ' The ladies and citizens of Savannah in general are respect- 
fully invited to attend at the academy on Tuesday, the 5tli of January 
next, at 12 o'clock, at which time the building will be opened for the 
reception of scholars, and an appropriate address will be delivered on 
the occasion." The manuscript of that address by the Rev. Henry 
Kollock, D. D., pastor of the Independent Presbyterian church is still 
in the possession of the Board of Education of Chatham county. The 
trustees announced that they had "appointed as principal of the 
academy Mr. Jared D. Fyler, a gentleman highly recommended, and 
well known as possessing every qiialifieation for tliat office, not only 
in extensive erudition but in experience as a skillful instructor. ' " 

The Georgia Hussars 

About this time the cavalry company known as the Georgia Hussars 
which has won for itself a reputation deservedly high and honorable was 
organized. There is considerable doubt concerning the precise time 
of its founding. Some persons hold to the belief that it is really much 
older, and that it formerly held another name, only making a change 
for some special reason at a late day of its history. It is certain that 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 267 

cavalry companies of various names had existed in the city, and it is not 
at all unlikely that such a change in name was actually made. It is also 
claimed that the Georgia Hussars began their history in the year 1785. 
Another statement is that they "were organized shortly after the War 
of 1812, by the consolidation of the Chatham Hussars and the Chatham 
Light Dragoons, the latter of which was an organized command as early 
as 1781, and affiliated with the Chatham Artillery at the funeral of 
General Greene in 1786." 

The Old Exchange 

As the reader has been already informed the site of our present city 
hall was occupied by a building known as the Exchange long before 
the erection of the one known by the same name and used as a city hall 
from about 1801 until it was replaced a few years since by the present 
edifice. Perhaps no clearer account in as few words of the olden struc- 
ture can be given than that contained in the annual report of Mayor 
Edward C. Anderson in 1866 : "It may not be amiss in connection with 
the Mayor's report to replace upon record a brief history of this old 
landmark, as derived from the minutes of Council. Many of its archives 
have been lost in the occupancy of the city by the United States forces 
* * * The question of the erection of an exchange building was 
first agitated in 1798, and in the following year the foundation of the 
present structure known as the Exchange was laid. It was built by a 
joint stock Company, in which the city was a stockholder to the amount 
of twenty-five shares. The ground was leased to the Company for 
ninety-nine years. The estimated cost of erection was twenty thousand 
dollars the stock being divided into two hundred shares of one hundred 
dollars each. The subscription was limited to the inhabitants of Chat- 
ham County. In the year 1806 a committee of Council was appointed 
to purchase stock for the City, and they reported having bought eleven 
shares at one hundred and fifty-six dollars per share. The city con- 
tinued to purchase at prices generally much above par until the year 
1812, when it secured the entire balance of the stock in private hands 
at one hundred and fifty dollars per share. The purchase money was 
raised by the issue of certificates of stock at eight per cent ; redeemable 
in ten years. One year previous to this purchase the subject of erecting 
a new city hall was agitated in Council, and a Committee was appointed 
as a preliminary step to ascertain on what terms the City shares in the 
Exchange could be sold. At the time of the sale to the city the revenues 
of the company were $3,000, and had been as high as $4,000. The 
estimated revenue to accrue to the city was twenty-four hundred dol- 
lars per annum. From this brief history of the Exchange it appears 
that it was originally the property in part of certain citizens; that in 
1812 it became public property and that the building which was the 
Exchange became the City Hall. It was a profitable property to the 
company which owned it, but the merchants ceased to use it as an 
Exchange long before it was sold to the City at the enormous profit of 
fifty per cent." 

The corner stone of the building just described was laid on the 4th 



268 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



of June, 1799, as this account of the ceremonies attending it is from 
the records of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. "The 
Grand Lodge convened in consequence of an invitation by the i\Iayor 
and Aldermen to lay the Corner Stone of the City Exchange. The 
members present were in procession, attended by the corporation, when 
the stone was placed in position in the usual IMasonic form by Most 
Worshipful Grand Master "Wm. Stephens, aided by the Grand Wardens, 
and accompanied by the brethren ; after which the Grand Master deliv- 
ered an appropriate oration. 




The City Exchange, Erected in 1799 



"The plate deposited with the stone had the following inseriptiou : 

'A. L. 5799. 
" 'A. D. 1799. 

'Of American Independence the 23d year. 
'Matthew McAllister. Mayor. 
'William Stephens, Grand Master.' 
"The plan of the building provided that it be a 'brick and stone.' 
three stories high, with apartments for the different public offices, and 
otherwise calculated for a city exchange." 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 269 

It is not known when it was completed, but it was probablv earlv 
in 1801. The bell bore the date 1803. 

Municipal Affairs 1797-1802 

Savannah's INIayor in 1797 was John Glen, who became a member 
of the corporation then for the first and only time. He served from 
July 10 to July 9 of the following year, and the new members of council 
were George Anderson, John Glass, James Robertson, John Peter Ward, 
and John Holland — Messrs. Gibbons, Young and Moore, of the former 
council holding over. Matthew McAllister was mayor in 1798, wdth 
Messrs. Robert Bolton, Wm. Hunter, Richard Dennis, Richard Wayne, 
Jr., and Henry Putnam as new members of the board, and John Y. 
Noel, Joseph Welscher and John Glass who had served before. In 1799 
Thomas Gibbons became mayor for the third, but not successive time, 
with only three new aldermen Levi Sheftall, John Millen, and Samuel 
Lawrence — Messrs. Bolton, Dennis, Lewden, McCredie, Belcher, and 
McAllister being former aldermen. Again in 1800 Thomas Gibbons 
served as chief magistrate, and, as new members, he had in his council 
Messrs. J. G. Williamson, Wm. Taylor, Archibald Smith, and Edward 
Harden, the old being Levi Steftall, John Glass, Robert Bolton, Andrew 
McCredie and Richard Dennis. David B. Mitchell was chief magis- 
trate in 1801, with Stephen Blount and James Jolmston, Jr.., serving for 
the first time, and Glass, Bolton, Noel, Dennis and Harden reseated. 
For the first time Chas. Harris was ma.yor in 1802, with all old members 
of council, except Steffins and Jones ; Blount, Williamson, Sheftall. 
Edward Steffins, Glass, George Jones, Harden and Welscher 

The year 1802 was marked by the organizing of that military com- 
pany, the Savannah Volunteer Guards, which has made an enviable 
history and has continued the history with nothing to mar its character 
for usefulness and readiness for duty at all times — a continuous line of 
patriotic activities with not a single item of record to its discredit. 

Visit of Aaron Burr 

It was in this year also that Aaron Burr, then vice president of the 
United States visited the city, and the guards assisted in honoring him. 
Learning of his contemplated arrival the city council appointed three 
of its board to select a place for him to lodge, and api)ropriated $250 
for the purpose. The three aldermen were IMessrs. Charles Harris, 
Richard Dennis, and Edward Harden. On Thursday, May 20th, the 
Georgia Gazette announced: "The Vice President of the United States 
is expected in town this day ; ' ' and the account of what was done was 
recorded in its next issue, the 27th, in this short statement. "On 
Thursday last the Vice President of the United States arrived here 
from Charleston. About six miles from town he w^as received by a num- 
ber of gentlemen and the troop of horse : on his approaching Spring 
Hill he was saluted by discharges of cannon from the artillery company 
[Chatham Artillery] ; at Spring Hill the Chatham rangers and Savan- 
nah volunteer guards joined the troop, and escorted him to lodgings 



270 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEOEGIA 

fitted up for him in the city where he was again saluted by the artillery. 
On Monday he partook of an elegant dinner at the City Hall in company 
with a numerous and most acceptable assemblage of cHizens. And on 
Tuesday forenoon he left the city on his return to the Northward, being 
Ealuted by guns of the revenue cutter on his departure." The Columbian 
Museum and Savannah Advertiser, however, considered the event one of 
sufficient importance to devote a large portion of its columns to it, as 
follows : 

"On Thursday, the twentieth instant the Vice President of the 
Uiiiited States was received on his way to this city by the Military and 
Civil Officers and several companies of volunteers, and was congratulated 
on his arrival by Charles Harris, Edward Harden, and Richard Dennis, 
Esqrs., a committee on behalf of the corporation, and by Wm. B. Bulloch, 
James Houstoun and George j\1. Troup, Esqs.. a committee on behalf 
of the citizens of Savannah. And on the Monday following a festival 
was given in honor of the Vice President by the citizens of this place. 
The brilliancy of the entertainment, the numlier and respectability of 
the Company, and the harmony which universally prevailed have never 
been exceeded, perhaps never equalled, on any former occasion. The 
following toasts were given : 

"1. The United States of America, the retreat of toleration and of 
freedom. May they continue to afford an asylum to the virtuous of all 
nations. 

"2. The Soldiers and Statesmen of '76 who made an Empire of 
British dependencies. The Republicans of 1800 who redeemed the Con- 
stitution. 

"3. The Constitution of the United States, perpetuity to this illus- 
trious example of a Government founded on the voluntary consent of 
the people. 

"4. Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States. — May his 
measures continue to meet the confidence of his friends and defeat the 
caliTmnies of his enemies. 

"5. The memory of the great and good Washington. 

''6. The officers presiding over the Federal departments of State. 
Their talents, industry, and vigilance eminently entitle them to the 
gratitude of the people. 

"7. The support of the State Governments in all their rights as 
the Surest bulwark against anti-republican tendencies, and the preser- 
vation of the general government in its whole constitutional vigour as 
the sheet anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad. 

"8. The State and Government of Georgia. 

"9. Our delegates to Congress. May their late zealous and patriotic 
exertions for their Country's good be justly esteemed and treasured 
up in the hearts of their constituents. 

"10. Economy in the public expenditure and the honest payments 
of our debts, without impairing the sacrcdness of public faith. 

"IT. May those who would wisli to dissolve our union or to change 
its present repi;blican form stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety 
with which error of opinion may l)e tolerated wlien reason is left free 
to combat it. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 271 

"12. The existing judiciary of the United States. The Judges 
dependent on God, tlieir good behaviour and the existence of their 
offices. 

"13. The Militia. Army, and Navy of the United States. ]\Iay 
they continue tlie prompt defenders of their country, under the control 
of the Civil Authorities. 

"14. A jealous care of the right of election by the people 

"15. The memory of General Greene. Respect to the wisdom of 
those sages and the blood of those heroes who devoted themselves to 
the liberties of their country. 

"16. The memory of General Oglethorpe whose arduous toils and 
struggles in the estalilishment of Georgia entitled him to our warmest 
gratitude. 

"17. An unrestrained freedom of the press, and universal 
toleration of religion. — Where there is equal liberty, justice and truth 
will triumph over calumny and falsehood. 

"Volunteer toasts. After the Vice President retired. — The Vice 
President of the United States. After General Mcintosh retired. — ■ 
General ]\IeIntosh. After General Jackson retired. — General Jackson. 
By Mr. Simon Mcintosh. — The Governor of the State of New York. 
By Captain O. Smith. — The Republicans of Georgia and South Cai^o- 
lina. Bv Major Harden. — The Memorable fourth of March, 1801. 
After Mr. Telfair retired.— I\lr. Telfair." 

During his stay in Savannah Mr. Burr was domiciled in the home 
of Mr. IMontmollin whose wife was a relative, on the north side of south 
Broad street [now Oglethorpe avenue] between Whitaker and Barnard. 
Charles Harris was again elected mayor in 1803, and his former asso- 
ciates aldermen Blount. Williamson, and WeLscher were likewise honored 
by being returned as councilmen ; but IMessrs. John H. Morel, Fingal 
T. Flyming, Geo. D. Sweet, George AVoodruff and Solomon Shad were 
chosen as new members of the aldermanie board. The popularity of 
Judge John Y. Noel was shown in his being called to preside over 
council to succeed Mr. Harris in 1804, in which capacity he was asso- 
ciated with aldermen Adam Cope, Isaac Fell, Levi Sheftall, F. T. 
Flyming, G. D. Sweet, Wm. Davies, Jos. Welscher, Solomon Shad, Geo. 
H. Davis and Edward L. Davis. 

Terrific Storm op 1804 

It was in this year that one of the worst storms ever known occurred. 
Beginning at about nine o'clock in the morning of the 8th of September, 
its fury lasted until after ten in the night, and its work of destruction 
was most serious. Besides the damage done in the city the whole of 
Hutchinson's island was under water, caused by the high tide, and 
the plantations with the rice crops on them were greatly damaged. 
More than a hundred negroes were drowned. The wharves along the 
liver front were ilooded while the warehouses adjoining with their con- 
tents were almost ruined. Falling chimneys injured many persons, 
three of whom died, and the Exchange and Filature, courthouse and 
jail were badly battered and torn. At that time the Independent Pres- 



272 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

byterian church, moved from Market square to the southwest corner 
of Whitaker and President streets, suffered from the effects of the gale. 
Its steeple fell, and, in its fall, struck a house in which was a sick man, 
cutting off a part of the bed, but, strange to say, left the man uninjured. 
The bell was not broken but was used for a while in the new building 
erected in 1819 on its lot extending from Bull to Whitaker street on 
Oglethorpe avenue; but it was replaced with another bell in 1824. 

Preparations for the War of 1812 

For several years before the actual declaration of war between the 
United States and England in 1812 the country was in a state of unrest 
and the condition of affairs bore anything but a peaceful aspect. Mr. 
Jefferson, President of the United States, in 1807, reconunended an 
embargo and was supported in his view by the Republican party while 
the Federal party opposed it. In advocating the measure the President 
said that circumstances existed "showing the great and increasing 
dangers with which our vessels, our seamen and merchandise are threat- 
ened on the high seas and elsewhere, from the belligerent power of 
Europe, and it being of great importance to keep in safety these essential 
resources, I deem it my duty to recommend the subject to Congress," 
and a bill was introduced and passed in December to lay "an embargo 
on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States." 
The organization of a military company in Savannah the following year. 
1808, called the Republican Blues doubtless sprang from the desire of 
its supporters to aid the government in the war which everyone believed 
to be imminent. The company has ever since maintained its position 
as a permanent and reliable portion of the city's military foi'ce of which 
her inhabitants have always been justly proud. The spirit of the people 
in the alarming condition of the country at that time may be judged 
by, the fact that a special meeting of council was held on the 9th of 
July, 1807, to discuss the proposal to remove from the magazine thirteen 
casks of gun powder. A resolution was adopted that "it is expedient at 
the present alarming crisis that care ba taken to prevent any powder from 
being removed fi'om the magazine for improper purposes." and only 
a few days after a committee of citizens applied to council for a loan 
of powder "to meet any emergencies that uiay arise out of the present 
situation of our affairs with Great Britain," and. the matter having met 
witli approval, economy was exercised in actually dispensing with the 
lighting of the streets at night for a whole month in order to supply 
the amount asked for. Other steps were taken which need not now be 
mentioned. 

Thus we see that the time was ripe for the raising of volunteer com- 
panies to defend the city and country in case of a clash of arms between 
the United States and Great Britain. All accounts of the rise of the 
Republican Blues hitherto pulilisluxl give the year 1808 as the time of 
its organization ; Init :i tliorough search for the facts has convinced the 
present writer that, although steps in that direction may have been 
taken in the latter part of that year, the company was not placed on a 
firm footing by being legally officered until early in the next year, and, 
in evidence of this statement he presents the following: 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 273 

No reference to the subject is found in the newspapers of 1808, but 
on the 11th of February, 1809, being- Saturday, this advertisement 
appeared in the Republican and Savannah Evening Ledger: 

"NOTICE. 

' ' The Election of Captain, Lieutenant and Ensign, to command the Republican 
Blues, which was to have taken place on Monday last, is postponed until MONDAY 
NEXT, the 12th instant, when said Election will be held at the Court House, at 11 
'clock precisely. 

' ' William A. Moore, 
"John Pettibone, 
; "Alton Pemberton, 

' ' Justices of the Peace. 
"Feb. 11, 18—." 

But even at the time appointed, which appears to have been the 
second time, no election was held; for another notice appeared in the 
same paper of Tuesday, February 14th, in this form : 

"NOTICE. 

' ' An Election will be held at the Court House on FRIDAY the 24th inst., for a 
Captain, Lieutenant and Ensign, to command the Republican Blues. The poll will 
be opened at 11 o'clock a. m. 

"William A. Moore, 
' ' John Pettibone, 
"Alton Pemberton. 

' ' Justices of the Peace. 
"Feb. 14, 18—." 

It is reasonable to believe that the election was held on the 24th of 
February, 1809, as no further notices were published. 

Organized, as seems probable, for service in the event that war 
between this country and England should be declared, the company 
stood ready for duty, and its action was just what it engaged to do in 
the events which soon followed. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE WAR OF 1812 

Fort Wayne — Local Militia Ready to Act — Strengthening the Fort 
Wayne Works — Celebrating the Warrington and Porter Naval 
Victories — Vigorous Preparations for Resisting British Attack 
— The "Martello Tower" — Celebrating the Battle of New 
Orleans — Peace Declared. 

War being deemed inevitable, the citizens of Savannah, as always, 
stood by the government and determined that the city should be loyal 
in every respect. In proof of this, we give in full a resolution, offered 
by Alderman Charlton, May 22, 1812, and unanimously adopted by 
council : ' ' Whereas, it is at all times important that the goveniinent 
should know the sentiments of the people in every section of the nation, 
.ind particularly at a crisis like the present 

"Resolved, That the citizens of Savannah be and they are hereby 
requested and invited to assemble at the Court house on Saturday, 
the 30th inst., at 12 o'clock for the pui'pose of taking into consideration 
the present situation of their country, of expressing their opinion 
thereon, and of adopting such other business as their patriotism may 
dictate." At the meeting resolutions of a most patriotic character 
were submitted and adopted and at an adjourned meeting, on the 3d 
of June, it was asserted that the country had grievances against both 
England and Prance which were sufficient to cause war, and calling for 
the seizure by the United States of East Florida. 

Fort Wayne 

The trustees of the colony of Georgia, it will be remembered, were 
honored in the laying out of Savannali by having a ti'act at the extreme 
northeastern portion of the bluff set off and known as the Trustees' 
Garden. On a portion of that tract a guard house was built, protected 
Avdth a battery of cannon. This point was strongly fortified by the British 
during the siege by the allied troops, and when the city was evacuated 
in 1782, the fort there was named for Gen. Anthony Wayne. In con- 
sequence of the fact that for so long a time that spot was protected by 
some sort of fortification it has, together with the adjacent land been 
called "the fort." It is not at all unusual, when a dweller in that 
district (particularly one of the colored tribe) is asked where he lives, 
to get promptly the reply : "In the fort side, " or " down in the fort. ' ' 

274 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 275 

Ou the 16th of January, 1756, a grant of "10 acres of land to the 
eastward of the town of Sai'annah" was, after approval of the governor 
and council, signed by the governor in favor of John Reynolds, he 
being at that time himself the chief magistrate of the province ; and, 
on the 5th of March following, he acquired, in the same way, title to 
lot Z in the city of Savannah, containing sixty by one hundred and 
eighty feet. It is not recorded when the trustees' garden was aban- 
doned for the purpose of an orchard which seems to have been the use to 
which it was adapted, l)ut there can be no question that the tract of land 
granted to Governor Reynolds was a part of that original garden, and 
included probably, the site of the old fortifications. An act passed 
April 24, 1760, named commissioners with full power "to construct 
and cause to be built a Fort to include the Magazine in the Town of 
Savannah of such form and space as to them shall be judged most con- 
venient. " 

The exact date of the naming of the point Fort Wayne cannot be 
ascertained, but the first mention of it that this writer can find is in a 
preamble and resolution adopted by the House of Assembly, February 
21, 1784, which are in these words: "Whereas, from the multiplicity of 
business it will not be practicable to pass a bill now before this House 
for establishing a Seamen's Hospital, therefore be it 

"Resolved, that it shall be lawful for Gen. Samuel Elbert, Edward 
Telfair, James Habersham, Joseph Clay, Peter Bard, Setli John Cuth- 
bert and William 'Bryan, Esquires, and Mr. Leonard Cecil, or any 
three of them, to remove the barracks from Fort Wayne to any part of 
the Common of Savannah which they may judge most proper and con- 
venient for receiving sick seamen." 

That the location of Fort Wayne was originally a portion of the 
trustees' garden cannot be doubted when the record now to be quoted 
is considered. On the 2nd of January, 1809, John C. Lucena and Miss 
Joanna Lucena granted to the United States, for a valuable considera- 
tion, "all that and those parts and parcels of land marked and desig- 
nated and known as a copy of the plan thereof hereto annexed, all that 
piece of gi-ound taken off a lot known by the number sixteen (16) seventy- 
five feet by one hundred and ten of all that piece of ground taken off of 
lot known by number seventeen (17) one hundred and seventy-five feet 
by one hundred and ten," and other pieces of land adjacent "originally 
part of ten acres of land called Trustees Garden, granted to John Rey- 
nolds." Later on, namely, on the 30th of January, 1810, Francis 
Wells sold and conveyed to the United States portions of a tract of land 
originally a portion of Trustees Garden ; and on the 6th of March, 1810, 
Edwin H. Bolton sold to the said United States a certain piece of land 
"formerly Trustees' Garden" — all conveyed to the government, as 
stated in the deeds, for the "building of a fort, arsenal, or other public 
use." 

Foreseeing the probability of a clash of arms between England and 
this country, the United States had taken the precaution to look out for 
a place or places on v>hich to build fortifications, and the deeds just 
mentioned were the outcome of that foresight ; but even before that 
time, in fact as early as 1808, the government made an effort to secure 



276 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

the land for such purpose in wliicli the city of Savannah was interested. 
"We learn that on the 17th of January of that j^ear George Jones wrote 
u letter to council in which he disclosed the fact that , the secretary of 
war desired the city "to donate as a site for fortifications that part of 
the premises of the old fort and adjoining lots, including streets, together 
with the part of Reynolds street which extends from the old fort to 
the water's edge and a part of Wright Street," and that the city assented 
to the request. Of that transaction the Columbian 31}(scum and Savan- 
nah Advertiser of January 15th said: "We are informed that the City 
Council have made a cession to the United States of that part of the 
old Fort contained in Wright and Reynolds Streets to the water's edge, 
excepting such lots as have become private property ; w^hich we under- 
stand the Hon. Judge Jones is authorized to purchase on account of the 
United States — the Avhole intended as a permanent site for fortifications ; 
and we are happy to hear that the works will shortly commence." 

Local Militia Ready to Act 

On the 22nd of May, 1812, the city council of Savannah, at a regular 
meeting, "Resolved unanimously," as we have seen, to ask the citizens 
to hold a meeting and discuss public affairs, on Wednesday, the 3d 
of June, at twelve o'clock, when, among others, the following resolution 
was adopted: "Resolved, that the erection of works at Fort Wayne, ad- 
joining Savannah, by the federal government, on the ground lately pur- 
chased by it, is highly and immediately necessary for the safety of the 
citizens and their families ; and that our senator and representatives be 
requested earnestly to represent the same to the executive of the United 
States. 

"Resolved, That these resolutions be published, and that copies be 
transmitted to the President of the United States, and our delegates in 
Congress." 

No apology is deemed necessary for the insertion at this point of the 
following lines, in relation particularly to the then new company of 
Republican Blues and the older military corps of Savannah Volunteer 
Guards which appeared in the Republican and Savannah Evening 
Ledger of Tuesday, June 16. 1812 : 

"Colonel Cutiibert, aid-de-camp to Governor [David B.] ^Mitchell, 
and commander of the Corps of Republican Blues of this city, arrived 
hers last week in gun-boat No. 168. for tlie purpose of procuring one 
hundred men to proceed to East Florida. 

"A call was made on the patriotism of the young men of this place, 
which was so promptly attended tluit the number of volunteers soon 
exceeded that required. The Republican Blues and Savannah Volun- 
teer Guards were accepted for the service, and were shortly after en- 
camped on the South-Common, where they remained until Friday fore- 
noon, wlien they struck their tents, marched to the bluff and embarked 
amidst a heavy fall of rain, accompanied by the best wishes of their 
fellow-citizens who had assemliled in crowds on the shore for the purpose 
of taking leave. 

"Thej' were escorted to the place of embarkation by the Chatham 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 277 

Artillery and Chatham Rangers, who fired salutes on the occasion, which 
were returned by the gun boat. They went dowTi the river on Saturday, 
and, we understand, proceeded to sea on Sunday morning. 

"The youths of Savannah have done honor to themselves on this 
occasion. I\Iore volunteers offered than were authorized to be re- 
ceived by general orders — none were accepted but from the Blues and 
Guards — the two other uniformed corps being deemed necessary to be 
left and assist in the protection of the city in ease of danger. 

"What is life without honor? What is dearer than the interest and 
admiration of one's fellow citizens?" The city council placed on 
record its hearty approval of the action of those two military organiza- 
tions in these words: "Whereas one of the greatest rewards that can 
be conferred upon patriotic citizen soldiers is the expression of the 
public approbation through the medium of the constituted authority, 
be it therefore resolved by the mayor and aldermen of the city of 
Savannah that the said volunteer company of Republican Blues and 
detachment of the Guards have deserved well of their fellow citizens 
at large and particularly of this city." The resolution was offered by 
Alderman T. U. P. Charlton, and Aldermen Charlton, James Bond Read 
and Archibald Stobo Bulloch composed a committee "to have inscribed 
and enrolled on parchment the names of the officers and privates, pre- 
faced by these resolutions, to be framed and suspended in the city hall as 
a just and honorable tribute of respect conferred by this corporation 
upon the patriotism and valor of said volunteers. ' ' 

Strengthening the Fort Wayne Works 

Whatever may have been the response on the part of the United 
States government to the request of the citizens in the matter of 
strengthening the works at Fort Wayne, it is certain that on the 19th 
of June, 1812, the city council appealed to the people in this behalf 
for such male slaves whose labor can be dispensed with with the under- 
standing that the appeal was "to the patriotism of our fellow citizens" 
and that "the negroes furnished in the city will return to their owners 
to their meals, and those from the country will be furnished with pro- 
visions and lodgings." Of the funds collected for the work one thou- 
sand dollars given to begin the repairs was charged to the United States. 

Fortunately Savannah was not a special object of spite or of ill-will on 
the part of the English forces, and her interests suffered little by the war. 
In response to the "War Message" of President Madison, sent to Congress 
on the 1st of June, 1812, the house, on the 4th, promptly passed a bill 
declaring war between Great Britain and the United States, which bill 
passed the senate with amendments on the 17th, the amendments were 
concurred in by the house on the 18th and were the same day signed by 
the president. The news of the declaration of war through special ef- 
forts of the mail contractor reached Savannah on the 24th, and Maj. 
Gen. Thomas Pinekney of the southern division of the army, who had 
arrived in the city on the 22nd, with his aid Colonel Harris and had been 
received with honors including a salute by the Chatham Artillery and the 
Rangers, immediately left, having suggested plans for fortifying the 



278 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

place. The work was carried on by a committee of council composed 
of Aldermen J. B. Read, G. V. Proctor, and T. U. P. Charlton who in- 
serted in the Georgian this advertisement : 

"Whereas Major-General Thomas Pinckney has determined to cause 
to be built immediately on the site of Fort Wayne such works as are 
deemed advisable, and adopt such other measures recommendatory of 
its enlargement as in his judgment may seem proper, 

"And ivhereas the Major-General has recommended to the City 
Council to direct their attention to the erection of such works on the 
South Common agreeably to a plan pointed out and explained as of 
great importance to the protection of the City ; 

"Resolved, That the Committee of Council appointed for the purpose 
of superintending the works intended to be erected in this City by the 
corporation and the citizens of Savannah thereby adopt the General's 
recommendation and now call upon the citizens to contribute their aid 
and furnish the laborers subscribed by them, to commence the works to 
be erected on the South Common which will be under the direction of 
Captain McRae as engineer. ' ' 

Work on the fortifications was kept up for some time, and in a "Plan 
of the City and Harbour of Savannah in Chatham Count}' and State 
of Georgia taken in 1818" by I. Stouf, on the 9th of April of that 
year, the "line of defense thrown up in 1814" is very distinctly shown. 

First Regiment of Georgia Militia 

A regiment, known as the First Regiment of Georgia militia, composed 
of the Savannah Volunteer Guards and the Republican Blues together 
with other Savannah companies, was organized and kept on duty 
at all times. The Chatham Artillery and Chatham Rangers were other 
companies of the city not included in the infantry, that rendered all 
service necessary at the time. The regiment was regularly mustered into 
service under command of Lieut. James Johnston, but, as there was 
no actual fighting around Savannah the enlistment lasted not more than 
a month. 

Celebrating the Warrington and Porter Naval Victories 

Of course the good people of Savannah took their own peculiar way 
of rejoicing whenever news was received of a victory or of any event 
showing the advantage of our cause over the British. The successes of 
Capts. Isaac Hull and Jacob Jones as well as of Commodore Deca- 
tur were marked by the designation by council of the 1st of January, 
1813, as a time for the citizens to give "expression of their gratitude 
to the Supreme Being for the aforesaid signal victories and the high 
sense they entertain of the gallant conduct of the said naval command- 
ers their officers and crews, and also for the general joy which these 
naval victories have i-)roduced upon our citizens." 

In I\Iay, 1814, the Epervier, a British brig of eighteen guns, cap- 
tured by the United Slates sloop of war Peacock, Capt. Lewis War- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 279 

rington, was brought into port. That prize had treasure amounting to 
$110,000. On the occasion of her capture council took this action: 

"Whereas, another victory has added to the glory, the lustre, and 
renown of the American Navy, the IMayor and Aldermen of the city of 
Savannah are anxious on this, as they have been on other occasions of 
similar triumphs, to pay the tribute of respect to unparalleled skill and 
valor of the heroes of the ocean. Be it therefor unanimously resolved, 
that the mayor and aldermen of the city of Savannah do feel sincere 
gratitude and respect for the distinguished conduct and noble sei'vices 
of Captain Warrington, the gallant offieers and crew in the late victory 
over the British sloop of war Epervier. " 

Other victories met with the same spirit of congratulation, exulta- 
tion and thankfulness. The people were not then, nor have they ever 
been, slow to show their appreciation of acts of bravery and patriotism, 
and the events of that war — a war which singularly touched Savannah 
gently and produced little disastrous etfects^ — were as truly watched and 
made a part of the city's concern as though she was in the very midst of 
the greatest danger and suffering. 

When the news of the victory of Captain Porter in the conflict of 
The Essex with the two Britisli war ships Phoebe and Cherub reached 
Savannah, the mayor and aldermen, in council assembled, on the 22nd 
of July, 1814, made it a matter of so much cause for rejoicing that they 
let loose their feeling in the form following : 

^''Whereas, another great and brilliant exploit has bestowed on the 
skill, courage, Self Devotion and Patriotism of the hero Porter, his 
officers and crew, a splendour and glory never before acquired under 
similar circumstances and given a reputation to the American Navy 
which neither vaunts nor misrepresentations of the enemy can prevent 
carrying fear and terror to his thousand ships, and whereas this glorious 
achievement, united to the noble efforts of the illustrious Porter, his 
officers and crew, to promote the fame and the interest of their Country 
in their long perilous and unexampled cruise, demand not only heartful 
gratitude of every citizen of the Republic, but particularly of every 
public body and department of the Country : Be it therefore unani- 
mously resolved by the Mayor and Aldermen of the city of Savannah 
that for and in behalf of themselves, and their Fellow Citizens of 
Savannah, they beg leave most respectfully to tender to Captain David 
Porter, late of the Essex Frigate, his officers and crew, this high opinion 
of his skill, Perseverance and Patriotism evinced throughout the long 
nnd perilous cruise of the Essex, as well as the sincere profound and un- 
affected gratitude with which they have been inspired by the great 
glorious and unexampled skill and heroism displayed by Captain Porter, 
the brave officers and gallant Seamen in the unequal contest of the Essex, 
with the British Frigate Phoebe and the Sloop of War Cherub." 

Vigorous Preparation for Resisting British Attack 

At one time it was supposed that the enemy would actually attack 
the city, and special efforts were made to fortnfy all points considered 
weak, so that on the 2nd of September, 1814, a special meeting of council 



280 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ' 

was held and all the citizens were urged to do all in their power to assist 
the city, their aid being especially invoked to help in throwing up breast- 
works. On the 14th the aldermen elected were John B. Norris, Isaac 
Fell, T. U. P. Charlton, James Bond Read, Robert Mackay, George Jones, 
J. Hersman, H. Mcintosh, Edward Harden, Alexander S. Roe, Matthew 
McAllister, Thomas Bourke, and William B. Bulloch. Those gentlemen 
were as active in their efforts to serve the people and their country as 
any set of men could be. The board was divided into special committees 
for certain work to look after. Messrs. McAllister, Read, Mackay, Hers- 
man and Charlton were to co-operate mth a committee of military offi- 
cers. A committee called on citizens to subscribe to a fund for the city's 
defense, and General Pinckney was importuned to send an engineer to 
look after f ortifieations ; and the mayor Avas authorized to borrow $10,000. 
Messrs. Jones, Bourke, Mackay, Harden and Read composed the com- 
mittee on defense, holding meetings every day. Planters were requested 
to send their negroes to work on the fortifications, and council called for 
action looking to the calling out of the Georgia militia, so "as to be effi- 
ciently prepared to resist and probably to avert the blow of the enemy, ' ' 
declaring that "all considerations of economy should be banished." 
Aldermen Roe, Charlton, and Norris were appointed as a committee 
whose duty it was ' ' to guard against the introduction of suspicious char- 
acters into the city, and to have weekly returns from all taverns, lodging 
and boarding-house keepers of the numbers, names and business of 
such persons, and to act towards them as the law and ordinances direct, 
and they are required to aid in ascertaining the earliest information of 
the approach of the enemy by land or water and are empowered to 
appoint a secretary to record proceedings. 

"Resolved, that the sum of five hundred dollars be and is hereby ap- 
propriated and put at the disposal of the committee for the public good. ' ' 

Even the mayor and aldermen met at the Exchange on the morning 
of September 29, 1814, with spades, hoes and axes, to work on the for- 
tifications. 

The ' ' Martello Tower ' ' 

Some time during the war the structure on Tybee island commonly 
known as the "Martello Tower," was erected by the United States gov- 
ernment. The idea that it was an old Spanish work is entirely erroneous. 
If it was true, then surely some mention of it would have been made in 
the many accounts we have of that island during the time Oglethorpe 
was in Georgia and afterwards. No such edifice was named or described 
in any of them ; and the fact of the matter is now given in order that all 
doubt in connection with the subject may be forever set aside. It 
was built sometime during the War of 1812-15 by the United States as 
some sort of a fortification, and IMr. Isaiah Davenport was the contractor 
who supervised its erection. Mr. Davenport was afterwards an alder- 
man of Savannah in the years 1818, 1819 and 1822. 

Celebrating the Battle of New^ Orleans 

On the 21st of February, 1815, on receipt of tidings of victory at 
New Orleans on the 8th of January and the subsequent events the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 281 

thanks of the citizens of Savannah were returned to Gen. Andrew Jack- 
son and his colleagues, Coffee and Carroll and their soldiers, the resolu- 
tion reciting that "their late distinguished deeds have humbled our late 
inveterate foe and added ever blooming laurels and glory to the arms of 
America." It appears that a military parade had been given on the first 
receipt of the news of the battle of New Orleans which was not as enthu- 
siastic as it should have been, and another was ordered by council under 
the control of the city which came up to the full expectations of all the 
people, though council cautioned the people against illuminating their 
houses ' ' owing to the material of which most of them are composed ; ' ' 
but the Exchange was illuminated, and a band was kept there from 
seven o'clock to ten in the evening, giving musical selections all the time. 

Peace Declared 

The proclamation of the president in which the treaty of peace was 
ratified was made public by the mayor on the 28th of February, 1815, 
and a recommendation that the Exchange be again illuminated on Sun- 
day, the 4th of March, was adopted, when the people were asked to ob- 
serve that day "as a day for innocent recreation and amusement in con- 
sequence of the ratification of a treaty of peace with Great Britain 
founded on the basis of perfect reciprocity, and honorable to this nation, 
resolved that the board having heretofore devoted all the means and ener- 
gies in the prosecution of just Avar, now hails the return of peace and 
amity and commerce which it is hoped will follow thi-^ gratifying event, 
and declare itself equally devoted to the maintenance of peace and friend- 
ship with the subjects of Great Britain, always having in view the sacred 
and patriotic duty of considering in the scope of its au^^hority all persons 
'enemies in war, in peace friends.' " 

The result of the War of 1812-15 gave to the people of Savannah that 
satisfaction which might have been looked for in those whose greatest 
interests were centered in the principles involved in the questions upon 
which that war was waged; and it is shown in the naming of localities 
in the city such as Hull, Perry and McDonough streets and Orleans and 
Chippewa squares. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

DECADE OF NOTED EVENTS 

Visit op Monroe and Calhoun — The New Independent Church — The 
Great Fire op 1820 — Yellow Fever Epidemic (also 1820) — Locat- 
ing THE Burial Place of Nathanael Greene — City Appairs Con- 
tinued — Dry Culture Contracts — Winpield Scott and David 
Porter, Savannah's Guests — Reception op La Fayette — ]\Ie- 
MORiALs to General Greene anb Count Pulaski — ]\Iayors and 
Aldermen, 1821-24 — Canal Project Inaugurated — Fort Pulaski 
Commenced. 

SavanBah was visited in 1791 by Washington, the first president of 
the United States, and, in 1802, by the then vice president, Aaron Burr. 

Visit op Monroe and Calhoun 

The fifth president, James Monroe, together with Secretary of "War 
John C. Calhoun, General Gaines and staff, Mr. Gouvemeur, Lieutenant 
Monroe and the president's secretary, entered the city on Saturday, the 
8th of May, 1819, at six o'clock in the evening. Anticipating the visit, 
the city council, as early as the 18th of March, appointed a committee 
composed of Aldermen T. U. P. Charlton, Charles Harris and John H. 
Ash to take measures for the reception and entertainment of the hon- 
ored guest. By action of these gentlemen the military and social organ- 
izations promised their assistance, and council was reiiuested "to attend 
with its officers on the President the day after his arrival and congratu- 
late him in his visit to the city and express such other sentiments of 
gratitude and joy as the occasion and the comforts and simplicity of 
Republicans should Avarrant to the eminent patriot and virtuous cit- 
izen they propose to felicitate on his arrival, and that the addi-ess on such 
occasion be passed and voted in council and delivered by the mayor who 
is to adopt the same." The mayor at that time was James I\l. Wayne 
Avho resigned on the 12th of July following and was succeeded by T. V. P. 
Charlton. The report of the committee showed that "William Scarbor- 
ough, Esq., had politely offered his new and elegant house at the west 
end of the town for the reception and residence of the President and 
which your committee have accepted with thanks." To meet the ex- 
penses of the reception the sinn of five thousand dollars was appropri- 
ated, and an additional sum of five hundred dollars was set apart to pro- 
vide for a ball and supper. 

282 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 283 

The Georgian, of May 9th, said: "He was rowed from the Carolina 
shore in twenty minutes, and when he reached tlie Georgia waters was 
saluted with 21 guns from the Revenue Clutter Dallas, which was re- 
peated when the barge reached the wharf, the Chatham Light Artillery, 
at the same time, opening a Federal salute on the bluff. He was received 
at the wharf by the Mayor and Receiving Committee of Ahlermen who 
conducted him up the bank. Nearly the whole population of Savannah 
thronged the bank, and every voice and every heart welcomed him to 
Georgia. The military, consisting of the Georgia Hussars, the Chatham 
Light Artillery, the Republican Blues, the Fencibles, and the Savannah 
Volunteer Guards, were drawn out on a verdant plain, parallel with 
the river, and exhibited an appearance to the President which must have 
excited his admiration. Colonel Marshall, with his staff officers, occu- 
pied their proper stations in front of this splendid line, elegantly mounted 
and caparisoned. It is not uninteresting to state that the company of 
Light Artillery is the same that received General Washington on his visit 
to tbis city in 1791, and that the two brass pieces with which it saluted 
President Monroe were presented to it by the father of our country, as 
a compliment for the merits which it displayed on that occasion. The 
President having reviewed, on foot, with great attention, their whole 
front, mounted a horse, which he preferred to a superb barouche which 
was also in waiting for his accommodation, and rode to the new and 
elegant home of Mr. Scarborough, escorted by the Mayor, the different 
committees and the military companies. On his way to his lodgings, 
down Broughton street, the President was preceded by half the Hiissars- 
find followed by the other half with all the military companies, and we 
do not hesitate to declare that with regard to precision of movement and 
elegance of appearance they have never been surpassed in the United 
States. Those companies were soon displayed in front of his horse and 
fired feux dc joie, by platoons, companies, and divisions. The President 
attended Divine Service at the new Presbyterian Church,* and witnessed 
the dedication of that magnificent building by the Rev. Dr. Kollock " 

Continuing, the Savannah papers recorded the fact tiiat "On ^Monday 
the citizens in a body marched in pi'ocession to the President's lodgings 
preceded by the numicipal officers, accompanied by the officers of the 
army and navy, and the military companies, and at 2 p. m. James M. 
Wayne, the Mayor, delivered to him a congratulatory address, to which 
the President made a respectful reply. ' ' 

The address of the mayor is too long to be copied here in full, but it 
began with these happy expressions : ' ' The corporation and citizens of 
Savannah present to you their assurance of the respect which they have 
for your public services and their sincere regard and admiration of 
those virtues and attainments which have placed you among the best and 
most eminent of our countrymen. In the present state of our country, 
to have attained the exalted station which you now hold is to the world, 
and it will be to posterity, a sufficient proof of your fitness for it however 
much experience may show the elevation of persons and officers to be 
but an equivocal testimonial of worth and merit." And in conclusion 
he said : "May you long live, sir, to enjoy this happiness, and we sincerely 

* The Independent Presbyterian Church. 



284 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA - 

hope that the termination of your political career may he as gratifying 
to yourself as your lile and administration have been hitherto beneficial 
to your country." 

The president's reply was all that could have been wished for, and 
ended in these words : "I beg you to accept my best thanks for your kind 
reception, and best wishes for the prosperity and welfare of the town and 
citizens of Savannah. ' ' 

The citizens gave him a public dinner on the 11th, and his whole time 
was taken up during the days of his visit with partaking of the hospitality 
of the officers and people and in lending his presence to social functions 
and the enjoyment of pleasure trips. During his stay he witnessed the 
dedication of the new building of the Independent Presbyterians, and it 
so happened that at that very time the new steamer Savannah, the first 
steamship to cross the ocean, was at the wharf preparing for the voyage 
which made her famous. 

Colmnhian Museum and Savannah Daily Gazette of Thursday, May 
13th, copied an editorial which appeared in the Republican of the even- 
ing before, describing the public dinner, beginning with an account of 
the president's visit to the ship and trip in her to Tybee, in these words : 
"Yesterday the President with the gentlemen who accompany him, 
the Secretary of War, General Gaines, Colonel Clinch, General Floyd 
and staff, General John Mcintosh, General D. B. Mitchell, Genei'al Huger, 
of South Carolina, the Rev. Dr. Kollock, Judge Berrien, Col. Marshall 
and staff, the committee of reception. Judge Charlton, Charles Harris, 
Esq., and Dr. Waring, and a number of our most reputable citizens, 
both civil and military, went down to Tybee in the elegant steamship 
Savannah. The wind being from the northwest the sails were but partly 
used against the floodtide ; but the wheels were the essential powers 
that forced her way through the water — and with the utmost majesty 
she proceeded down the river, until she came opposite the light-house — 
when she east anchor for a few minutes to enable our distinguished guest 
to take a more certain view of our harbor, the different bearings and dis- 
tances of either the impediments to the navigation which might be dis- 
tinguished by beacons, or ports which might be made capable of defence. 

' ' The anchor was then weighed and she proceeded up the river, accom- 
panied by the steamboat Altamaha, and two barges manned by a picked 
crew and steered by two experienced masters of vessels. On going by the 
Patriot brig La Fortuna, lying near Long Island, the American colors 
were hoisted at her foremast, and those with the national flag of the brig 
were lowered as the steamship passed — a salute was then fired from her 
and three loud cheers acknowledged the respectful esteem of foreigners 
to our beloved chief magistrate. The tide having fallen too low for the 
ship to come farther up, the whole party went on board the steamboat 
and partook of a collation prepared for the occasion. 

"We are happy to learn that ]\Ir. Monroe was veiy much pleased 
with the attention paid him on the pleasant excursion. 

' ' On the steam-boat 's passing the revenue cutter Dallas commanded by 
Captain Jackson, lying opposite the town, handsomely dressed with 
colors, a salute of 21 guns Avas fired from her. The boat proceeded to 
the steam-boat wharf, when Mr. Monroe landed amidst a large concourse 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 285 

of our population whose loud acclamations evinced their respect and 
admiration for talents and virtue." 

From the 5th to the 8th of May (the day of the president's arrival) 
this advertisement was running in the columns of the Museum and 
Gazette: "Passage for New York. The steamship Savannah, Capt. 
Rodgers, will make one trip to New York, previous to her departure for, 
Liverpool, should a sufficient number of passengers offer, and will be 
ready to proceed in course of this week or commencement of the next. 
Apply on board at Taylor's wharf, or to Scarborough & ^McKinne. 

It was at Mr. Scarborough's house the president was being enter- 
tained, and that house was on West Broad street, then one of the most 
imposing private houses in the city. It is now the West Broad Street 
Colored School. 

The steamship Savannah sailed from this port on the 20th of the same 
month on her famous trip across the Atlantic. 

On the Tuesday of his stay in Savannah, ^Ir. Monroe partook of a 
public dinner under a large booth at the east end of the bay, under the 
trees. This account is copied from the Savannah Republican and Even- 
ing Ledger : 

"The booth was ornamented with wreaths and branches of laurels. 
At the head of the table was an arch composed of laurels beautifully dec- 
orated with roses, so disposed as to form the name of James Monroe. 
The company having dined the following toasts were announced from 
the chair accompanied with appropriate music from the stand. During 
the giving of toasts, the Dallas fired salutes, her commander having 
obligingly tendered his services for the occasion. On the president re- 
tiring from the table a grand national salute was opened which made the 
welkin ring. The regular toasts were : 

"1. Our Country. In her infancy she is nighly in the first class of 
nations, what will be the meridian of her life '1 

"2. The Federal Union. May the head be accursed that shall in- 
siduously plot its dissolution, the arm withered that shall aini a blow 
at its existence. 

"3. The Constitution of the United States, framed by the wisdom of 
sages, may our statesmen and our posterity regard it as the national ark 
of political safety never to be abandoned. 

"4. The military, naval, legislative, and diplomatic worthies of the 
Revolution. It is our duty and delight to honor them and to tell their 
deeds with filial piety. 

"5. General George Washington, revered be his memory! Let our 
statesmen and our warriors obey his precepts, our youth emulate his vir- 
tues and services, and our country is safe. 

' ' 6. The cession of the Floridas— Honorable to the adminis- 
tration and useful to the United States, it completes the form of the 
Republic. 

"7. Major General Andrew Jackson — The hero of New Orleans, 

the brave defender of his country and vindicator of its injured honor. 

"8. Adams, Jefferson and Madison — They have withdrawn from 

public duty, and illustrious by their virtues, and services cany with 

them a nation's gratitude. 



286 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

''9. The Navy. Imperishable fame accompanies the Star Spangled 
Banner. In the last \var we coped with Britain on the ocean; now we 
hear of no search, no impressment. 

"10. The Army. Our pillar of protection on the land; their valor 
and patriotism won the victories of York and of Erie, of Chippewa, 
and of Niagara. 

"11. The Militia — Yet the bulwark of our country. Invincibles 
fell before them in the battle of Baltimore, and of Plattsburg, of the 
Thames and of New Orleans. 

"12. Concord between the North and the South, the East and the 
West. May unanimity till the end of time, falsify the timid fears of 
those who predict dissolution. 

"13. The American Fair — May they always be mothers to a race 
of patriots. 

' ' The following informal toasts were proposed : 

"By president of the United States. — The people of the United 
States. They constitute but one family, and may the bond w'hich unites 
Ihem together as brethren and freemen be eternal. 

"By John C. Calhoun, secretary of war — The freedom of the press, 
and the responsibility of public agents. The sure foundation of the 
noble fabric of American liberty. 

"By Major-General Gaines — The memory of Jackson, Tattnall, and 
Telfair. The choice, the pride, and ornament of Georgia. 

"By Mr. Middleton — The memory of General Greene, who con- 
quered for liberty. 

"By Major-General Floyd — Our Country — May its prosperity be 
as lasting, as its government is free. 

"After the president and secretary of war had retired the follow- 
ing toasts were proposed : 

"By the mayor — The President of the United States. 
"By William Bulloch, Esq., vice-president — Mr. Calhoun, secre- 
tary of war. The distinguished statesman, the virtuoiis citizen. 

"By General John McInto.sh — Peace with all the world as long as 
they respect our rights — disgrace and defeat to the power who would 
invade them. 

"By Colonel James E. Houstoun — The memory of General Lachlan 
Mcintosh. 

"By General Mitchell — The late war — a practical illustration of 
the energy of our republic. 

"After the mayor retired — James M. AVayne, Mayor of City. By 
Colonel Marshall — The governor of the State of Georgia, a virtuous 
man and zealous chief magistrate. 

"After the vice-president retired — William B. Bulloch, Our re- 
spected citizen. 

"By Colonel Harden — The assistant vice-presidents of the day, 
Charles Harris, IMattliew IMcAllister and John Eppinger. Esqs. 

"By John H. Ash — Colonel James ]\Iarshall, a skillful officer, and 
the friend of his country. 

"By Major Gray — We are a free and happy people, and while enjoy- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 287 

ing every blessing let us not forget the great Author from whom all 
good emanates. 

"By Isaiah Davenport — The union of our country. Maj' the last 
trump alone dissolve it." 

Thp: New Independent Church 

In the grant of George the second to the trustees of the Independent 
church, in 1756. it was stipulated that the grant was made "upon 
condition nevertheless that in case such meeting house shall not be 
erected and built within three years * * * that then the said lot 
[letter K Decker Ward] hereby granted shall revert to us, our heirs 
and successors." A meeting house was erected within the time stated, 
and in it the congregation worshiped until that building was destroyed 
by the great tire of 1796, when for a w'hile they by permission (in the 
failure to procure a pastor) of the Baptists their house of worship was 
used. In 1800 a new church was finished on lot Q, in St. James square 
(now Telfair Place) between York and President streets. That church 
was of wood, and in the storm of 180-4 its steeple was blown down. In 
1816 a committee w'as appointed to select another building site, and 
they succeeded in securing the five lots on the south side of South 
Broad street (now Oglethorpe avenue) between Bull and AVhitaker, 
and on the 13th of January, 1817, the corner stone w^as laid of the new 
building which was designed by Architect John H. Green, of New York. 
It was finished in 1819, at a "cost of $96, 108. 671/0, and was dedicated 
by its pastor the Rev. Henry Kollock, D. D., on Sunday, May 9th, be- 
fore it was actually finished. President James Monroe being present. 

The ColKinhiaii 3Iuseum and Savainiak Daily Gazette of the day 
following, ^Monday, the 10th, had this to say of the services: "Yester- 
day the new Independent Presbyterian Church which has been build- 
ing in this city and now nearly finished, was solemnly dedicated to the 
service of Almighty God. An able and impressive discourse was deliv- 
ered from the second chapter of Haggai, and ninth verse. For grandeur 
of design and neatness of execution we presume this Church is not 
surpassed by any in the United States. It is seldom that we discover 
a scene more affecting and impressive than this solemn ceremony 
afforded ; and in this city we never witnessed such an immense con- 
gregation, so large a portion of which was formed by female beauty ; 
also the President of the United States and suite, and other dis- 
tinguished personages belonging to the Army and Navy of the United 
States, who listened with pious attention to the learned, appropriate 
and eloquent discourse of the reverend Pastor. In no other than the 
house of God, in the midst of so imposing a scene, we could, and with 
emphasis echo the words of the reverend preacher. Dr. Henry Kollock, 
'The glory of this latter house shall be greater than the former, saith 
the Lord of hosts, and in this place will I give peace, saith the Lord of 
hosts.' The psalms and hymns interspersed through the service were 
particularly well adapted to the solemnity of the occasion, and the per- 
formance of the vocal music tended to elevate the soul to sublime and 
heavenly musings. The respectful attention and the fervency of the 
responses all combined to induce the belief that the heart accompanied 
the lips in supplication to the throne of Divine Grace." 



288 SAVANNAI-I AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

The Great Fire of 1820 

From a scene of rejoicing, embracing the visit of a president, the 
dedication of a magnificent church building and a description of what 
was then considered a floating palace which made a glorious record 
for itself and the city whose name it bore, we must pass to one of a sad 
nature. The next important incident in the history of the city, closely 
following that just given was the very disastrous fire of 1820. 

The Georgian of Monday, January 17, 1820, gave a description of 
the great conflagration and it is herein copied as the only means of 
giving the reader the best account obtainable: "The city of Savannah 
after a lapse of twenty-four years, has again experienced the horror 
of a conflagration far surpassing in violence and destruction the mel- 
ancholy fire of 1796. Numbers were at the time reduced to extreme dis- 
tress, yet the buildings consumed were generally of so little value com- 
pared with those we have just lost, and the property they contained 
was so inferior in every respect to that with Avhich our warehouses 
were filled, that it was generally considered beneficial, by making room 
for other buildings better adapted to the growing commerce of the 
place. But the Genius of desolation could not have chosen at this day 
a spot within the limits of our ill-fated city where so wide a scene of 
misery, ruin and despair might be laid as that which was recently the 
center of wealth and industry but is now a heap of worthless ruins. 
It is with the most painful reluctance that we are obliged to recur to 
the horrors of a scene the recollection of which can never be eflraced 
from the minds of those who witnessed it, and whose effects continue to 
present themselves at every turn, and in every variety of distress. 

"On Tuesday morning last, between the hours of one and two, the 
usual signals communicated an alarm of fire. It commenced in the liv- 
ery stable of Mr. Boon, on a trust lot of the estate of Isaac Fell, Esq., 
situated in the Baptist church square * and in the immediate vicinity 
of Market square, around which for a considerable distance in every 
direction the buildings were almost exclusively of wood, and in the most 
combustible state. The fire had gained a great height before the citi- 
zens and fire companies could assemble or organize any efficient plan 
of action ; and even when the most strenuous exertions were made, the 
flames advanced with a widening and appalling violence that seemed 
to deride resistance. Burning cinders were carried by the wind which 
was strong and steady at W. N. W. to the remotest parts of the town, 
where the roofs of houses were repeatedly on fire. When we consider 
the mass of wooden buildings which had been exposed for years to the 
influence of the sun, and the almost total absence of rain for several 
months past, it is surprising that the progress of the devouring element 
should have been arrested at all before it had swept every house in the 
direction of the wind. When the fire reached IMarket Square two heavy 
explosions of gunpowder occurred from the vaults of stores where that 
article was kept in lai-ge (|uantities. in violation of the oi^dinance of 
council and the common feeling of liumanity. * * * From Jefferson 

* Now Franklin square, and the Baptist elunrli lot was ^^■lloro the First African 
Baptist church now stands. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 289 

street, where the fire began, to Abercorn street, where it was stopped, 
there are included four streets bearing nearly N. or S., but it is to be 
observed that the building lots being of an oblong form there was a 
larger number of tenements between these latter streets than between 
those running N. and S. The ground included * * * describes a 
complete parallelogram with its longest sides on Bay and Broughton 
streets, and on a line drawn from Bay street nearly through the centre 
of this figure stands the Exchange, the Seat of Commercial business. 
Within its limits also was comprehended the market, where the quan- 
tity of retail stores gave an extravagant value to every inch of ground. 
Excepting a few solitary buildings at the extreme corners of this figure 
above described, (among which we are happy to say are the Episcopal 
church, the State and Planters' Bank and Washington Hall) all that 
contained was burned down to the ground.* 

"Ninety-four lots were left naked, containing 321 wooden buildings, 
(many of them double tenements) 35 brick ditto exclusive of those 
owned by the Presbyterian church, and by Messrs. Gibbons, Shad, Mor- 
rison, Johnston and Hunter, which comprised 30 tenements — making 
altogether 463 tenements exclusive of out-buildings ! 

"The total loss of property is variously estimated, but the jirevail- 
ing opinion calculates it to be upwards of Four Millions of Dollars! 

"The fire was extinguished between twelve and one o'clock A. M., 
and, if possible, the scene became still more painfully, interesting. 
Wherever an open space promised security from the flames, property 
of every description had been deposited in vast heaps. Some were 
gazing in silent despair on the scenes of destruction, others were busily 
and sorrowfully employed in collecting what little was spared to them. 
Alas ! never did the sun set on a gloomier day for Savannah, or on 
so many aching hearts. Those whose avocations called them forth that 
night will long remember its sad and solemn stillness, interrupted only 
by the sullen sounds of falling ruins. During the excitement, while the 
heart of the city was wrapt in flames, each one was too busy for reflec- 
tion, but when the danger was past, and the unfortunate sufferers had 
leisure to contemplate the extent of their losses, a generous mind may 
conceive, but it is impossible to describe, their feelings of despair." 

Yellow Fever Epidemic (also J 820) 

The year 1820 was one of great disaster to Savannah. The fire of 
the early part of the year was followed in the summer by a terrible 
epidemic of yellow fever, the most serious, perhaps, that had occurred 
since the founding of the city. That disease must have appeared before 
that date, in a milder form, or, at least, with less pronounced results. 
There are traditions of such epidemics in the earlier part of that cen- 

* The State Bank (Bank of the State of Georgia), stood where the Citizens and 
Southern Bank now stands, the Planters ' Bank faced Eeynolds Square, bounded by 
Abercorn, Bryan, St. Julian and Drayton Streets, and Washington Hall was on the 
lot in which the Commercial Bank now stands, and just to the east of that bank, on 
Bryan Street. 

Vol. 1—19 



290 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ' 

tury, and it has been said that the year 1804 was marked by the num- 
ber of deaths from fever, supposed to have been of that fearful type. 

The first record we, have in connection with that disease is set down 
in the journal of William Stephens, secretary to the ti'ustees of the 
colony whose remarks applied especially to Charleston, South Carolina, 
but whose words indicate that at the date of writing certain deaths 
were caused by yellow fever. On the 23d of October, 1740, he said: 
"This Fall of the Leaf produced a sickly season with us of various 
kinds. Fluxes, dry Gripes, lingering Fevers, &c., that within two 
months past has carried off seven or eight People, which is more than 
died in one whole year before : And from Charles Town we hear of a 
dangerous distemper there which they call the j'ellow Fever; from the 
corpse immediately so changing after death ; and it is observed to have 
proved most fatal to new comers, whereof many have been taken off; 
such as we have lately lost have been weakly People, and children for 
the most part." 

The year 1819 was one of considerable sickness in Savannah, and 
the newspapers mentioned the cause of death in many instances as the 
"prevailing fever." While it was not stated that there were cases of 
yellow fever in the city, it is probable that the disease so-called was 
such, as the same papers noted the fact that yellow-fever was epidemic 
in Charleston. Whatever may have been the nature of the fever of 1819 
in Savannah, it is certain that it was looked upon as alarming in its 
effects, and efforts were made to prevent its spread. At that period 
the ordinances of the city were strict in the matter of forbidding exca- 
vations, or turning up the soil in the summer season. 

About that time steps were taken looking to the erection of monu- 
ments in memory of Gen. Nathanael Greene and Count Casimir Pulaski, 
and it was with that object in view that the suggestion was made that 
the remains of the former be found so as to place them beneath such 
memorial. It then probably never occurred to any one that there was 
a doubt as to the statement that the body of the latter had been 
buried at sea. In order to assist in the recovery of the bones of Gen- 
eral Greene, the city council, at a meeting held July 26, 1819, adopted 
this minute : 

Locating the Burial Place of Nathanael Greene 

"The frequent inquiries made by citizens and strangers 'Where lie 
the remains of the gallant General Greene who died and was buried 
in your city?' and the acknowledged want of information on the sub- 
ject imply a neglect highly reproachful to the known patriotism and 
feelings of the inhabitants; and whereas it would be desirable, and, in 
fact, almost our duty, to satisfy public curiosity in this instance, and 
thereby give an opportunity to the people of this State, among whom 
the General lived and died, to testify a share of their gratitude for the 
noble and important services rendered in the Revolution by this great 
and eminent soldier and patriot, and tho ' this be done late it is yet but 
a common respect to his memory for this body to claim his precious 
remains and remove them from the vault where they are now supposed 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 291 

to be deposited and mingling with those in no wise akin to him, and 
have them interred under the order, sanction and special protection 
of this Board so as to enable the Legislature, or the public, hereafter 
to erect some monument wortliy the memory of this great and good 
man ; 

"Resolved, That the Mayor and Aldermen [Charles] Harris and 
[John H.] Ash be a committee to ascertain by all means in their power 
the vault where the remains of General Greene have been deposited, 
and, on identifying the same, to have such remains placed in a neat 
mahogany coffin, and thereupon report to council for their further pro- 
ceedings on this interesting subject." A further resolutioli required 
that the action of council be "communicated to the representatives of 
the deceased who may now be in the State, and also to the proprietors 
of the vault to be opened, to obtain leave for the committee to carry 
this resolution into effect." Provision was made to have the expenses 
of the search paid by the city. 

As already stated Savannah was a place of considerable sickness in 
1819, and the sanitary regulations at that time were very rigid. It 
was the general impression that General Greene's remains were in 
the vault owned by the family of John Graham whose confiscated estate 
had been given to that officer. In addition to the unfit condition of 
the city at what was then regarded as a most sickly season, there had 
been a burial in the Graham vault during that same year of JMr. Philip 
Young, a relative of the Mossman family who were connected with the 
Grahams. For those reasons it is doubtful whether a search was made 
in that vault, and the committee appointed made no conclusive report 
which caused the city council to appoint another committee the follow- 
ing year (1820) with Alderman Ash still a member. The year 1820 
was the year of the great yellow fever epidemic, and it is improbable 
that the committee made an investigation, as it never filed a report ; 
and thus the matter stood for many years. This subject will be further 
considered, and the story of the finding of General Greene's remains will 
be told in its proper place. It was introduced here only in connection 
with the yellow fever incident which will now be resumed. 

Before entering upon a detailed account of that disastrous plague, 
the following extract from the report of Dr. "William R. Waring, one of 
Savannah's most illustrious physicians and at that time an alderman, 
may be deemed peculiarly interesting as an attempt at accounting for 
the epidemic at this time when the whole world has come to the belief 
that yellow fever is spread entirely by one particular species of the 
mosquito. The report was made in 1821, the year following the epi- 
demic. He wrote : "To sum up then all which I have suggested, it 
appears that the causes of the fever of 1820 have been : 1st. A gen- 
eral epidemic condition of the atmosphere, of extraordinary virulence, 
either proved to exist, or produced, by an uncommon deficiency of the 
electric fluid ; 2d. The early establishment of that condition of the 
atmosphere, by the reduction of the winter of 1819-20, to the tempera- 
ture of spring, and the reduction of spring to the heat of summer; thus 
bringing upon us in the spring the usual evils of summer ; in the summer 
a combination of these evils, with the usual evils of that season, and, 



292 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

in the fall, an agitation of the evils which are usually incident to 
it, with this extraordinary combination of those which preceded them ; 
3d. The prevalence of easterly winds which has beeij predominant, 
and uncommonly injurious, in consequence of the general abundance of 
moisture and miasmata ; 4th. The growth of the city within a few 
years, and the rapid increase of its population, thus producing a source 
of internal putridity, and incorporating it with the soil; 5th. The 
unnecessary luxuriance of the trees, by the shade and i^roteetion which 
they afford to dews and fogs, and moisture of the atmosphere after rain ; 
6th. The great number of small wooden houses unpainted, and in a 
complete state of putrescence ; 7th. Uncovered vaults and cellars, the 
consequence of the fire ; 8th. The remarkable number of foreigners 
and persons unaccustomed to the climate, producing not an aggravation 
of the cause of the disease, but of its general grade and character ; 9th. 
The high position of the city, on the border of extensive marsh grounds, 
thus attracting and concentrating upon itself their products of un- 
wholesome vapor and miasmata. All these causes together give a com- 
pound origin to the disease which is internal and external." 

The statistics giving the number of deaths prepared in the form 
here presented will show at a glance the effect of the disease during what 
were then called ' ' the sickly months : ' ' 

















Total for 




July 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


whole vear 


Males 


. 49 


82 


169 


166 


45 


23 


605 


Females . .. . 


. 4 


36 


63 


54 


14 


5 


191 




53 


118 


232 


220 


59 


28 


796 


Georgians . . 


. 5 


25 


45 


38 


13 


11 


161 


Southerners 


3 


8 


14 


5 


2 . 


2 


44 


Northerners 


. 19 


38 


62 


71 


13 


6 


228 


Foreigners . 


. 25 


41 


91 


93 


28 


8 


320 


Of fever. . . . 


. 38 


106 


106 


187 


43 


10 


516 



Greatest number of deaths, in September, 232. 
Least niamber of deaths, in March, 8. 

This fact should be borne in mind in contemplating the effect of the 
yellow fever on the population. At that time the census showed the total 
number of residents to be 7,523 ; but on the appearance of the disease 
many fled from the city, and while it was at its height the population 
was thereby so materially reduced that it numliered only 1,494. A vessel 
arrived in the harbor from the West Indies on the fifth of September 
with yellow fever among her crew, and only a few days thereafter cases 
were reported among the citizens. 

It took some time for the city to recover from the effects of the fever 
and the fire, and there is not much of importance to record in her history 
for several years from tliat time. 

City Affairs Continued 

Resuming our account of the managers of the city affairs, left off 
in 1804 with the election of John Y. Noel as mayor, we now record the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 293 

fact that he was re-elected in 1805 and 1806, and that in the former of 
those years the only associates of his who had been members of the 
board in 1804, were Adam Cope and Wm. Davies, the other aldermen 
in 1805 being James Marshall, John H. IMorel, Balthasar Shaffer, James 
Hunter, Samuel Howard and John Love. In 1806, besides Mayor Noel 
the city fathers were John Pettibone, John Gumming, Fingal T. Flym- 
ing, Oliver Sturges, John P. Williamson, Benjamin Ansley, Samuel 
Stackhouse, Edmond Harden, Wm. Davies, Thomas W. Rodman and 
Christian Gugel. Alderman Wm. Davies succeeded Noel in 1807 as 
mayor, and he had with him on his aldernianic board his former col- 
leagues, B. Shaffer, E. Harden, J. P. AVilliamson, B. Ansley and J. H. 
Morel, the new members being John Y. White, John Tebeau, Edward 
Stebbins, Thos. Rice, and Thos. Bourke. After five years experience 
as an alderman, John P. Williamson stepped into the mayoralty in 

1808, supported by aldermen E. Stebbins, Jeremiah Cuyler, Thos. Men- 
denhall, Thos. Rice, John Grimes, John Pettibone, Norman ]\IcLeod, 
Jas. Bond Read and Asa Hoxey. Mr. Williamson retired altogether in 

1809, when Wm. Bellinger Bulloch took the chair at the head of the 
city council, having the support of aldermen Shaffer. McLeod, Cope, 
J. B. Read, Grimes, Gardner Tuffts, George jNIyers, Jas. Eppinger, R. 
J. Houstoun and Wm. A. Moore. Mr. Bulloch served again as mayor 
in 1810, and Messrs. Isaac Pell, Geo. Harral, Thos. Mendenhall, Wm. 
Davies, Isaac Minis, G. V. Proctor, G. R. Duke, Thos. Bourke, N. G. 
Rutherford, Thos. Rice, John Y. White and Steele White composed the 
aldermanic board. Mr. Mendenhall 's experience as a city father in 
1808 and 1810, made him so popular that in 1811 he was called to act 
at the head of the board and he has as able co-workers Messrs. T. Bourke, 
J. B. Read, T. U. P. Charlton, G. V. Proctor. J. Y. White, A. Pem- 
berton, Jno. Pettibone, ]M. W. Hughes and I. Minis. The year 1812 
brought Dr. George Jones to the mayoralty, and he had in the adminis- 
tration of the city's affairs the valuable assistance of such experienced 
aldermen as J. B. Read, G. R. Diike, Chas. Harris, J\I. W. Hughes, 
T. U. P. Charlton, Archibald Stobo Bulloch, Isaac Minis, G. V. Proctor, 
Matthew McAllister and Frederick S. Fell ; and in the following year 
(1813), Dr. Jones served again at the head of the board, with Thos. 
Decheneaux, Isaac Fell, E. Harden, J. B. Norris and J. Ilersman, 
newly elected, and Messrs. Harris, Hughes, Minis, Proctor and Mc- 
Allister retired. Mr. McAllister was mayor in 1814, with an aider- 
manic board composed of J. B. Norris, T. U. P. Charlton, J. Hersman, 
Hampden Mcintosh, I. Fell, E. Harden. J. B. Read, A. S. Roe, Robt. 
Maekay, Geo. Jones, Thos. Bourke and William B. Bulloch. After 
four sixecessive terms as alderman the Hon. T. U. P. Charlton was 
chosen mayor in 1815, and he had a board of aldermen in which we 
find these names : Charles Harris, Isaac Fell, Jacob Ilersman, Wm. 
Davies, Geo. V. Prod or, J. B. Norris, Geo. L. Cope, John H. Ash, 
Samuel Russell, Hampden Mcintosh, Edward Harden, Robert 
Mackav. Judge Charlton was mavor again in 1816, with aldermen 
G. R. Duke, H. Mcintosh, Levi S.^D'Lyon, Jacob P. Henry, Geo. L. 
Cope, Gardner Tuffts, Steele White, Chas. Harris, Thos. N. Morel, Geo. 
V. Proctor, and Isaac Fell. The year 1817 saw the Hon. James Moore 



294 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Wayne placed at the head of city council, with an aldermanic board 
composed of James Johnston, Wm. Davies, Hazen Kimball, John Tan- 
ner, James Mork, James S. Bulloch, Geo. L. Cope, Frederick Densler, 
Paul P. Thomasson, Wm. R. Waring and Geo. W. Owens. Judge 
Wayne was re-elected in 1818, and the aldermen serving with him that 
year were Adam Cope, Moses Herbert, Ebenezer S. Rees, Isaiah Daven- 
port, John H. Ash, P. P. Thomasson, Thos. Bourke, Geo. L. Cope, Wm. 
R. Waring, T. U. P. Charlton, Steele White, ]\Iordecai Sheftall, senior, 
and Chas. Harris. The Hon. T. U. P. Charlton again sat at the head 
of the council table in 1819, sharing the responsibilitj^ of conducting 
the municipal affairs with aldermen Chas. Harris, Moses Herbert, Thos. 
Bourke, Isaiah Davenport, Geo. L. Cope, Jas. Morrison, AV. R. Waring, 
E. S. Rees, M. Sheftall, senior, Steele White, J. P. Henry, John Kelly 
and L. S. D'Lyon. Again in 1820 Thos. U. P. Charlton was Savannah's 
mayor, and he had all his old associates with him except Isaiah Daven- 
port, E. S. Rees, Mordecai Sheftall, Sr., and John Kelly, whose places 
were taken by Messrs. Thos. E. Lloyd, Thos. N. Morel, Moses Sheftall 
and Michael Brown. 

From the time that the charter was granted until 1823 the mayor 
of Savannah served without compensation. In 1821 it was deemed 
proper to make a change in this matter, and a committee of aldermen 
was charged with the duty of preparing an ordinance to fix the salary 
of that office ; but a report was made that an act of the legislature of 
February 10, 1787, stood in the way, and it became necesslary to have 
a special act passed to authorize the payment. The new act was passed, 
but even after the adoption of an ordinance granting the salary the 
amount of the same was not fixed until December 26, 1822. by which the 
mayor received compensation to the extent of $1,000 in the year 1823. 

■ Dry Culture Contracts 

For many years it had been believed that the planting of rice oppo- 
site and to the east and west of the city, involving the cultivation of 
the grain by the wet culture process, was considered very detrimental 
to the health of the city, and in 1817, on the 24th of i\Iarch, an ordi- 
nance providing for what were known as the "dry culture contracts," 
was adopted. It was entitled "An ordinance to improve the health of 
the City of Savannah, and for other purposes," and is as follows: 

" Whereas, any phui calculated to improve the health of this city will 
greatly add to its population, and increase its prosperity in every re- 
spect ; and whereas the citizens in town meeting assembled on •:he eight- 
eenth day of the present month did adopt certain resolutions annexed 
to a report of the conunittee previously appointed, which report and 
resolutions reconuiu^nd a change of culture of the low lands contiguous 
to this city as essential to the health of the inhabitants, and to effect tliat 
object also recommend that contracts be entered with the proprietors of 
said low lands for a perpetual change of the wet to the dry culture, that 
the city do aiithorize and direct the proper officer of the corporation 
to sign" and execute said contracts ; that a sum to be raised by loan on the 
faith of the city pi'opevty which the said contracts may re(|uire; that a 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



295 



certain portion of the resources of the city may be set apart and appro- 
priated for the punctual payment of the interest and gradual extin- 
guishment of the sum obtained ; and that a board of commissioners be 
organized, of which the ]\Iayor shall be a member ex-officio, to direct the 
application of said loan, and to be invested with all necessary powers in 
relation to the health of the city upon the aforesaid plan of a change of 
culture ; 

"And whereas it does appear to council that the measures recom- 
mended in said report will have the effect of so ameliorating the health 
of this city as to check, if not to prevent, the ravages heretofore produced 
by autumnal fevers, and to render it a safe and healthy residence which. 




Glynn County Court House, Brunswick 



from its dry, high, and advantageous situation, nature intended it 
should be ; 

"And ivhereas an object of more importance could not occupy the 
attention of Council, or justify more satisfactorily the application of the 
funds and resources of the city; 

"The Mayor do forthwith sign and execute such contracts with the 
proprietors of the low lands in front and on the eastern and western 
extremities of this cit.v as he, in conjunction with the commissioners 
hereinafter appointed, shall approve : the condition of said contents to 
be a perpetual change of the present wet to a dry culture, under such 
penalties and with such reservations as to occasional irrigations and over- 
flowing the lands as said Mayor and Commissioners may agree to and 
designate. 

"As soon as the said contracts shall have been entered into and duly 
executed by the Mayor, with the advice and consent of the Commis- 
sioners associated with him, each of said contracts shall be delivered to 
the Clerk of Council, to be by him kept among the records of the cor- 



296 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

poration, after the same shall have been recorded by the Clerk of the 
Superior Court of Chatham County. 

"Annexed to each contract there shall be an accurate and exact sur- 
vey of the land upon which a dry culture is to take place, designating 
its quality and number of acres, which shall be referred to and specified 
in the contract. 

"The sum of seventy thousand dollars be, and is hereby appropri- 
ated for the purpose of complying with the payments which may be 
mentioned and contained in said contracts, and the said sum shall be 
raised and obtained in the following manner : The said sum shall be con- 
verted into stock to be called 'City Land Stock,' and payable in cer- 
tificates or scrip, signed by the Mayor and countersigned bj^ the City 
Treasurer each ; certificates shall have the following form : 

"Health and Prosperity — City Land Stock 

"Savannah, March 31, 1817. — The Corporation of the City of Savannah promise 

to pay the sum of dollars, due on contracts with the 

Mayor and Aldermen for a change of culture of low lands with seven jjer cent. 

interest, payable semi-annually, from day of , the principal 

to be extinguished by annual instalments within ten years, pursuant to the directions 
and provisions of an ordinance passed the 24th day of March, 1817. 

"The said sum of seventy thousand dollars shall be divided into cer- 
tificates of one thousand, five hundred, and one hundred dollars each, 
and the Mayor is hereby authorized and directed to deliver to any mem- 
ber of said Board of Commissioners who may be appointed for that pur- 
pose by the Board, the certificates to the full amount of stock hereby 
created, to be by him deposited in any bank or banks of this City, and 
that each member of said Board be, and he is hereby, also authorized 
to insert the name or names of payee or payees and the date when inter- 
est is to commence, when a loan or loans shall become necessary. 

"The faith of the City of Savannah and the public property are 
hereby pledged as a security for the redemption of the aforesaid stock, 
to be effected within ten years as by the appropriation of tlie annual 
revenue and taxes of the City hereinafter mentioned. 

' ' In aid of the foregoing pledge for the purpose of paying the inter- 
est of said stock, and the gradual extinguishment of the principal, the 
rents of the city lots are hereby set apart and specifically appropriated. 

"The annual surplus revenue of the City, together with said rents 
and other taxes, shall be, when collected, j)aid over to the said Board 
of Commissioners by the City Treasurer to the amount of ten thousand 
dollars annually, to be by 1hem so appropriated and applied as may 
within the time mentioned honorably extinguish the interest and prin- 
cipal of the debt thus contracted by the Corporation of Savannah."' 

The necessity for such a system as that adopted was a matter of se- 
rious discussion for some years. In 1823 Dr. James P. Screven who had 
traveled in the sot;th of Europe, made a report to council on his return, 
in August, on the effect of dry culture in the countries he had visited. 
and the committee to whom it was reported announced that "it was well 
calculated to set the question of the utility of a system of dry culture 
permanently at rest. ' ' 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 297 

The city having escaped the dangers of an epidemic in 1821, Septem- 
ber 15th and December 12th were observed as days of thanksgiving by 
the people. 

Until 1823 the appointment of a health officer to Savannah was made 
by the governor of the state, but the legislature passed an act placing the 
appointment with the city council, and under that act Doctor Screven 
was elected on the 8th of January, 1824. 

WiNFiELD Scott and David Porter, Savannah's Guests 

The next distinguished j^erson to visit Savannah after President Mon- 
roe was General AVinfield Scott, in the year 1822, at which time the city 
council appointed a committee to see to his proper entertainment and to 
accompany him on a tour of inspection of the defenses of the city. 

In 1823 Commodore David Porter was a guest of Savannah when the 
mayor and three aldermen composed the committee to tender him a 
public dinner which he politely declined. The committee however pro- 
posed to present his crew with fruits and fresh vegetables, which the 
commodore gratefully accepted. 

Reception of La Fayette 

The tour of the country by General La Fayette in 1824:-25 was one 
of the most important events in the history of the United States, in con- 
nection with visits by distinguished persons and heroes, and Savannah 
took a part in that affair by which she not only did credit to hei'self but 
gratified the honored guest to an unusual degree. On receiving infor- 
mation of La Fayette's intended visit to the United States council deter- 
mined to bid for the inclusion of Savannah among the places in his itin- 
erary, and a formal invitation was made on the 5th of August, 1824. The 
legislature of the state took action in the matter and it was decided that 
he should be the guest of Georgia whose governor at that time, George 
M. Troup, should represent her and her people in the way of showing 
him all honor and respect. The city then invited Colonel Warren, of 
Pendleton, South Carolina, a veteran of the Revolution who lost a leg 
during the siege of Savannah, to be her special guest; but illness pre- 
vented his attendance. The following account of this most interesting 
event is taken almost in its entirety from a pamjjhlet published shortly 
after La Fayette's visit. 

The City Council, the citizens, and the military, each appointed com- 
mittees wiiich united in one body under the name of the La Fayette Com- 
mittee. That committee was composed of Wm. C. Daniell, Mayor ; Joseph 
W. Jackson, Chairman ; Aldermen Chas. Harris, Isaac ^linis, Geo. Mil- 
ieu, and Wm. R. Waring, from the City Council ; George Jones, Ebenezer 
Jackson, Alexander Telfair, John Shellman, Sheftall Sheftall, Robert 
Habersham and John Screven, from the citizens ; and Col. James Mar- 
shall, Major Wm. Thome Williams, Capt. James Hunter, Oapt. Chas. A. 
Higgins, Capt. Robt. W. Fooler, Capt. Edward F. Tattnall, and Lieut. 
George Sibley, from the military. The arrangements made by the com- 
mittee were perfect in every respect, and it is doubtful whether anything 
more could have been done than was done to make the occasion a happy 



298 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

one. La Fayette reached the city on Saturday, March 19, 1825. The 
pamphlet referred to says : 

"At half past 5 o'clock, by a signal from the Chatham Artillery, the 
military were warned to repair to their several parade grounds. The line 
was formed at 8 o'clock, soon after which, there being no appearance of 
the boat, the troops piled their arms, and were dismissed iiutil the ar- 
rival. At an early hour the French and American flags were hoisted on 
the Exchange Steeple ; the Revenue Cutter Gallatin, Capt. ]\Iatthews, 
was also decorated with flags, and the merchant vessels were dressed in 
the same manner. On Bay street, on each side of the entrance to the 
city from under the bluff, were placed two French brass pieces, one of 
which, tradition informs us, was received in this country by the same 
vessel that brought over La Fayette ; thej" were manned by a company 
of masters of vessels and others who volunteered for the occasion. The 
resort to the eastern part of the bluff was general at an earh^ hour of 
the morning, continuing to increase during the day, and lat the time of 
the arrival was crowded Avith ladies and citizens on everj' part which 
could command a view of the landing. A temporary lauding was ei'ected 
at the wharf, consisting of a flight of steps and a platform. During the 
morning many an eye was strained in the hopeless task of transforming 
the fog banks and mists which hung over the low lands between Savannah 
and Tybee into the steamboat bearing the guest of the nation. About 
9 o'clock, however, the mists dispersed, the skies were cleared, and the 
remainder of the day was as pleasant and delightful as spring and a 
balmy atmosphere could make it. At this time the weather cleared up. 
a gentle breeze arose, blowing directly up the river, as if to add speed 
to the vessel which was to land him on our shores* At an early hour the 
Committee of Reception, deputed from the Joint Committee, together 
with Colonels Brailsford and Randolph, aides to his Excellency Gov- 
ernor Troup, proceeded to Fort Jackson in three barges, decorated with 
flags, and rowed by seamen in blue jackets and white trousers, under the 
command of Capts. NichoUs, Campbell and Dubois. 

"The first notice of the arrival of the welcome vessel Avas by a few 
strokes of the Exchange bell. A few minutes after, the volume of smoke 
which accompanied her was perceptible over the land ; she was then about 
twelve or fifteen miles off, but ra])idly approaching. The intelligence, 
'the boat's in sight,' spread with electrical rapidity, and the bustle which 
had in some measure subsided, recommenced, and everyone repaired to 
the spot where his landing was to take place. The troops were imme- 
diately formed and marched to the lower part of Bay street, where they 
were placed in position on the green, in front of the avenue of trees, 
their right in East Bay. A more gallant and splendid 'military display 
we have never seen ; the effect was beautiful : every corps exceeded its 
customary numbers ; many wlio had not appeared under arms for years 
shouldered them on this occasion, and the usual pride of apix^arance and 
honorable emulation was increased by the occasion. Those who know the 
volunteer companies of Savannah will believe this to he no empty com- 
pliment. 

"As llio steamboat passed Fort Jackson, she was boarded by the 
Committee of Reception, and on their ascending the deck the General 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 299 

was addressed by the Chairman, George Jones, Esq. An address was also 
delivered by Col. Brailsford in behalf of Governor Troup. To both these 
addresses the General made an appropriate reply, expressive of the 
pleasure he felt on visiting Georgia. The boat now came up in gallant' 
style, firing by the way, and with a full band of music on board playing 
the Marseilles Hymn and other favorite French and American airs. 
Her appearance was imposing and beautiful, to which the splendid and 
glittering uniforms of the officers from South Carolina, who attended the 
General, greatly added. As the steamboat came up to her anchorage, 
a salute was fired by the Revenue Cutter Gallatin, Capt. Matthews. 
General La Fayette was now assisted into the first barge, accompanied by 
the Committee and others, the other boats being occupied by the re- 
mainder of the suite. As the boats reached the shore the excitement in 
every face increased. A line was then formed from the landing place on 
the wharf, facing inwards, composed of the Mayor and Aldermen of the 
city, the clergy, the judges and officers of the District Court, the Supe- 
rior Court, and the Court of Oyer and Terminer,* the Union Society, 
deputations from the Hibernian Society, with their badges and ban- 
ners; from the St. Andrew's Society, with their badges; and from the 
Agricultural Society, with their badges-, and citizens. 

"The officers and gentlemen who accompanied the General in the 
steamboat from Charleston, besides the Governor of that State, were 
Col. F. K. Huger, Major-General Youngblood, Gen. Geddes, Adjt.-Gen. 
Earle, Col. Keith, Col. Butler, Col. Chesnutt, Col. Brown, Col. Clounie, 
Col. Fitzsimmons, Col. Taylor, Major Warley, Major Hamilton, Capt. 
Moses, and Messrs. Bee and McCord. Col. Huger and Major Hamilton 
alone accepted the invitation of the Committee to land and participated 
in the ceremonies of the procession; the Constitution of South Carolina 
having prohibited the Governor of that State from passing its limits 
obliged him to decline the civility of the Committee ; and courtesy to 
the chief magistrate of their state, no doubt, was the dominant motive 
with the officers who accompanied him in likewise declining the invita- 
tion to join in the review and procession. 

"As the General placed his foot upon the landing place, a salute 
was fired by the Chatham Artillery in line on the bluff, with four brass 
field pieces, 4 and 6 pounders, one of which was captured at Yorktown. 
He was here received by Dr. Wm. C. Daniell, Major of the City. Six 
cheers were now given by the whole of the Citizens who were assembled 
on the gratifying occasion ; for which the General expressed his grateful 
acknowledgements to those nearest him. Supported by the Mayor, and 
attended by the Committee of Reception, he now ascended the bluff, 
followed by his suite, the members of the Corporation, the Societies and 
Citizens. Here he was again enthusiastically cheered. On arriving at 
the top of the bluff on the green he was presented to Governor Troup, 

* This Court was established by an Act of December 18, 1819, aud called "Court 
of Common Pleas and Oyer and Terminer, ' ' which ' ' should have cognizance in 
assumpsit, debt, covenant, trover and of actions on the case, when the damages or 
cause of actions did not exceed the sum of $200 nor less than .$-50. " It is now the 
City Court of Savannah. At the time of La Fayette's visit the Hon. John C. Nicoll 
was judge; Eol)ert W. Pooler, clerk; and Abraham I. D'Lyon, sheriff. 



300 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEOEGIA 

by whom, in the most feeling manner, he was welcomed to the soil of 
Georgia. ' ' 

The speech of welcome by Governor Troup, short as it is, is a gem 
in the way of an address of the sort, and well deserves a place here. 
It follows, together with the response of the distinguished guest, the 
Marquis de LaFayette, which also is a noteworthy production, and 
should not be omitted from this account. Governor Troup spoke thus: 

' ' Welcome, LaFayette ! 

"General: 'Tis little more than uinetj^ years since the Founder of 
this State first set foot upon the bank on which you stand. Now, four 
hundred thousand people open their arms to receive you. Thanks to a 
kind Providence, it called you to the standard of Liberty in the help- 
lessness of our early revolution — it has preserved you, that, in your 
latter days, the glory of a great empire might be reflected back upon you, 
amid the acclamations of millions. 

"The scenes which are to come will be, for you, comparatively tran- 
quil and placid — there will be no more of dungeons — no more of frowns 
of tyrants. Oh, Sir, what a consolation for a man who has passed through 
such seas of trouble, that the million of bayonets which guard the bless- 
ings we enjoy stand between you and them. 

' ' But, enough — welcome. General ! Welcome — thrice welcome tu the 
State of Georgia ! ' ' 

To this kind and hearty welcome LaFayette made this reply: "The 
kind invitation I first received from your Excellency, and which, on the 
meeting of the General Assembly, was bestowed on me by both houses 
in terms most gratifying, could not but confirm my eager resolution to 
visit the State of Georgia. This State, Sir, I had not the good fortune 
to serve on its own soil ; but our more northern movements were not 
unconnected Avith its Safety and resciie. I have long been attached to 
it by my sense of its patriotism, suffering and exertions, by personal 
obligation, and private affections. Permit me here to express a regret 
at the rapidity of my happy visit througli the several States. The 
celebration of the greatest of all birth days at the seat of tiie General 
Government could not be omitted ; and although I have been obliged to 
sacrifice the motives of propriety and the feelings of personal friendships 
which called me to mtness the inauguration of the executive branch of 
the Union, I could not so give up the honourable part conferred upon 
me, on the half secular Juliilee of Bunker's Hill, at the representative, 
being the only surviving Llajor General of the Revolutionary Army. 
My dear Sir, I am happy to witness the improvements which, within 
less than a century of existence ^md fifty years of independence, have 
attended, in this State, the blessings of Republican institutions. Accept, 
if you please, for yourself and the two houses of the legislature my most 
affectionate and respectful thanks." 

After the speech of welcome and the response, the account given in 
the pamphlet from which we quote goes on: "He was then introduced 
to several revolutionary soldiers ; among those present were General 
Stevens, Colonel Shelhuan, El)enezer Jackson, Slieftall Sheftall and 
Captain Rees. The utmost animation appeared to sparkle in the eyes 
of the Genei'al at this time. This was pai'ticularly the case when the 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 301 

latter, addressing him with a cordial grip of the hand, said : ' I remember 
you, I saw you in Philadelj^hia, ' and proceeded to narrate some trifling 
incidents of the occasion; to which the General replied, 'Ah, 1 remem- 
ber ! ' and taking Captain Rees 's hantl between both of his, the eyes 
of each glistening with pleasure, they stood for a few moments appar- 
ently absorbed in recollections of the days of their youth. 

"The officers of the brigade and of the regiment were then introduced. 
While these introductions were going on, a salute was fired along the 
whole line of infantry. The General and Suite, together with the Gover- 
nor and Suite, the Revolutionary officers,- Mayor, Committee of Recep- 
tion, guests, General Harden and Suite, Col. McAllister and the Field 
Officers for the adjoining counties, proceeded on foot down the front 
of the line, in review. After passing the troops the General ascended 
the carriage prepared for his reception, and the procession moved up 
East Broad street to Broughton street, from there to West Broad street, 
down that street to Abereorn street, and through Abercorn street to 
Oglethorpe Square." 

The procession moved in the following order : 

1. F. ]\I. Stone, marshal of the city, with staff' of office. 

2. Divisions of the Georgia hussars. Liberty and Mcintosh troops 
of cavalry. Jos. Barnard, first marshal with staff'. 

3. General LaFayette, and Governor Troup, in a landau, drawn by 
four gray horses. 

4. The mayor of the city, and Colonel Huger, in a second carriage. 

5. G. W. LaFayette, and M. LeVasseur, in a third carriage. 

6. Revolutionary officers, in a fourth carriage. 

7. Brigadier General, the suites of the governor and the general, 
J. Habersham, second marshal, with staff'. 

8. The committee of council, of the citizens and of the officers. 

9. Aldermen. 

10. The Rev. Clergy, judges, officers of the United States, consuls, 
officers of courts. A. Cope, third marshal, with staff. 

11. E. Bourciuin, fourth marshal, the LTnion, the Hibernian, the St. 
Andrew's, and the Agricultural Societies, in ranks of eight. Citizens 
in ranks of eight. Sam M. Bond, fifth marshal. Jos. S. Pelot, sixth 
marshal. 

12. Divisions of the Georgia hussars, Liberty and Mcintosh troops 
of cavalry. 

13. Field officers of other regiments. 

14. Officers of the army and navy. 

15. Company officers of the First and other regiments. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, Chatham Artillery, United States troops, Savannah Fenci- 
bles. Savannah Volunteer Guards, Georgia Volunteers, Republican Blues, 
Savannah Juvenile Guards, major and regimental staff. 

"When the procession commenced moving a third salute was fired 
by the marine corps. About half past five o'clock in the afternoon the 
General arrived at the lodgings appropriated for him at Mrs. Max- 
well's, the same in which Governor Troup resided. The time of his 



302 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ' 

landing was 3 o'clock; so that the reception and procession took up 
about two hours and a half. The troops then filed off to the South Com- 
mon and fired a national salute, after which they returned to the quar- 
ters of the General, to wliom they paid the marching salute. During the 
passage of the procession, the windows and doors, as well as the spacious 
streets through which he passed, were crowded to excess ; and the ex- 
pression of enthusiastic feeling was repeatedly displayed by all, from the 
highest to the lowest. He was saluted by the ladies from every place 
affording a view of the procession, by the waving of handkerchiefs; 
which he returned by repeated and continual inclinations of the head, 
bowing in acknowledgment. At sundown, another salute was fired by 
the Marine Volunteer Corps." 

The house kept by Mi*s. Maxwell in which LaFayette was entei'tained 
is that situated in Oglethorpe square, bounded north by State street, 
south by President street, west by Lincoln street, with the front or east 
side facing Abercorn street. It passed into the possession of the Owens 
family, and is now owned and occupied by Mrs. M. W. Thomas, widow 
of Dr. J. G. Thomas and daughter of the late Mr. George Owens. 

It is proper here to state that among the militai-y companies uniting 
to do honor to the nation's guest were the Liberty County Independent 
Troop, commanded by their revered Capt. "William J\laxwell, and the 
Darien Hussars, with Capt. Charles West, their friend and guide at 
their head in the procession. 

When the reception committee boarded the steamboat at Foi't Jack- 
son, their chairman, George Jones, Esq., addressed General LaFayette, 
and, as it was the first greeting received by the guest on Georgia soil 
and is itself worthy of preservation, it is now given, although somewhat 
out of its regular order. Mr. Jones said : 

' ' General : This committee, the representatives of a general com- 
mittee of the City Council and of the civil and military citizens of 
Savannah, offer you on behalf of themselves and their fellow citizens 
congratulations upon your safe arrival, and a sincere welcome to the 
State of Georgia. They invite you to accompany them to the spot where 
their ancestors, with their beloved Oglethorpe, first landed ; and thus 
afford them an opportunity of discharging the pleasing duty assigned 
them of presenting you to his Excellency the Governor of the State and 
the civil authority of the city, who, with a grateful people, anxiously 
wait to receive you with a heartfelt welcome." 

The reply of LaFayette to this address has not been preserved. 
Colonel Brailsford also addressed tlie General, but neither that nor the 
reply fittingly made to it has been recorded. 

During the visit of LaFayette to Savannah the time was chosen as 
the most fitting occasion for the presentation to the Fii*st Regiment of 
State Volunteers of a stand of colors made for it and intended as a gift 
to it by. Mrs. Harden, the wife of Gen. Edward Harden, commander of 
the brigade to which the regiment was attached ; and Governor Troup was 
selected to make the presentation speech in the presence of LaFayette, 
all of the military of the city and a very large number of citizens being 
also present. This is the speech of the governor :- — 

' ' Colonel : I present to you, by command of ]\Irs. Harden, a standard 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 303 

of colors for the First Regiment, worked by her own hands. It is a 
fine offering from the fair to the brave, in the presence of the veteran 
hero whom all hearts delight to honor. I am happy to be the instru- 
ment of unfurling them for the first time before the Regiment. They 
are consecrated by the fair donor and the presence of the Nation's guest. 
The hand which executed this beautiful work has painted, in indelible 
colors, the emblems which will guard them. Look on this picture, or on 
that — -this repels dishonor, that animates to patriotism and to deeds of 
valor. They cannot be tarnished. Death before their inglorious sur- 
}-ender. ' ' 

The references in the speech may be understood by reading the 
following description of the flag : ' ' The principal emblems were, on one 
side, the arms of the State, the Constitutional arch being supported by 
three female figures representing 'Wisdom, Justice and Moderation;' 
and, on the reverse, a bust of LaFayette, (in the old Continental uni- 
form,) and which is being' crowned with a laurel wreath bv the American 
Eagle." 

The dinner given in honor of LaFayette was served in the council 
chamber in the Exchange. It was an affair of more than usual impor- 
tance, and a very large number attended. When we consider the part 
taken by the man whom our whole country then delighted to honor in 
the long war which brought us our independence, it is not to be wondered 
at that he was treated as a great hero and that no expense was spared 
in showing him that we loved him for what he had done. W^ith that 
feeling of respect and veneration for the man, there need be no excuse 
for recording in detail every step taken by our citizens in the plan laid 
out for his entertainment, and so we give the full account of the dinner 
which he attended and which he evidently enjoyed to the very end. 

"The dinner of the citizens, which was prepared at four o'clock, 
owing to the late hour at which General LaFayette arrived, was neces- 
sarily delayed. It however took place at seven o'clock, when the com- 
pany sat down in the Council Chamber which was prepared for the 
occasion with arches, In-anehes, &c., of which we shall have occasion to 
speak hereafter. It comprised a profusion of substantial fare, and every 
delicacy of the season. The company, including the guests, were at 
least three hundred in number. The Mayor presided, assisted by George 
Jones, 1st Vice-President; Charles Harris, 2d do.; W. B. Bulloch, 3d 
do. ; Dr. John Cumming, 4th do. ; Wm- Davies, 5th do. ; and George 
Anderson, 6th do. Among the guests, besides General LaFayette, were 
Col. Francis K. Huger, George Washington LaFayette, Monsieur Le- 
Vasseur, and the officers from So. Carolina who accompanied the General, 
viz. : Major-General Youngblood, General Geddes, Cols. Keith, Butler, 
Chesnut, Brown, Clounie, Fitzsimmons, and Taylor, ^Majors Hamilton 
and Warley, Capt. Moses, and Messrs. Bee and M'Cord; there were 
also present Col. Murat, General Stewai't, Capt. Rees, Col. ^McAllister, 
Capt. Maxwell, and the other officers of the Liberty and Mcintosh Cav- 
alry, and the several clergymen of the city. In the centre window back 
of the seats of the ]\Iayor and General LaFayette appeared a transpar- 
ency, representing Gen. LaFayette, over which was a scroll inscribed 
'He fought for us;' in the opposite window Washington, inscribed in 



304 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

like manner, 'The Father of his Country.' The centre window, in front, 
presented an allegorical transparency representing a monument, sur- 
mounted by a bust of. LaFayette; on one side Liberty, on the other 
History, presenting a tablet inscribed Avith the dates of the arrival in 
America of LaFayette, of his appointment as jMajor-General, of his 
being Avounded at Brandywine, and that of the surrender at Yorktown. 
The following is a copy of the toasts which Avere giA^en : 

"1st. The Constitution of the United States — Its IcA-el the people's 
rights ; its poAver their protection ; its protection their A'irtue. 

"2d. Georgia — Rich in her resources, rich in the bounties of nature, 
and rich in the spirit and enterprise of her people ; aa'c look to the AA'isdom 
of her rulers for the improvement of these advantages. 

"3d. Washington — A name associated Avith everj- ennobling quality 
of man; his fame is identified Avith our history, and its lustre will be 
reflected upon ages to come. 

"4th. LaFayette — The name shall be a badge Avorn in the hour of 
peril by freemen in every quarter of the globe, Avheu our rights are 
assailed by oppression. 

"General LaFayette expressed his acknoAvledgments for the affec- 
tionate Avelcome he had the happiness to receive from the citizens of 
Savannah, and particularly for their honourable and so very gratifying 
toast; after Avhich he begged leave to offer the folloAviug sentiment: 

" 'The City of Savannah — And may her young prosperity more and 
more show to the Old World the superiority of Republican Institutions 
and self government.' 

"5th. The Heroes and Stiatesmen of '76 — In life or death equally 
the objects of our regard and veneration. 

"6th. The President of the United States — Although chosen amidst 
the conflict of public sentiment, the nation receives him as her chief 
magistrate, and is ready to support him in the spirit of the Constitution. 

"7th. The Republics of Mexico and South America — We hail them 
as the nations of the earth, and may the voice of freemeii ere long thun- 
der from the Andes of Brazil the rights of man. 

"8th. The Holy Alliance — The bitterness of political death to those 
who are no friends to 'the Avorld or the Avorld's LaAv. ' 

"9th. Beautiful France — Munificent Patroness of Science and the 
Arts, Nurse of Heroes — she shed her blood for us and Ave are grateful. 

"10th. Wm. H. CraAvford — His greatness is founded upon the 
qualities of his mind and the virtues of his heart : Public Station has only 
served to illustrate it, and private life cannot detract from it. 

"11th. The People — The spontaneous burst of their gratitude to 
one of the early champions of their country's freedom speaks a moral 
lesson to the nations of the Avorld that Avill not be disregarded. 

"12th. The Army and Navy of the 'U. States — Niagara, NeAV 
Orleans, the Lakes and the Ocean proclaim their victories and perpetuate 
their glory. 

"13th. Woman — The graces of lier mind I'efine our manners, the A'ir- 
tues of her heart correct our morals, and civilized man derives his 
strongest impulse to excellence from the hope of her approbation. 

"A deputation Avas sent during the dinner to Avait upon his Excel- 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 305 

lency Governor Manning, of South Carolina, on board the steamboat 
Henry Schultz, then at anchor in the river. 

"The depvitation was composed of Cols. Brailsford and Randolph, 
aids of his Excellency Governor Troup, bearing a complimentary mes- 
sage from liim ; and of a committee from the Citizens composed of Rich- 
ard W. Habersham, Esq., Col. E. F. Tattnall, Major W, T. Williams 
and Capt. R. W. Pooler. 

"Governor Manning received the deputation with great politeness, 
expressing his regret that the Constitution of his own State should have 
prohibited his landing on the shores of another, and thus deprive him of 
the pleasure of participating in the festivities of the day. 

"The President, on the return of the committee, communicated to 
the company the circumstances of the deputation, and gave as a toast 
' The Governor of South Carolina ' which was received Avith the warmest 
approbation. Upon which, Major-General Youngblood, of South Caro- 
lina, proposed, as a volunteer toast, 'The State of Georgia.' 

' ' The volunteer toasts were as follows : 

"By Gen. LaFayette — The memory of Gen. Greene. 

"By Gov. Troup — The Guest of the Nation, in union with the Vol- 
unteers and Citizens of Georgia ; a Father surrounded by his Children, 
it is as it should be ; who can say that his civil and military virtues have 
contributed most to the benefit of mankind. 

"By George Washington LaFayette — The principles of 1776 — they 
will regenerate the whole world. 

"By Mon. LeVasseur — The year 1776; American youth have not 
degenerated from the principles of their fathers. 

"By Col. Francis K. Huger — The youth of the U. S. may they see 
and feel that the admiration, esteem and gratitude of the nation are the 
highest and most honourable rewards of ambition. 

"By Gen. Stewart — Our sister State of South Carolina, near and 
dear to us. 

"Major James Hamilton, Jr., from South Carolina, replied to the 
compliment from General Stewart, and gave the following toast : 

"The State of Georgia — Founded by one of the most chivalrous and 
enterprising spirits of the age in which he lived, she has received a 
kindred impulse from his character ; may her prosperity be equal to 
the patriotism and gallantry of her sons: 

"By Col. E. F. Tattnall, in reply — The memory of General Marion; 
distinguished for everything chivalric, for everything patriotic, for 
everything Carolinian. 

"By Major-General Youngblood — The memory of General Mont- 
gomery; in the cause of Freedom and self-government our country, 
when in a sinking condition, made large drafts on the sons of Erin — - 
they were always honored. 

"By Gen. Geddes — The memory of Gen. Pulaski who died in defense, 
of American liberty. 

"By Col. Murat — Florida and General Jackson, to whom Floridians 
are indelited for being citizens of the United States. 

"By the President — Col. Warren — We sincerely regret that his bad 
health has deprived us of the pleasure of the company of a soldier who 
lost a limb in attempting to rescue this city from its oppressors. 

Vol. 1—2 



306 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"By Geo. Jones, Esq., 1st Vice-President — The memory of Ogle- 
thorpe, the founder of Georgia. 

"By Charles Harris, Esq., 2d Vice-President — ^^General James 
Screven, who fought for liberty, and was killed by its enemies in defense 
of its sacred cause. 

"By Wm. B. Bulloch, Esq., 3d Vice-President — General James Jack- 
son, than whom a purer and more disinterested patriot Georgia never 
produced. 

"By Dr. Jno. Gumming, 4th Vice-President — The memory of Colonel 
Joseph Habersham ; the first in Georgia who raised his arm against 
royal power. 

"By Wm. Davies, Esq., 5th Vice-President — Gen. John Mcintosh, a 
hero of the revolution. 

"By George Anderson, 6th Vice-President — The memory of General 
Elbert. 

"The General retired at this time. 

"By Major Williams — DeKalb, Steuben, Pulaski, and yet another 
and a greater — the chivalry of other lands concentrated in the cause 
of ours their names are hallowed by the glory of their deeds, and ten 
millions of freemen express their gratitude to the survivor. 

"By Col. Hunter — The memory of Dr. Noble Wimberly Jones; the 
pupil of Oglethorpe, a republican in principle, a philanthropist in prac- 
tice. 

"By Capt. Wm. Law — Our Republic: Constituted for the freedom 
and happiness of man, its stability is founded in the intelligence of its 
people, and the virtues of its rulers. 

"By Lieut. Baker — The departed heroes of the Revolution: the stars 
of freedom, they have sunk to rest. 

"By Capt. Higgins — This tribute of respect which emanates from 
the purest principles of the heart — patriotism and gratitude. 

"By Capt. Pooler — Otir Guest, LaFayette — The nobleman by birth, 
the republican from principles. 

"By Robert Campbell, (after the President had retired.) The Mayor, 
W. C. Daniell, who has presided with so much ability and propriety at 
the present interesting festival. 

"By R. W. Habersham — The memory of Gen. Lachlan ^Mcintosh. 

"By Lieut. -Col. D'Lyon — Andrew Jackson, the people's choice for 
the Presidency — though intrigue and bargaining have defeated his eleva- 
tion, yet in their hearts he stands first among the independent republican 
patriots of our Country. 

"By Colonel ]\Iarshall — The memory of Pulaski, who fought for 
the liberty of his own land, and died in defense of ours. 

"By Gen. Harden — The Generals Pinckney — of a conterminous and 
sister State — patriots without fear or reproach. 

"By Col. McAllister — The civic arrangements of this day may be 
equalled but not excelled by our sister States. 

"By George B. Cumming — Cobb and Berrien^their vote on the Clay 
nomination is decisive of their principles. 

"By Major Wayne — The officers, non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vates of the sqiiadron. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 307 

"By Dr. MeConnell — Gen. LaFayette, and his surviving compatriots 
throughout the Union. 

"By Jos. V. Bevan, Esq — The memory of Col. Baker- — one of the 
most eminent partisans known to our own or to the history of any other 
State; one indeed, who had the additional merit of belonging to that 
County which gave to Georgia its first determined feeling for Liberty. 

"By Capt. John Davidson — The United States, the cradle of liberty 
- — may it never cease rocking the sons of freedom. 

"By Capt. Stiles — The glories of Bolivar, the "Washington of Sox;th 
America. 

' ' By Mr. Gwathney — The inhabitants of LaGrange ; may they be 
made as happy by the return of LaFayette as we have been l)y his visit. 

"By Col. Dennis — The people's favorite, General Andrew Jackson." 

Monsieur A. LeVasseur, LaFayette 's secretary during his journey, 
wrote an account of the tour, and in his book he described rather fully 
the proceedings in Savannah. The account is too long to be quoted as 
a whole. After describing tlie arrival in the Savannah river and the 
parting with the govei'nor of Soiith Carolina, the writer says: "Some 
minutes after, we were in Georgita, at the entrance of Savannah, when the 
General was received and addressed hy Governor Troup, in the midst of 
an eager crowd. The triumphal bars and arches, the acclamations of the 
people, the wreaths and Howers scattei'ed by the ladies, the sound of bells 
and cannon, everything proved to LaFayette that though he had passed 
into another State, he was, nevertheless, among the same friendly and 
grateful people." He described the dinner, and ended the description 
thus: "A hymn to liberty, to the air la- Marsellaisc, tenninated the ban- 
quet, and we returned to our quarters by the light of an illumination 
which blazed over all the City." He thus described the city as it then 
appeared to him : 

"Savannah is the most important city of the State of Georgia. It 
is situated on the right bank of Savannah river, and about seventeen 
miles from its mouth. Its large and straight streets cross at right angles, 
and are planted on each side with a row of delightful trees, called the 
Pride of India, and for which the inhabitants of the South have a 
marked predilection. Although elevated forty feet above the level of 
the river, the situation of Savannah is unhealthy ; an autumn seldom 
passes without the yellow fever making cruel ravages. Commerce is 
notwithstanding very active there ; its port, which can admit vessels 
drawing forty feet, annually exports more than six million dollars worth 
of cotton. Its population is 7,523 inhabitants, divided thus : 3,557 white 
individuals, 582 free people of Colour, and 3,075 slaves. The number 
of persons employed in the manufactories nearly equals that of those 
occupied in commerce, which is about six hundred." 

His information, of course, was derived from answers to questions, 
and his informant must have been one possessed of little accurate knowl- 
edge of the subject. To say nothing of the rest of the statement, his 
assertion that yellow fever was a disease which made its appearance 
annually almost without exception was as much exaggerated as that 
declaring that vessels drawing forty feet could enter the port. 



308 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

Memorials to General Greene and Count Pulaski 

LaFayette's visit was made the opportunity to lay the corner stones 
of monuments to the memory of Gen. Nathanael Greene and Count 
Casimir Pulaski. On this point we resume our quotations from the 
pamphlet already mentioned : 

"It was * * * determined by the Committee that the Corner 
Stone of the Monument to be erected in honour of General Greene should 
be laid in the middle of the eastern section of Johnston 's Square ; and 
that in honour of Gen. Count Pulaski in the middle of the eastern section 
of Chippewa Square ; and sub-committees were appointed to request the 
co-operation of the several ^Masonic bodies, and to make the necessary 
arrangements for the ceremonial. 

"Accordingly the Masonic Brethren formed a procession at their 
Grand Lodge Room at 9 o'clock on JMonday morning 21st Mai'ch, accom- 
panied by a band of music, and waited upon General LaFayette at his 
lodgings. * * * The procession then moved to the site selected for 
the Monument to General Greene. Upon reaching the arch opening 
into the Square, the military escort wheeled to the left and formed 
fronting the Square. The procession then halted and opened to the 
right and left to allow the rear to pass through it. The head of the 
procession on entering the enclosure wheeled to the right and passed 
around the circle. 

"Here a most beautiful and interesting sight was presented. Around 
the interior of the enclosure the children from the various schools, up- 
wards of five hundred in number, in neiat and appropriate costumes, 
were arranged with baskets of flowers with which they strewed the path 
of their venerable benefactor. The crowd of spectators outside of the 
enclosure entirely hid these innocent little creatures from view, and 
they burst iipon the sight like the creations of enchantment, on enter- 
ing the area. Pleasure brightened in every eye, and happiness lieamed 
in every countenance as they received the paternal salutations of an affec- 
tionate Guest." 

The stone bore this inscription : " ' This Corner-Stoue of a ]\Ionument 
to the memory of I\IAJ. GEN. NATHANAEL GREENE was laid by 
GENERAL LAFAYETTE, At the request of the Citizens of Savannah, 
on the 21st of March, A. D., 1825.' 

"The Stone was lowered to the place prepared for it. while the Inind 
performed a solemn dirge, succeeded by Hail Colum])ia. 

"The principal architect then presented to the Grand Master the 
square, plumb, and level. 

"The Deputy Grand Master William Schley, who was deputed by the 
Grand Master to act, applied them to the Stone, and pronounced it to 
be 'well formed, true and trusty.' 

"The gold and silver vessels wen^ then lu-ought to the platform, and 
delivered to tlie Deputy Grand J\laster and the two Wardens who suc- 
cessively presented them to General LaFayette. The General then 
poured, according to the ancient ceremony, the corn, the wine, and the 
oil contained in them, upon the Stone; repeating, accordnig to the pre- 
scribed ceremonv, the following : 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 309 

" 'May the All-bounteous Author of nature bless the inhabitants of 
this place,' &c. 

"Gen. LaFayette then descended to the stone which he struck three 
times with a mallet; after which the public grand honours were given 
by the brethren. * * * 

"A large stone slab was then lowered to its place over the stone, 
and a patriotic tune was played by the band. 

"The ceremonies at the monument were concluded by three volleys 
from the U. S. troops who acted as the escort, commanded by Lieut. 
Munro. 

"Upon leaving the consecrated spot the procession moved aroi;nd 
the circle and through the tasteful arch by which it entered the Square. 
From this arch, beautifully ornamented with myrtle and cedar, was 
suspended a shield, on one side of which was inscribed : ' Greene, The 
friend of LaFayette, and the Saviour of the South.' On the reverse: 
'Greene died near Savannah, 19th June, 1786.' 

"The original order of the procession being resumed, it moved to 
Chippewa Square, at the entrance of which an arch, similar in design 
and decorations, was erected, from which, in like manner a shield was 
suspended; on the one side was inscribed: 'Pulaski, Always valiant, 
but always Foe to Kings.' On the opposite side was inscribed: 'Pulaski 
fell at the Siege of Savannah, 9th October, 1779.' 

"On entering the enclosure the same arrangement and disposition 
was made as in the former case." 

Without going into details, let it be stated that the proceedings in 
Chippewa square were about the same as those in Johnson square where 
the corner stone of the Greene monument was laid. The Pulaski mon- 
ument corner stone bore this inscription : ' ' On the 21st day of IMareh, 
A. D., 1825, was laid by General LaFayette, at the request of the Citizens 
of Savannah, This Foundation-Stone of a Monument To the Memory 
of Brigadier Count Pulaski." 

The monument to Pulaski, intended to be erected in Chippewa square 
was eventually erected, as is well known, in Monterey square, and the 
corner stone was laid there on the 11th of October, 1853. At that time 
suitable arrangements were made, on a gi'and scale, for the ceremony, 
and we will say more on the subject when we reach that period in our 
history ; but as a matter of information which may well be related at 
this point, the following rjuotation is made from the report, subsequently 
printed, relating all the circumstances connected with that matter : 

"On the 21st of March, 1825, General LaFayette, while on a visit 
to Savannah, performed, at the request of our citizens, the ceremony 
of laying the corner stones of two monuments, to be erected to the mem- 
ory of ]\Iajor-General Greene and Brigadier-General Count Pulaski. 
One was laid in Johnson Square and the other in Chippewa Square. In 
the course of ten or twelve years a sufficient fund had been collected 
to erect the monument now [1853] standing in Johnson Square, and, 
as it was believed that the efforts to raise the necessary means to erect 
another would be fruitless, the one which had been built* was called 

*In 1829. 



310 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

the Greene and Pulaski Monument, and the corner stone which had 
been laid in Chippewa Square was removed to Johnson Square, and 
placed by the side of that dedicated to General Greene. 

"The Commissioners, however, to whom the Legislature of Georgia 
had entrusted the duty of raising the necessary means, determined to 
renew their efforts ; and having, at the session of the Legislature in 
1837, procured a renewal of their grant, with some additional powers, 
proceeded energetically in their work, and, for tifteen years, pursued 
with untiring devotion their disinterested task, until a fund of $20,000 
had been accumulated." 

The writer of the above does not explain how the sum of money for 
the erection of the Pulaski monument was raised. The committee liaving 
the burden of raising the funds for the two monuments was composed 
of Messrs. John Shellman, John Stevens, W. B. Bulloch, J. V. Bevan, 
R. W. Habersham, A. Porter, James P. Screven, William Gaston, Alex- 
ander Telfair, A. B. Fannin and Jas. Bond Read. They obtained the 
permission of the city council on the 31st of March, 1829, to place 
the monument to the memory of both Greene and Pulaski in the center 
of Johnson square, instead of on the spot where the corner stone had 
iDeen laid by LaPayette. They had secured the passage of an act by the 
legislature of Georgia chartering the "Greene and Pulaski JMonument 
Lottery," on the 26th of November, 1826, the commissioners named in 
the act for conducting the lottery were John Stevens, "Wm. B. Bulloch. 
Jas. B. Read, Richard W. Habersham, James P. Screven, Alexander 
Telfair, Abraham B. Fannin, Mordecai Llyers, John Shellman, 'William 
P. Marshall, Anthony Porter, Samuel B. Parkman, and Joseph Yallance 
Bevan. The commissioners, instead of managing the business of the 
lottery themselves, disposed of their right to others who had perhaps 
better ideas in regard to the business, by which transaction the pur- 
chasers were bound to pay to the monument fund the sum of $1,000 
annually ; and to the amount so raised the state added an appropriation. 

The monument Avhich served a double purpose for so many years 
as a memorial to the two distinguished officers of the Revolution was 
without any inscription whatever until the year 1886, when the two 
bronze tablets, one with an inscription and the other with an alto relievo 
portrait of General Greene, were unveiled in connection with the cele- 
bration of the centennial of the Chatham Artillery. 

Mayors and Aldermen, 1821-2J: 

In 1821 James Moi'rison was elected mayor of Savannah, and the 
board of aldermen serving with him were the same as the associates of 
his predecessor, Charlton, except Dr. W. C. Daniell, M. Sheftall, Sr., 
Jacob P. Henry, Frederick A. Fell and Joseph Cumming. ]\Ir. INIorri- 
son was mayor for the second time in 1822, with a board of aldermen 
composed of R. W. Habersham, Wm. C. Daniell. Wm. Davies, IMoses 
Sheftall, Chas. Harris, Isaiali Davenport. Chas. H. Hayden. F. A. 
Fell, Thos. Clarke, A. B. Fannin, IMoses Herbert, Oliver Sturges and 
Gardner Tuffts. For a third time successively Mr. I\Iorrisou was the 
mayor of the city in 1823, his aldermen being R. W. Habersham, IMoses 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 311 

Herbert, F. S. Fell, Geo. Sibley. C. H. Hayden, Fred'k Densler, Moses 
Sheftall, Wm. Davies, James S. Bulloch, Philip Brasch, Thos. N. Morel, 
Oliver Stiirges and Chas. Harris. Dr. Wm. C. Daniell filled the office 
of chief magistrate of Savannah in 1824, assisted by aldermen Wm. B. 
Bulloch, Geo. Shick, Chas. Harris, Jos. W. Jackson, Geo. Miller, Jas. 
Morrison, J. B. Gaudry, Isaac Minis, Wm. R. Waring, Jos. Clay Haber- 
sham, Fred'k Densler. Jos. Cumming and Wm. C. Wayne. Dr. Daniell 
again served as mayor in 1825, with aldermen Chas. Harris, Geo. Miller, 
Jas. Morrison, Jos. W. Jackson, Wm. Thorne Williams, J. B. Gaudry, 
Wm. R. Waring, Jos. Cumming, Wm. C. Wayne, I. Minis, S. B. Park- 
man, Saml Philbrick and Chas. Gildon. 

Canal Project Inaugurated 

In the year 1826, shortly after LaFayette's visit, steps were taken 
in the matter of digging a canal to connect the Ogeechee with the Savan- 
nah river, and eventually to extend it to the Altamaha. In February the 
citizens met in mass meeting at the Exchange to discuss the matter of 
a grant which had been made to E. Jenekes, but it seems that there was 
not sufficient enthusiasm at that time to produce favorable results. The 
first real step in advance was made on the 21st of October when council 
consented to the cutting of the canal through the city lands, on petition 
of the commissioners of the Savannah, Ogeechee and Altamaha canal, 
wlien the president of the company showed in a letter to the board that 
the canal would surely "open new sources of profit to enterjirising 
men, and thus add to the aggregate wealth of the city. It is," he said, 
"an enterprise undertaken as a measure of public benefit imperiously 
required by the declining commerce of the City." The city w^as induced, 
through the report of a committee appointed to look into the matter, to 
subscril)e for $7,000 of the stock of the company, which represented 
seventy shares at $100 per share, and that subscription was later on 
increased to $10,000. The city was interested in the project for many 
years, but does not seem to have made anything out of its investment. 
In 1843 council appointed a committee to look into the affairs of the 
company, and to report upon the feasibility of the city's taking the 
canal under its care and completing it ; but no report of that committee 
can be found. 

Fort Pulaski Commenced 

The next matter of public interest in chronological order is the begin- 
ning of the building of Fort Pulaski on Cockspur island. The site for 
this fort was chosen, we are told, by Major Babcock, of the United States 
Engineer Corps, and it was built by Captain Mansfield of the same corps, 
work having been begun in 1831, and the cost of it amounted to nearly 
one million dollars. 



, CHAPTER XXIV 

AS A MILITARY POST 

Locating the Oglethorpe Barracks (1834) — Military Parade Ground 
— ]\Iilitary Headquarters op Confederacy — United States Takes 
Oglethorpe Barracks — History op First Georgia Volunteer, 
Continued — Mayors and Aldermen, 1826-1834. 

At this point our attention will be directed to tlie subject of the city 
as a military post. 

It is known that before the year 1823 certain companies of United 
States troops had been stationed in Savannah. We have no means of 
ascertaining where they were quartered; but on the 4th of Api*il of the 
year just mentioned, the troops having been in part previously removed, 
council petitioned the secretary of war to make Savannah a military 
post and consented to .furnish land for the location of barracks. 

Locating the Oglethorpe Barracks (1834) 

Nothing seems to have been done by the government at that time, 
and the remaining troops were Avithdrawn early in 1824. Dissatisfied 
with that action, council resolved, on the 15th of April, to con-espond, 
through a committee, with the war department, urging that at least 
two companies be kept on duty here at all times. To that appeal the 
secretary responded that, provided suitable quarters could be secured, 
he would send the troops back, and another committee was appointed 
to take the matter up with him ; but no report was made by the com- 
mittee. 

The next step was taken by the secretary of war in jMaroh, 1826, 
when he inquired as to the best place for the building of a proposed 
barracks. Then council took a more decided stand, and appointed the 
mayor, Dr. Wm. C. Daniell, and Aldermen John Shellman and William 
Thorne Williams a committee to proceed in the matter ; and they recom- 
mended for the purpose a point on the Great Ogeechee road a little 
beyond the one-mile post as the best they could find, and that it could 
be purchased for about $3,000. They further reported that the city 
could furnish, free of charge, as long as it should be used for military 
purposes, a site on the south common, should that be preferred. The 
location of this tract of land is just where the citj' now extends from 
Gummett street to Park avenue. The offer of the city was accepted, 

812 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 313 

and, on the 17th of January, 1827, Secretary James Barbour trans- 
mitted to eongi'ess estimates for "an appropriation for barracks and 
other buildings at Cantonment Oglethorpe, Georgia ; soldiers to perform 
jabor; amount of material required." 

The buildings were erected by the government and Cantonment Ogle- 
thorpe was the abode of the United States troops until the building of 
barracks on the splendid site where the DeSoto hotel now stands and 
which barracks stood there from about 1834 to the time they were torn 
down to make room for the hotel. 

At the first session of the 22d congress on the 22d of March, 1832, 
the following correspondence was submitted to the house of representa- 
tives, and, notwithstanding the adverse reports, the barracks were 
erected two years afterwards. 

"Mr. Drayton, from the Committee on Military Atfairs, to whom was 
referred the memorial of the mayor and aldermen of the city of Savan- 
nah, relating to the expediency of erecting barracks in that city for the 
United States troops who are stationed in its vicinity, reported : 

"That they have had communications with the War Department 
upon the subject of the above memorial, as will be seen upon an inspec- 
tion of the papers herewith filed, marked A, B, and C, from the tenor 
of which they are of ojiinion that it would be inexpedient, at this time, 
to authorize the erection of barracks in the City of Savannah. They 
therefore submit to the House the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That the Committee be discharged from the further 
consideration of the memorial of the mayor and aldermen of the City 
of Savannah. 

"To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States in Congress assembled : The memorial of the mayor and 
aldermen of the City of Savannah showeth : That it has been the practice 
of late years to remove the United States troops from Cantonment Ogle- 
thorpe, near Savannah, to a distant post for several months in summer. 
Your memorialists are informed, and have reason to believe, that this 
rourse has been pursued solely in consequence of the extreme unhealthi- 
ness of the situation ; and the permanent location of United States troops 
among them being of importance to the community they represent, they 
respectfully invite the attention of Congress to this sul)ject. You me- 
morialists do not ask for the continixance of the trooj^s at the post they 
now occupy to the imminent hazard of their lives, but they would with 
due deference submit to the consideration of Congress the expediency 
and necessity of forming another military establishment, to be located 
in this city. For years past Savannah has been favored with as much 
health as most of our Atlantic cities, and has been exempt from any 
malignant disease ; and the professional gentlemen who have been con- 
sulted on the occasion are decided in the opinion that, under proper 
restrictions, the troops might enjoy a good degree of health in a position 
within its limits. An eligible site for barracks could be obtained at a 
fair valuation ; and your memorialists respectfully and earnestly solicit 
your honorable bodies to authorize the purchase of ground, and the 
erection of buildings of durable materials, within the city of Savannah, 
sufficient for the accommodation of at least one hundred men, m order 



314 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

that this community might be benefited by the residence of United 
States troops among them, and particularly at a time when, from the 
periodical emigration of many of our white population, a military force 
is most needed. And your memorialists will ever pray. 

"(Signed) Wm. R. Waring, Mayor. 

"Department op War, March 23, 1832 — Sir: I have the honor to 
transmit a letter from Major-General Macomb, which contains the views 
of this department in relation to the subject referred to in your letter 
of the 4tli instant. 

"With great respect, I am, sir, your obedient servant. 

"(Signed) Lew Cass. 

"Hon. William Drayton, Chairman of the Military Committee, 
House of Representatives. 

"Headquarters of the Army, Washington, March ly, 1832 — Sir: 
In pursuance of your directions as to the expediency of abandoning the 
barracks lately built near Savannah, and erecting new quarters within 
the city, as proposed by the mayor and aldermen, as set forth in the 
memorial addressed to Congress and transmitted to you by the honoi'- 
able chairman of the Military Committee of the House of Representa- 
tives in his letter of the 4th instant, I have lo state that, although some 
years since the present position of the quarters of the troops stationed 
near Savannah for the protection of that city was visited with disease, 
it is possible that, owing to the newness of the station, or to some acci- 
dental cause which might not occur again, the unhealthiness may be 
attributed as well as to the fact that the troops were unaccustomed to 
the climate. As the erection of the barracks in the city would be attended 
Avith great expense, and as it is doubtful whether, taking all things into 
consideration, the troops would enjoy better health in the city than in 
their present quarters, I would respectfully recommend that they con- 
tinue to occupy the barracks in which they are now quartered, with a 
view- of ascertaining whether there be any improvement in the salubrity 
of their position ; but should it turn out to be sickly the commanding 
officer may be authorized to hire quarters in the city in case there should 
appear among the troops any disease of a character to render the re- 
moval to the city proper, or quarter in the city might be hired imn:edi- 
ately and the troops stationed in them. Then should the city, after a 
year or more experience, prove to be more healthy than the present bar- 
racks, a suitable lot might be purchased, and permanent barracks bu-H. 

"I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

"(Signed) A. Macomb, Major-General 

"Hon. Secretary of War. 

"Quartermaster-General's Office, IMarch 14, 1832 — Sir: I return 
you the letter of the honorable Mr. Drayton, chairman of the ]\Iilitary 
Committee of the House of Representatives, covering a memorial from 
the City Council of Savannali, praying for purchase of a site and the 
erection of permanent barracks at that place, and have the honor to 
state, in reply to the inquiry as to the cost of complying with the request, 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 315 

that the expense of erecting barracks and quarters for the accommoda- 
tion of two companies would be alcove fifty thousand dollars. With re- 
spect to the cost of the necessary ground I have no means of forming an 
estimate. The memorial represents that an eligible site could be ol)tained 
at a flair valuation, but what that would be it is impossible at this time 
to say. 

"I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"(Signed) Th. S. Jesup, Quartermaster-General. 

"Hon. Lewis Cass, Secretary of War." 

The ordinance following was passed in council on the 22d of August, 
1833 : "Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Savan- 
nah and the Hamlets thereof, in Council assembled, and it is hereby 
ordained by the authority of the same. That upon the payment into the 
City Treasury of the sum of twelve thousand dollars, a conveyance be 
made in fee simple to the United States for the purpose of erecting bar- 
racks thereon for the accommodation of the troops of the United States, 
of all that piece of ground or parcel of land situate, lying and being on 
the South Common of said City, extending from the southern line of 
Liberty street, as herein after defined : two hundred and twelve feet 
six inches southernly, and from the eastern line of Bull street continued, 
three hundred and two feet six inches to the western line of Drayton 
street continued, embracing within said limits a space equal to the op- 
posite tything, in Brown Ward, including the lane. 

"Section 2. And be it further ordained, That the width of Liberty 
street shall be one hundred and forty feet, measured from the southern 
line of lots on said street and extending to the northern line of the 
piece of ground hereby granted." 

The buildings to be occupied by the troops at Oglethorpe barracks 
must have been erected just after the action of council in granting the 
land. The military force of the United States army took possession 
in 1834. 

]\IrLiTARY Parade Ground 

Upon the completion of the new Oglethorpe Barracks in 1834 the 
United Stlates troops aliandoned the old cantonment ground which was 
unoccupied until 1852. at which time the city assented to its being set 
apart as a parade ground for the military companies of Savannah ; but 
the actual dedication ^\as not made until the passing of an ordinance in 
the following year. 

Long before that time, namely, on the 7th of July, 1821. a memorial 
was presented to council by a regimental court of inquiry asking that a 
part of the South Commons be granted for a term of years for that pur- 
pose bi;t nothing was definitely settled. Later on, in 1843, a committee 
of council recommended the grant of a parcel of land "along the eastern 
side of Abercorn street 651 feet from the lane south of Liberty street, 
thence eastwardly 845 feet, so as to form the northern boundary of the 
negro cemetery, thence northwardly 651 feet until the intersection of 
the said lane" as the northern line of the parcel of land ; and, in 1844, an 



316 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEOKGIA 

appropriation of $200 was made to help in the work of enclosing this 
ground which, by resolution, was called the "Military Square." 

In November, 1851, the officers of the volunteer companies asked for 
the twenty acres just purchased by the city, a part of Springfield planta- 
tion, for use as ;a military parade ground. In May, 1852, the city 
proposed to purchase from the United States the site of Oglethorpe can- 
tonment, and in January following, 1853, the government granted that 
site to the city of Savannah. 

This ordinance was passed in council, August 11, 1853 : 

"Be it ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen, etc.. That nineteen 
acres of the land known as the old cantonment, lately granted by the 
United States to the city of Savannah, bounded on the north by the 
southern line of Gwinnett street, from Whitaker street to ^Montgomery 
street, on the east by Whitaker street, up to New Houston street [now 
Park Avenue], from Whitaker street to Montgomery street, and west 
by the eastern line of Montgomery street from New Houston street [now 
Park Avenue] to Gwinnett street, to be set apart as a parade gi'ound for 
the volunteer companies of the City of Savannah, and the same is hereby 
dedicated to that purpose, under the conditions and limitations in this 
ordinance hereinafter contained. 

"Section 2. That the control, custody and management of the said 
parade ground shall be vested in the captains for the time being of the 
several volunteer companies of the City of Savlannah who shall have ex- 
elusive charge thereof, subject nevertheless to the police regulations of 
Savannah. 

' ' Section 3. That the grant of the aforesaid parade gi'ound and dedi- 
cation thereof is made under the condition that the several volunteer 
companies shall have the said parade ground properlj^ cleared, and a neat 
and sufficient fence placed around the same, witliin live years from the 
day and date of the passage of this ordinance, and shall always keep the 
same in proper order, and the fences in good and sufficient repair, and in 
case of their failure to do so, or in case they shall use or attempt to use 
the said parade ground for other purposes than that to which it is dedi- 
cated, that the same shall revert to the city, and again fall into the com- 
mon p^iblie domain, and all grants, privileges, and advantages in the fii'st 
section of this ordinance continued shall cease and become void and of 
none effect." 

The above ordinance was amended on the following 19th of Novemlior 
(1853) in this way : 

"The above ordinance * * * is amended by striking out the 
words in the third section 'and a neat and sufficient fence placed around 
the same within five years from the day of the date of the passage of this 
ordinance, and shall always keep the same in proper order and the 
fence in good and sufficient repair, and in case of their failure to do so, 
or,' and by adding the word 'and' liefore the words 'in case they shall 
use' in the same section." Again, on the 6th of February, 1867. council 
ordained that "the piece of ground known as the ^Military Parade 
Ground, containing nineteen acres, more or less, and bounded on the 
north by Forsyth Place, on tlie east by Drayton street, on tlie soutli by 
New Houston street [now Park Avenue], and on the west by Whitaker 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 317 

street, is hereby added to said Forsyth Place, and made a part of the 
same, and that said Forsyth Place, so extended as aforesaid, is hereby 
forever set apart as a public place to be called and known as Forsyth 
Place, in the same manner as the said ground now enclosed is and has 
been so set apart." 

There was much difficulty in getting a definite place for the providing 
of a suitable parade ground for the Savannah military companies. On 
the 9th of June, 1859, an appointment of a committee of freeholders was 
made to investigate the subject, and on the 13th an appropriation of 
$2,000 was made by council as a contribution towards the expense of 
erecting a fence around what was supposed to constitute the place that 
should be used for military purposes, which was settled upon as the 
space comprised within the boundaries of Gwinnett, New Houston [now 
Park Avenue], Montgomery, and AVhitaker streets ; but before building a 
fence the officers of the companies, upheld by many civilians, found rea- 
sons for sviggesting a change of locality, and, on the 4th of August, of the 
same year. Col. Alexander R. Lawton, commander of the First Regiment 
of Georgia Volunteers, and Capt. John W. Anderson, of the Republican 
Blues, asked for a hearing before council on a petition desiring that in 
exchange for the parade ground previously dedicated to that purpose 
the land just south of Forsyth Park, as far as New Houston street be 
granted, "so that there should be one large park, instead of two open 
places so near each other." Council did not act directly on the petition, 
but referred it to a committee of which aldermen Thomas Holcombe, 
John M. Guerard and Martin J. Ford were members, and the result was 
a favorable recommendation, provided that Hall street extend through it 
and not be enclosed. Although the report was adopted, the military de- 
clined to accept it on such condition; whereupon Council, in November, 
decided to grant the petition as it went to them originally. 

We have seen how, in 1867, the military parade ground was made a 
part of Forsyth Park, and thus became a part of the public domain 
constituting a pleasure ground for the people of Savannah, and it may 
be further stated here that on the 31st of December, 1873, Mayor Edward 
C. Anderson even suggested that "the southern half of the extended park 
be portioned off into city lots, under a just arrangement with the owners 
of property bordering thereon, from the northern line of Bolton street 
to New Houston street, 40 lots, the proceeds arising to be specially appro- 
priated and set apart as a sinking fund to meet maturing bonds." That 
recommendation was made a year and a half after the following communi- 
cation was made by the Savannah military to council, and it shows that 
wuncil did not then consider the "Park extension" as in any way to be 
regarded as having passed into the hands of the volunteer companies. 
This petition was laid before council on the 5th of June, 1872. "The 
undei'signed commanding officers of a number of the military organiza- 
tions of this city, beg leave to represeiit that by an ordinance passed in 
Council the 11th day of August, 1853, nineteen acres of the site of the 
old Oglethorpe barracks, which had shortly before that time been con- 
veyed to the city by the secretary of war, under a resolution of congress, 
were 'set apart as a parade ground for the Volunteer Companies of the 
City of Savannah,' and 'dedicated' for that purpose under the condi- 



318 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA ' 

tions and limitations set forth in that ordinance. The second section of 
the ordinance was as follows: 'The control, custody and management of 
the said parade ground shall be vested in the Captains for the time being 
of the several volunteer companies of the City of Savannah who shall 
have exclusive charge thereof, suljject nevertheless to the police regula- 
tions of Savannah. ' The third section prescribed the conditions referred 
to in the second section, and they were simply that volunteer companies 
should have the ground cleared, and that if they should use, or attempt 
to use, the ground for any other purpose than that for which it was 
dedicated, it would revert to the city. 

"The land above referred to lay south of the .jail, but on November 
10, 1859, a petition was presented to Council by a Committee of the vol- 
unteer corps of the city, requesting Council to exchange for that land 
the land south of and immediately adjoining Forsyth Place. The peti- 
tion was granted, and it cannot be doubted that the land thus described 
• and now known as the ' Park Extension ' became thereby subject to the 
uses specified in the ordinance of 1853. It was improved largely, if not 
wholly, at the expenee of the volunteer corps. It was used as a parade 
ground and for no other purpose, and was exclusively controlled and 
managed by the Commanding Officers of the Volunteer Corps until the 
war. Notwithstanding these public proceedings of Council and the use 
of the ground for the purpose specified and the universal recognition of 
the dedication, an ordinance was passed in Council February 6, 1867, 
adding the parade ground to Forsyth Place, and declaring that the 
'said Forsyth Place, so extended, was thereby forever set apart as a public 
place to be called and known as Forsyth Place,' etc. Upon the publica- 
tion of this ordinance for information after its first reading, a communi- 
cation was addressed to the then ]\Iayor by several of the undersigned, 
requesting his attention to the facts herein before stated. The then 
condition of the State in its Federal relations, and the apprehension 
that the land might be lost to the city and the volunteer corps induced 
the signers of that communication to refrain from a public protest 
against the ordinance, and to confine themselves to a request that their 
communication might be filed in order that they might have the benefit 
of it at the proper time. At that time the volunteer corps were not in 
a position to assert their rights. But the recent repeal of the act of 
congress which prevented them from exercising their ordinary functions 
has been followed by a general re-organization under the sanction of the 
Governor who will supply them with arms as soon as they can be pro- 
cured. Having thus a near prospect of again making use of the parade 
ground for the purpose for which it was dedicated, and desiring to 
resume that exclusive control of it which was conferred upon their prede- 
cessors by the original dedicating ordinance, the undersigned beg leave 
to submit to your considei-ation the propriety of a repeal of the ordinance 
of 1867, and of a discontinuance of the planting of trees and the placing 
of other obstructions upon the ground wliich may tend to defeat the use 
for which it was designed. 

"Signed, Wm. S. Basinger, Major Commanding Savannah Volunteer 
Guards ; George W. Stiles, Captain Co. A., S. V. G. ; T. F. Screven. Capt. 
Co. B., S. V. G. ; John R. Dillon, Capt. Co. C, S. V. G. ; John Flannery, 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 319 

Capt. Commanding Irish Jasper Greens ; S. Yates Levy, Capt. Johnston 
Light Infantry; John F. Wheaton, Capt. Chatham Artillery; Geo. W. 
Lamar, Jr., Capt. Phoenix Riflemen; A. F. Butler, Capt. Oglethorpe 
Light Infantry; John W. Anderson, Capt. Savannah Cadets." 

The communication was referred to the committee of council on parks 
and trees, and a strict search of the minutes reveals the fact that there 
was no record made of any report on the subject by the committee. The 
matter has remained since then entirely unsettled, the only incident in 
connection with it by which an opinion may be formed being the fact 
that in the consideration by council, on the 17tli of August, 1891, of the 
subject of paving Hall street through the Forsyth Park extension. Judge 
Samuel B. Adams advised council that in order to accomplish the work, 
consent must be tirst obtained from the military; and the paving was not 
done. 

Unsettled though the question may be as to any actual formal title 
by which the military can hold to the claims of o\Ynership, it does seem 
to be by common consent both of the council and the military, backed by 
the citizens generally, a settled fact, that the plot of ground in which 
stands the monument erected in memory of the Confederate dead, called 
sometimes Park Extension, but almost universally known as the "Parade 
Ground," is the proper place for all military displays and reviews; and, 
in evidence of this let it be distinctly understood that for such purpose 
no one ever thinks of asking the consent of council to its use, and the 
people believe, almost unanimously, that it belongs to the volunteer 
companies of Savannah and do not see any reason why there should be 
doubt on that point. No one in council will probably ever again spring 
the question against the will of the people, and it is very doubtful whether 
that body will ever attempt to plant trees in the place or otherwise 
attempt to make it like the other part of the park. 

On the 5th of November, 1833, in consideration of the sum of $12,000, 
the city of Savannah, through council, transferred to the United States 
the piece of land bounded by Liberty, Bull, Harris and Drayton streets, 
and on that land Oglethorpe Barracks were built, and troops were quar- 
tered there from 1834, on their completion, until 1853, when they were 
removed to Fort Pulaski. The old Cantonment Oglethorpe having been 
abandoned for many years, the secretary of war, Chas. M. Conrad, on the 
22d of February, 1853, by virtue of a joint resolution of congress (ap- 
proved Jan. 20, 1853) relinquished all interest of the United States 
in that tract to the city of Savannah. The resolution was in these words : 
"That the Secretary of War be and he is hereby authorized to convey 
to the City of Savannah, Georgia, the site of the old Oglethorpe Barracks 
adjacent to said City which said site has long been abandoned by the 
Government, and, in consideration of the liberality of said City in sur- 
rendering to the Government heretofore certain lands now known as the 
new Barracks in said city." The description of the old Cantonment 
Oglethorpe site in the deed of transfer as well as in the deed from the 
city to the United States, April 3, 1827, is in these words: "All the north- 
ern half part of that lot or parcel of land lying and being in the County 
of Chatham and State of Georgia near the City of Savannah known as 
farm lot No. 1, bounded north by the Commons of the City of Savannah 



320 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA • 

and garden lot, west by farm lot No. 2, south by farm lot No. 5, and east 
by the road leading from White Bluff district to the City of Savannah, 
the said lot containing in the whole fifty-six acres, three roods and four- 
teen perches. " 

On the removal of the United States troops from the new Oglethorpe 
Barracks, in the year 1854 the city arranged to have the police force 
quartered in the recently deserted premises, and Mayor James P. Screven, 
in 1851, recommended to council the practicability of purchasing the 
houses on that land for the use of the police force who had used them 
"since 1854, through pei-mission of the government, the troops having 
been removed to Fort Pulaski. ' ' 

Military Headquarters of Confederacy 

At the commencement of the War of Secession the Confederate States 
government took possession of the property which then became the mili- 
tary headquarters of this military district ^and remained so until Sher- 
man's entry into the city on the 21st of December, 1864. At the time 
the Confederates took possession of Oglethorpe Barracks, the police force 
moved to quarters prepared for them in the City Exchange, remaining 
there until the erection of the city police barracks at South Broad [now 
Oglethorpe avenue] and Habersham streets. 

United States Government Takes Oglethorpe Barracks 

Again the United States government took possession of Oglethorpe 
Barracks through the result of the war, and held such possession until 
1879, and then finally abandoned the property forever, and later on sold 
all interest in it. 

For reasons deemed sufficient it was determined that Savannah 
should no longer be used as a military post, and all troops were taken out 
of the city. 

Although somewhat out of regular chronological order, the following 
account of the manner in which the United States lost possession of the 
property is quoted at length, a place for the same being made at this 
point, mainly for the purpose of showing just what the property con- 
sisted of : 

"War Department, Washington City, May 22. 1880. — The Secre- 
tary of War has the honor to inform the Senate that the military post of 
Savannah, which was established about 1834, and which is known as 
'Oglethorpe Barracks,' located in the City of Savannah, Ga., having been 
no longer needed for military uses, was abandoned in April. 1879, and to 
recommend such legislation by Congress as will authorize the sale to the 
highest bidders, after public advertisement, of the site and Iniildings 
occupied by said barracks. 

"Inclosed is a transcript from the official records, giving a descrip- 
tion of the property referred to. 

" (Signed) Alex Ramsey, Secretary of War. 

"The President of the United States. 



SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 



321 



"Post of Savannah (Oglethorpe Barraeks) Georgia. (Established 
about 1884). Information given by G. A. De Russy, ]\Iajor Third Artil- 
lery, April, 1870, commanding officer at the time. 

"Location — In the city of Savannah, Ga. 

"Quarters — One barrack, 130 by 30 feet, two stories, built of brick. 
Two companies could be crowded into the garrison, or two companies 
could be easily provided for, if laundresses were otherwise quartered. 

"Officers' quarters — One Iniilding, 63 by 33 feet, two stories, built of 
brick, and containing one room for quartermaster and connnissary .stores. 
There is at the post one stable, built of brick, also one small building 
built of brick, used as the commanding officer's office. 

"Hospital, guard-house, etc. — Two-story building, built of brick and 
wood ; foundation and first story, 59 by 24 feet ; second story, 79 by 42 
feet. Accommodation for sixteen patients. 

"Guard-house. — Two stories, built of wood, with one room for guard, 
one room for sergeant of the guard, large room for prisoners, and four 




Scene in the Prison Park at Andersonville 



cells. The second stor\ contains one room, used by company tailor. 

"Oglethorpe Barracks, Savannah, Ga. — Garrison withdrawn April 
18-23, 1879, and post left in charge of Ordnance Sergeant Charles A. 
Campbell. 

"Buildings. — See preceding transcripts, from Description of Mili- 
tary Posts and Stations, prepared in Quartermaster-General's Office. 

"Supposed to be in good condition. General Sherman, in June. 
1879, reported that thev could not be built for much less than $60,000 
or $80,000. 

"April 22, 1879, application for use of by First Volunteer Regiment 
of Georgia refused by Secretary of War. 

Vol. 1—2 1 



322 SAVANNAH AND SOUTH GEORGIA 

"May 8, 1879, application from president Young ]\Ien's Christian 
Association of Savannah, Ga., also declined by Secretary of War. 

"Applications also made to vest the title in the City of Savannah, but, 
upon recommendation of the General of the Army, the Secretary decided 
to recommend sale of buildings at next session of Congress. 

"The use of one building by the engineer assistant to General Gill- 
more has been authorized. 

"Reservation. — Land ceded to the United States by the City of 
Savannah, November 5, 1833." 

History op First Georgia Volunteers Continued 

Reference having been made to the first regiment of Georgia volun- 
teers, we vpill now enter into an explanation of the organization of that 
command. We have heretofore mentioned the Chatham Artillery, the 
Savannah Volunteer Guards, the Republican Blues and the Georgia 
Hussars as Savannah m.ilitary companies, and we at this point add the 
Phoenix Riflemen, organized in 1830; the Irish Jasper Greens, founded 
in 1843 ; the German Volunteers dating their beginning in 1846 ; and the 
De Kalb Riflemen, dating in 1850. In January, 1856, the Oglethorpe 
Light Infantry began its useful and honorable career; and the Savannah 
Cadets, a company of youths, was organized for service in the War of 
Secession in 1861. These all belonged to the first regiment, being ad- 
mitted at various dates as parts of the organization. There were other 
companies which were admitted at some time, but their existence was only 
temporary, and we do not bring them into this history. The Phoenix 
Riflemen, and De Kalb Riflement, after making a good recoi'd, have passed 
cut of history. On the 20th of January, 1852, the governor of Georgia 
approved "an act to oi'ganize a volunteer Battalion in the City of 
Savannah, to be called the 'Independent Volunteer Battalion of Savan- 
nah','' hy which it was enacted: 

"1. That the volunt